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1.
J Pers Med ; 11(11)2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834503

RESUMO

One of the pathophysiologies of post-stroke spasticity (PSS) is the imbalance of the reticulospinal tract (RST) caused by injury to the corticoreticular pathway (CRP) after stroke. We investigated the relationship between injuries of the CRP and PSS using MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The subjects were divided into spasticity and control groups. We measured the ipsilesional fractional anisotropy (iFA) and contralesional fractional anisotropy (cFA) values on the reticular formation (RF) of the CRP were on the DTI images. We carried out a retrospective analysis of 70 patients with ischemic stroke. The cFA values of CRP in the spasticity group were lower than those in the control group (p = 0.04). In the sub-ROI analysis of CRP, the iFA values of pontine RF were lower than the cFA values in both groups (p < 0.05). The cFA values of medullary RF in the spasticity group were lower than the iFA values within groups, and also lower than the cFA values in the control group (p < 0.05). This results showed the CRP injury and that imbalance of RST caused by CRP injury was associated with PSS. DTI analysis of CRP could provide imaging evidence for the pathophysiology of PSS.

2.
Ann Rehabil Med ; 45(5): 359-367, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743479

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate long-term and serial functional outcomes in ischemic stroke patients without diabetes with post-stroke hyperglycemia. METHODS: The Korean Stroke Cohort for Functioning and Rehabilitation (KOSCO) is a large, multi-center, prospective cohort study of stroke patients admitted to participating hospitals in nine areas of Korea. From KOSCO, ischemic stroke patients without diabetes were recruited and divided into two groups: patients without diabetes without (n=779) and with post-stroke hyperglycemia (n=223). Post-stroke hyperglycemia was defined as a glucose level >8 mmol/L. Functional assessments were performed 7 days and 3, 6, and 12 months after stroke onset. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the groups, except in the age of onset and smoking. Analysis of the linear correlation between the initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score and glucose level showed no significant difference. Among our functional assessments, NIHSS, Fugl-Meyer Assessment (affected side), Functional Ambulatory Category, modified Rankin Scale, and Korean Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) showed statistically significant improvements in each group. All functional improvements except K-MMSE were significantly higher in patients without post-stroke hyperglycemia at 7 days and 3, 6, and 12 months. CONCLUSION: The glucose level of ischemic stroke patients without diabetes had no significant correlation with the initial NIHSS score. The long-term effects of stress hyperglycemia showed worse functional outcomes in ischemic stroke patients without diabetes with post-stroke hyperglycemia.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258479, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of axial length (AL) on the peripapillary microvascular density acquired from optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: Retrospective observational study. A total of 111 eyes from 111 normal healthy subjects were examined. The subjects were divided into three groups according to the AL: Group 1 (AL: < 24.0 mm; 35 eyes), Group 2 (AL: 24.0-25.99 mm; 37 eyes), and Group 3 (AL: ≥ 26 mm; 39 eyes). Peripapillary OCTA images were acquired using 6× 6 mm angiography scans, and vessel density (VD) and perfusion density (PD) of the superficial capillary plexus were calculated automatically. VD and PD were compared among the three groups according to the distance from the optic disc (inner and outer rings). Linear regression analyses were also performed to identify clinical factors associated with average VD. RESULTS: The average ALs of Groups 1-3 were 23.33± 0.57, 25.05± 0.60, and 27.42± 0.82, respectively. Average VD (P = 0.009) and PD (P = 0.029) in the inner ring increased with increasing AL. However, average VD (P < 0.001) and PD (P < 0.001) in the outer ring decreased with AL increased; the same trends were found for the full areas (VD, p<0.001; PD, p = 0.001). Average VDs in the inner and outer rings were not associated (P = 0.938). CONCLUSIONS: Peripapillary VD and PD were significantly associated with AL. Depending on the distance from the disc, peripapillary VDs and PDs of the inner and outer rings were differentially affected by AL. Physicians should therefore consider the effects of AL in the analyses of peripapillary microvasculature.

4.
Front Neurol ; 12: 710640, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34566853

RESUMO

Introduction: Early supported discharge (ESD) is a transitional care model aimed at facilitating post-acute stroke patients' discharge to home. Previous studies have demonstrated that ESD provides equivalent patient and caregiver outcomes with superior cost-effectiveness compared to conventional rehabilitation (CR). This study intends to examine the feasibility of ESD in Korea. Methods and Analysis: This study is designed as a multicenter assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Ninety post-acute stroke patients with mild to moderate disability (modified Rankin Scale 1-3) will be recruited from three university hospitals (30 patients per hospital) in Korea and allocated to either the ESD group or the CR group in a 1:1 ratio. Patients in the ESD group will receive individualized discharge planning and goal setting, a 4-week home-based rehabilitation program, and liaison service to community-based resources by a multidisciplinary team. Patients in the CR group will receive rehabilitation practices according to their current hospital policy. Outcomes: The primary outcome is the Korean version of the modified Barthel Index, and the primary endpoint was post-onset 3 months. Clinical outcomes, patient/caregiver reported outcomes, and socioeconomic outcomes will be measured at baseline, 1 month after discharge, 2 months after discharge, and 3 months after onset. Discussion: The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of ESD can vary according to the healthcare system and sociocultural aspects. To establish ESD as an alternative transitional care model for post-acute stroke patients in Korea, its feasibility needs to be examined in prior. This study will add evidence on the applicability of ESD in Korea. Ethical Considerations: The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (IRB number B-2012/654-308). The study protocol was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier NCT04720820). Disseminations will include submission to peer-reviewed journals and presentations at conferences.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the incidence of dysphagia after ischemic stroke and determine factors affecting the presence of dysphagia. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. This was an interim analysis of a prospective multicenter Korean stroke cohort. SETTING: Acute care university hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Patients (N=6000) with first-ever acute ischemic stroke. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of dysphagia confirmed at 7 days after onset using the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcomes Measurement System (ASHA-NOMS) scale, which was determined after conducting screening or standardized tests. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age at stroke onset, body mass index (BMI), premorbid modified Rankin Scale (mRS), brainstem lesions, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), poststroke mRS, and ASHA-NOMS swallowing level at poststroke day 7 were evaluated. RESULTS: Among patients with ischemic stroke, 32.3% (n=1940) had dysphagia at 7 days after stroke onset. At discharge, 80.5% (n=1561) still had dysphagia. The prediction model for the presence of dysphagia identified age at onset, underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2), premorbid mRS, brainstem lesions, and NIHSS as independent predictors. The odds ratio (OR) for the presence of dysphagia significantly increased with underweight (OR, 1.6684; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-2.20), increased age at onset (OR, 1.0318; 95% CI, 1.03-1.04), premorbid mRS (OR, 1.1832; 95% CI, 1.13-1.24), brainstem lesions (OR, 1.6494; 95% CI, 1.39-1.96), and NIHSS (OR, 1.2073; 95% CI, 1.19-1.23). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of dysphagia after ischemic stroke was 32.3%. The prediction model for the presence of dysphagia identified age, low BMI, premorbid disabilities, brainstem lesions, and NIHSS as predictive factors.

6.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 83(4): 1513-1519, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Photobiomodulation (PBM) affects local blood flow regulation through nitric oxide generation, and various studies have reported on its effect on improving cognitive function in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the effect of PBM in the areas of the vertebral arteries (VA) and internal carotid arteries (ICA), which are the major blood-supplying arteries to the brain, has not been previously investigated. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether irradiating PBM in the areas of the VA and ICA, which are the major blood-supplying arteries to the brain, improved regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cognitive function. METHODS: Fourteen patients with mild cognitive impairments were treated with PBM. Cognitive assessment and single-photon emission computed tomography were implemented at the baseline and at the end of PBM. RESULTS: Regarding rCBF, statistically significant trends were found in the medial prefrontal cortex, lateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and occipital lateral cortex. Based on the cognitive assessments, statistically significant trends were found in overall cognitive function, memory, and frontal/executive function. CONCLUSION: We confirmed the possibility that PBM treatment in the VA and ICA areas could positively affect cognitive function by increasing rCBF. A study with a larger sample size is needed to validate the potential of PBM.

7.
J Pers Med ; 11(6)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208352

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate whether Cerebrolysin combined with rehabilitation therapy supports additional motor recovery in stroke patients with severe motor impairment. This study analyzed the combined data from the two phase IV prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Stroke patients were included within seven days after stroke onset and were randomized to receive a 21-day treatment course of either Cerebrolysin or placebo with standardized rehabilitation therapy. Assessments were performed at baseline, immediately after the treatment course, and 90 days after stroke onset. The plasticity of the motor system was assessed by diffusion tensor imaging and resting state fMRI. In total, 110 stroke patients were included for the full analysis set (Cerebrolysin n = 59, placebo n = 51). Both groups showed significant motor recovery over time. Repeated-measures analysis of varianceshowed a significant interaction between time and type of intervention as measured by the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (p < 0.05). The Cerebrolysin group demonstrated less degenerative changes in the major motor-related white matter tracts over time than the placebo group. In conclusion, Cerebrolysin treatment as an add-on to a rehabilitation program is a promising pharmacologic approach that is worth considering in order to enhance motor recovery in ischemic stroke patients with severe motor impairment.

9.
Curr Oncol ; 28(3): 1927-1937, 2021 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065612

RESUMO

To identify cancer/testis (CT) antigens and immunogenic proteins, immunoscreening of testicular and small-cell lung cancer cell line NCI-H889 cDNA libraries was performed using serum obtained from a small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) patient. We obtained 113 positive cDNA clones comprised of 74 different genes, designated KP-SCLC-1 through KP-SCLC-74. Of these genes, 59 genes were found to be related to cancers by EMBASE analysis. Three of these antigens, including KP-SCLC-29 (NOL4), KP-SCLC-59 (CCDC83), and KP-SCLC-69 (KIF20B), were CT antigens. RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that NOL4 was frequently present in small-cell lung cancer cell lines (8/9, 8/9). In addition, NOL4 mRNA was weakly, or at a low frequency, or not detected in various cancer cell lines. Our results reveal that NOL4 was expressed at protein levels in small-cell lung cancer tissues (10/10) but not detected in lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma by immunohistochemical analysis. Serological response to NOL4 was also evaluated by western blot assay using NOL4 recombinant protein. A humoral response against NOL4 proteins was detected in 75% (33/44) of small-cell lung cancer patients and in 65% (13/20) of healthy donors by a serological western blot assay. These data suggest that NOL4 is a specific target that may be useful for diagnosis and immunotherapy in SCLC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Biblioteca Gênica , Humanos , Cinesina , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Proteínas Nucleares , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/genética , Testículo
10.
Retina ; 41(11): 2301-2309, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830961

RESUMO

PURPOSE: It is hypothesized that an unstable tear film would affect the quality and repeatability of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Therefore, OCTA repeatability according to tear break-up time (TBUT) was compared. METHODS: The 3 × 3 OCTA was performed twice and, the eyes were divided into 3 groups according to the TBUT (Group 1: TBUT ≤ 5 seconds, 43 eyes; Group 2: 5 seconds < TBUT ≤ 10 seconds, 35 eyes; Group 3: TBUT > 10 seconds, 34 eyes). The intraclass correlation coefficient, coefficient of variation, and test-retest SD were calculated and compared. RESULTS: The signal strengths of OCTA were 9.1 ± 1.2, 9.5 ± 0.8, and 9.5 ± 0.8 in each group from Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, which showed significant difference (P = 0.049). The intraclass correlation coefficient of vessel density were 0.733, 0.840, and 0.974 in Groups 1 to 3, respectively, and the values increased in the order of Groups 1, 2, and 3. The coefficient of variation were 6.41 ± 6.09, 3.29 ± 2.22, and 1.30 ± 1.17, and the test-retest SD were 0.83 ± 0.70, 0.47 ± 0.31, and 0.19 ± 0.17 in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The coefficient of variation and test-retest SD values decreased in the order of Groups 1, 2, and 3, and showed a significant difference (all, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The repeatability of OCTA tended to decrease with a shorter TBUT. When the TBUT is <5 seconds, care must be taken to interpret the OCTA results correctly.

11.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 629323, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33841079

RESUMO

Background: Brain disorders are gradually becoming the leading cause of death worldwide. However, the lack of knowledge of brain disease's underlying mechanisms and ineffective neuropharmacological therapy have led to further exploration of optimal treatments and brain monitoring techniques. Objective: This study aims to review the current state of brain disorders, which utilize transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) and daily usable noninvasive neuroimaging techniques. Furthermore, the second goal of this study is to highlight available gaps and provide a comprehensive guideline for further investigation. Method: A systematic search was conducted of the PubMed and Web of Science databases from January 2000 to October 2020 using relevant keywords. Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy were selected as noninvasive neuroimaging modalities. Nine brain disorders were investigated in this study, including Alzheimer's disease, depression, autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, stroke, schizophrenia, and traumatic brain injury. Results: Sixty-seven studies (1,385 participants) were included for quantitative analysis. Most of the articles (82.6%) employed transcranial direct current stimulation as an intervention method with modulation parameters of 1 mA intensity (47.2%) for 16-20 min (69.0%) duration of stimulation in a single session (36.8%). The frontal cortex (46.4%) and the cerebral cortex (47.8%) were used as a neuroimaging modality, with the power spectrum (45.7%) commonly extracted as a quantitative EEG feature. Conclusion: An appropriate stimulation protocol applying tES as a therapy could be an effective treatment for cognitive and neurological brain disorders. However, the optimal tES criteria have not been defined; they vary across persons and disease types. Therefore, future work needs to investigate a closed-loop tES with monitoring by neuroimaging techniques to achieve personalized therapy for brain disorders.

12.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 99(7): e1056-e1062, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555661

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine longitudinal changes of the ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness in patients with non-exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) without other ophthalmic disease. METHODS: Thirty-three eyes of 33 patients with early and intermediate non-exudative AMD (non-exudative AMD group) and 33 normal control eyes were followed for 2 years, and GC-IPL thickness was measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography at 1-year intervals. The mean rate of GC-IPL reduction was estimated using a linear mixed model and compared between two groups. RESULTS: The mean age of patients in the non-exudative AMD group and control groups were 68.82 ± 6.81 years and 67.73 ± 5.87 years, respectively (p = 0.488). The mean GC-IPL thickness at the first visit was 76.61 ± 16.33 µm in the non-exudative AMD and 81.76 ± 3.69 µm in control group (p = 0.387), and these values significantly decreased over time, with an average reduction rate of average GC-IPL -0.86 µm/year in the non-exudative AMD group and -0.32 µm/year in the control group. The difference between two groups was statistically significant (p < 0.001), and there was also a significant interaction between group and duration in linear mixed models in mean GC-IPL thickness (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The reduction rate of the GC-IPL thickness was greater in non-exudative AMD eyes, even at relatively early stages of the disease. Physicians should maintain awareness of the presence of non-exudative AMD in various cases of ophthalmic diseases where GC-IPL thickness evaluation is necessary.

13.
Lung ; 199(1): 55-61, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33458798

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence and severity of dysphagia in patients diagnosed with aspiration pneumonia, with and without neurologic disorders. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of inpatients with aspiration pneumonia who underwent a videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) for evaluation of dysphagia. Patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of neurologic disorders. The prevalence and severity of aspiration and pharyngeal residue due to dysphagia were assessed using the penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) and pharyngeal residue grade (PRG). RESULTS: A total of 784 patients were enrolled; of these, 58.7% were males and the mean age was 76.12 ± 6.69. Penetration-aspiration-related dysphagia (PAS scores 3-8) was seen in 56.5% of all subjects, and 32.5% showed silent aspiration (PAS 8). Pharyngeal residue-related dysphagia (PRG scores 2-3) was seen in 65.2% of all patients, and the PAS and PRG were positively correlated. On dividing the subjects into two groups based on the presence of neurologic disorders, there was no significant difference in prevalence of the dysphagia between groups (PAS: p = 0.641; PRG: p = 0.872) with the proportion of silent aspiration (p = 0.720). CONCLUSION: In patients hospitalized for aspiration pneumonia, there was a high prevalence of dysphagia. There were no differences in the prevalence and severity of dysphagia in patients with aspiration pneumonia based on the presence or absence of a neurologic disorder. Therefore, diagnostic evaluation of dysphagia is necessary regardless of the presence of neurologic disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Fluoroscopia , Pneumonia Aspirativa/complicações , Gravação em Vídeo , Idoso , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
14.
Eye (Lond) ; 35(11): 3064-3070, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423044

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare visual improvements between initial intravitreal t-PA with gas injection before anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and anti-VEGF injection monotherapy for submacular haemorrhage (SMH) associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of naive patients treated with intravitreal t-PA with gas injection before anti-VEGF (Group 1) or only with intravitreal anti-VEGF injection (Group 2) for SMH [disc area (DA) ≥ 2] associated with AMD from two institutions. Both groups received 3 monthly loads of anti-VEGF injections followed by injections as needed for AMD treatment. Changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, logMAR) between the initial visit and after 6 months of treatment were compared between two groups. RESULTS: A total of 82 patients were enroled. Of these, 32 patients and 50 patients were grouped in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. The mean change in BCVA over 6 months for Group 1 was -0.52 ± 0.88, which was significantly larger (p = 0.044) than the mean change for Group 2 (-0.15 ± 0.58). We compared visual improvements between the two groups based on the following SMH size categories: ≤5, >5, and ≤15, and >15 DA. When the SMH size was ≤5, or >5 and ≤15 DA, the mean change in BCVA was larger for Group 1 than for Group 2, but this difference was not significant. When SMH size was >15 DA, Group 1 patients exhibited a mean visual improvement of -0.79 ± 0.80, which was significantly greater (p = 0.029) than that of Group 2 (-0.06 ± 0.67). CONCLUSIONS: Patients that were primarily treated for SMH associated with AMD using t-PA and gas injection (followed by anti-VEGF injection) exhibited better visual improvement than those treated with anti-VEGF monotherapy, especially in patients exhibiting larger SMH sizes (>15 DA) at the initial visit.


Assuntos
Degeneração Macular , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Angiofluoresceinografia , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/complicações , Degeneração Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Retiniana/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acuidade Visual
15.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(2): 1362-1374, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749680

RESUMO

The beneficial effects of light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation have been reported in various pathologies, including cancer. However, its effect in pancreatic cancer cells remains unclear. Herein, we demonstrated that blue LED of 460 nm regulated pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis by suppressing the expression of apoptosis-related factors, such as mutant p53 and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and decreasing the expression of RAC-ß serine/threonine kinase 2 (AKT2), the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Blue LED irradiation also increased the levels of cleaved poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3 in pancreatic cancer cells, while it suppressed AKT2 expression and inhibited tumor growth in xenograft tumor tissues. In conclusion, blue LED irradiation suppressed pancreatic cancer cell and tumor growth by regulating AKT/mTOR signaling. Our findings indicated that blue LEDs could be used as a nonpharmacological treatment for pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/radioterapia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Luz , Camundongos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosforilação/efeitos da radiação , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
16.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138005

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the long-term reproducibility of axial length measurements and mean postoperative prediction errors after combined phacovitrectomy in patients with idiopathic epiretinal membranes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: The study included 43 patients who underwent combined phacovitrectomy and 30 patients who underwent only phacoemulsification. To determine the effect of vitrectomy, we compared patients treated with phacoemulsification only versus those treated with combined phacovitrectomy. Axial lengths were measured three times with a one-year interval, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV), and test-retest standard deviation (TRTSD) were assessed. RESULTS: There was no significant change in axial length, and axial length measurements showed high reproducibility in all groups. ICC, CV, and TRTSD values were 0.997, 0.24%, and 0.056, respectively, for the vitrectomized eyes. The mean postoperative prediction error was -0.37 diopters(D) in vitrectomized eyes (p < 0.001), while it was +0.11 D in patients with phacoemulsification (p = 0.531). The myopic shift was more obvious in eyes with a shallower anterior chamber (p = 0.008) and a thicker lens (p = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: Axial length measurements showed excellent long-term reproducibility at 2 years after combined phacovitrectomy. Myopic shifts were observed after combined phacovitrectomy, which was probably due to changes in the effective lens position after combined phacovitrectomy, rather than to changes in the axial length.

17.
Life (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066563

RESUMO

Electroacupuncture (EA) therapy via alternating current stimulation on the scalp over the motor cortex is used for the treatment of brain disorders. Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI), a brain injury in newborns, leads to long-term neurologic complications. Here, we investigated whether EA could promote functional improvements and neurogenesis in a neonatal HI rat model. A neonatal HI rat model was induced by permanent ligation of the left carotid artery in postnatal day 7 pups. EA for neonatal HI rats was performed at 2 Hz (1, 3, or 5 mA; 20 min) from 4-6 weeks after birth. HI rats undergoing EA had improved motor and memory function, with the greatest improvement after 3 mA EA. The corpus callosum was significantly thicker and showed a significant increase in proliferating astrocytes in the 3 mA EA group. We observed proliferating cells and a greater number of newly developed neurons and astrocytes in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus of the 3 mA EA group than in those of the HI group. These results suggest that EA promotes functional improvements following neonatal HI assault via the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells. This effect was the strongest after 3 mA EA, suggesting that this is the optimal treatment dose.

18.
IDCases ; 22: e00948, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923368

RESUMO

Austrian syndrome is a rare triad of endocarditis, meningitis, and pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumonia described by Robert Austrian in 1956. The incidence has reduced since the introduction of beta-lactam therapy in the early 1940s. Additionally, the introduction of the pneumococcal vaccination in 1977 further decreased the incidence of infection. Streptococcal endocarditis could potentially be very aggressive and life threatening despite appropriate therapy. It has a high mortality rate nearing 30 % even after proper antibiotics and surgical intervention. Therefore, an early recognition is crucial for early intervention and mortality reduction. We present a patient with Austrian syndrome who had a poor outcome despite proper management that is attributed to late presentation and delayed treatment.

19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239555, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966311

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the thicknesses of the ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) of the fellow eyes of patients with unilateral exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: A total of 107 patients with unilateral exudative AMD [34 of typical choroidal neovascularization (tCNV), Group A; 73 of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), Group B] and 73 normal control eyes (Group C) were included. Drusen and subretinal drusenoid deposits were assessed in all participants using fundus photography, autofluorescence, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The GC-IPL and RNFL thicknesses were measured using Cirrus HD-OCT and compared among groups. Linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the factors associated with GC-IPL thicknesses. RESULTS: The average GC-IPL thicknesses of Groups A, B, and C were 77.09 ± 3.87, 80.10 ± 6.61, and 80.88 ± 6.50 µm, respectively (p = 0.022). Sectoral GC-IPLs and central macular thicknesses (CMTs) were significantly different among groups (all, p <0.05), whereas none of the RNFL parameters differed significantly (all, p >0.05). Multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that age (p <0.001), CMT (p <0.001), and tCNV (p = 0.013) were significantly associated with average GC-IPL thickness, and the rate of reduction of GC-IPL thickness with increasing age in the fellow eyes of tCNV patients was higher than those in the PCV and control groups. CONCLUSIONS: Unilateral tCNV patients exhibited statistically significant reduction of the GC-IPL thickness in the fellow eyes, compared to values of the fellow eyes of unilateral PCV patients or control patients. RNFL values trended to be lower but did not reach statistical significance.


Assuntos
Degeneração Macular/diagnóstico por imagem , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neovascularização de Coroide/diagnóstico por imagem , Neovascularização de Coroide/patologia , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Retina/patologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Neurônios Retinianos/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
20.
Elife ; 92020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955434

RESUMO

Most therapeutic candidates for treating attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have focused on modulating the dopaminergic neurotransmission system with neurotrophic factors. Regulation of this system by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could contribute to the recovery of cognitive symptoms observed in patients with ADHD. Here, male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were subjected to consecutive high-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) (20 min, 50 µA, current density 63.7 A/m2, charge density 76.4 kC/m2) over the prefrontal cortex. This treatment alleviated cognitive deficits, with an increase in tyrosine hydroxylase and vesicular monoamine transporter two and significantly decreased plasma membrane reuptake transporter (DAT). HD-tDCS application increased the expression of several neurotrophic factors, particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and activated hippocampal neurogenesis. Our results suggest that anodal HD-tDCS over the prefrontal cortex may ameliorate cognitive dysfunction via regulation of DAT and BDNF in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic pathways, and therefore represents a potential adjuvant therapy for ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/química , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY
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