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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23496, 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34873215

RESUMO

Air pollution may influence prenatal maternal stress, but research evidence is scarce. Using data from a prospective cohort study conducted on pregnant women (n = 2153), we explored the association between air pollution and perceived stress, which was assessed using the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), among pregnant women. Average exposures to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of < 2.5 µm (PM2.5) or < 10 µm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) for each trimester and the entire pregnancy were estimated at maternal residential addresses using land-use regression models. Linear regression models were applied to estimate associations between PSS scores and exposures to each air pollutant. After adjustment for potential confounders, interquartile-range (IQR) increases in whole pregnancy exposures to PM2.5, PM10, and O3 in the third trimester were associated with 0.37 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01, 0.74), 0.54 (95% CI 0.11, 0.97), and 0.30 (95% CI 0.07, 0.54) point increases in prenatal PSS scores, respectively. Furthermore, these associations were more evident in women with child-bearing age and a lower level of education. Also, the association between PSS scores and PM10 was stronger in the spring. Our findings support the relationship between air pollution and prenatal maternal stress.

2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5513611, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34840976

RESUMO

Objective: Determining sensitivity to allergens is an essential step in diagnosing children with allergic diseases. Chronic cough has remained poorly understood with causative triggers. The purpose of our study was to shed light on the relationship between sensitization to aeroallergens and chronic cough. Methods: This population-based study examined children (aged 7 years to 13 years) between June and July 2016. The 1,259 children, 72 of whom (5.7%) had a chronic cough, and 1,187 of whom (94.3%) did not (controls), completed the questionnaire, but 1,051 children completed skin prick tests (SPTs) with eight aeroallergens. Results: There were positive SPT results to at least 1 allergen in 549 children (52.2%). Sensitization to house dust mite (HDM) was most common (chronic cough = 46.9%; controls = 47.2%), followed by pollen (chronic cough = 21.9%; controls = 16.5%) in both groups, but there was no difference in allergic profile and sensitization to aeroallergen (P > 0.05 for all comparisons). Multivariable analysis with adjustment for confounding indicated that children who were in sensitization to pollen had an increased risk of chronic cough (aOR = 2.387; 95% CI: 1.115 to 5.111; P = 0.025). Multivariable analysis with adjustment for confounding indicated that children who were exposed to current smoking (aOR = 4.442; 95% CI: 1.831 to 10.776; P = 0.001) and mold (aOR = 1.988; 95% CI: 1.168 to 3.383; P = 0.011) were associated with chronic cough. Conclusion: Sensitization to pollen should be considered as a potential contributing factor to the development of chronic cough in school-aged children.

3.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(41): e291, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for the association between underlying non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the risk of testing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive, and the clinical consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is controversial and scarce. We aimed to investigate the association between the presence of NAFLD and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and COVID-19-related outcomes. METHODS: We used the population-based, nationwide cohort in South Korea linked with the general health examination records between January 1, 2018 and July 30, 2020. Data for 212,768 adults older than 20 years who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from January 1 to May 30, 2020, were obtained. The presence of NAFLDs was defined using three definitions, namely hepatic steatosis index (HSI), fatty liver index (FLI), and claims-based definition. The outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 test positive, COVID-19 severe illness, and related death. RESULTS: Among 74,244 adults who completed the general health examination, there were 2,251 (3.0%) who were SARS-CoV-2 positive, 438 (0.6%) with severe COVID-19 illness, and 45 (0.06%) COVID-19-related deaths. After exposure-driven propensity score matching, patients with pre-existing HSI-NAFLD, FLI-NAFLD, or claims-based NAFLD had an 11-23% increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (HSI-NAFLD 95% confidence interval [CI], 1-28%; FLI-NAFLD 95% CI, 2-27%; and claims-based NAFLD 95% CI, 2-31%) and a 35-41% increased risk of severe COVID-19 illness (HSI-NAFLD 95% CI, 8-83%; FLI-NAFLD 95% CI, 5-71%; and claims-based NAFLD 95% CI, 1-92%). These associations are more evident as liver fibrosis advanced (based on the BARD scoring system). Similar patterns were observed in several sensitivity analyses including the full-unmatched cohort. CONCLUSION: Patients with pre-existing NAFLDs have a higher likelihood of testing SARS-CoV-2 positive and severe COVID-19 illness; this association was more evident in patients with NAFLD with advanced fibrosis. Our results suggest that extra attention should be given to the management of patients with NAFLD during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
5.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 11(8): e12070, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34691390

RESUMO

Background: The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) is increasing worldwide. Prenatal particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) and maternal anxiety during pregnancy has been suggested as a potential causes of AD. This study investigated the effects of prenatal PM2.5 and maternal anxiety on AD and identified the critical period of PM2.5 exposure for AD in infants. Methods: This study included 802 children from the COCOA birth cohort study with follow-up data at 1 year of age. PM2.5 was estimated by land-use regression models and prenatal anxiety was measured with a questionnaire. AD was diagnosed by doctor at 1 year of age. Logistic regression analysis and Bayesian distributed lag interaction models were applied. Results: Higher PM2.5 during the first trimester of pregnancy, higher prenatal maternal anxiety, and male gender were associated with AD at 1 year of age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] and 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.86 [1.08-3.19], 1.58 [1.01-2.47], and 1.54 [1.01-2.36], respectively). Higher PM2.5 during the first trimester and higher maternal anxiety during pregnancy showed an additive effect on the risk of AD (aOR: 3.13; 95% CI: 1.56-6.28). Among boys exposed to higher maternal anxiety during pregnancy, gestational weeks 5-8 were the critical period of PM2.5 exposure for the development of AD. Conclusions: Higher PM2.5 exposure during gestational weeks 5-8 increased the probability of AD in infancy, especially in boys with higher maternal anxiety. Avoiding PM2.5 exposure and maternal anxiety from the first trimester may prevent infant AD.

6.
J Nutr ; 151(10): 3045-3052, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soy-based infant formulas are increasingly popular, but data regarding their effects on neurodevelopmental outcomes during early childhood is scanty. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of consuming soy-based infant formula at 9-12 mo after birth on the subsequent development of epilepsy, neurodevelopmental disorders, and developmental status. METHODS: This nationwide retrospective administrative study used health screening examinations and linked insurance claims data of children born in Korea during 2008 and 2009. Infants who received soy formula were compared with those who received cow's milk formula using propensity score matching that considered birth history, economic status, clinical conditions, and drug prescription records. Exposure was defined as soy formula feeding determined from questionnaires completed by the parents when children were 9-12 mo old. Outcomes were epilepsy, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and developmental status. Children were followed until 31 December, 2017. RESULTS: A total of 153,841 eligible participants were enrolled; 11,535 (7.5%) children received soy formula, while 142,864 (92.5%) received cow's milk formula. The incidence rate of epilepsy during the follow-up period was 29.8 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: 19.48, 41.65) in the soy formula group and 22.6 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: 31.97, 59.07) in the cow's milk formula group, with no significant difference (aHR: 1.318; 95% CI: 0.825, 2.106). The 2 groups also had no difference based on prespecified analysis using different definitions of epilepsy. Likewise, no significant associations of soy formula with ADHD (aHR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.60) or ASD (aHR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.54, 1.83), or delays of developmental stages were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Feeding with soy formula rather than cow's milk formula had no apparent association with increased risks of epilepsy, ADHD, ASD, and developmental status, according to this cohort composed of a general pediatric population.

7.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 237: 113823, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution is associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms in the general population. However, this relationship among pregnant women remains largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between pregnancy air pollution exposure and maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms during the third trimester assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scales, respectively. METHODS: We analyzed 1481 pregnant women from a cohort study in Seoul. Maternal exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) and <10 µm (PM10), as well as to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) for each trimester and the entire pregnancy was assessed at participant's residential address by land use regression models. We estimated the relative risk (RR) and corresponding confidence interval (CI) of the depressive and anxiety symptoms associated with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3 using modified Poisson regression. RESULTS: In single-pollutant models, an IQR increase in PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 during the second trimester was associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms (PM2.5 RR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.27; PM10 RR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.23; NO2 RR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.29) after adjusting for relevant covariates. Similarly, an IQR increase in O3 during the third trimester was associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms (RR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.18), while the IQR increase in O3 during the first trimester was associated with a decreased risk (RR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.82, 0.96). Exposure to PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 during the second trimester was significantly associated with anxiety symptoms. The associations with PM2.5 and O3 in single-and multi-pollutant models were consistent. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that increased levels of particulate matter, NO2, and O3 during pregnancy may elevate the risk of depression or anxiety in pregnant women.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez , Gestantes , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(10): 3310-3320, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) 2012 equations were developed to resolve the age-related disparity in interpreting spirometry results. Local validation of the equation is needed, especially in Northeast Asian children. This study evaluated the GLI equation in Korean children. METHODS: Spirometry indices (FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, and FEF25%-75%) and clinical information were gathered from three population-based birth cohorts. Predicted GLI reference values and z scores of spirometry results were calculated for 1239 healthy children. The mean, standard deviation of z scores were compared with the expected 0 and 1. Probabilities of falling below the lower limit of normal (LLN) (z score: -1.64) were compared with the expected value 5%. GLI z scores were assessed according to low (<-2), normal (≥-2 and ≤2), and high (>2) BMI z score groups. RESULTS: Mean z scores significantly differed from 0 for FEV1/FVC in males (mean [95% confidence interval]: 0.18 [0.08, 0.27]) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) in females (-0.23 [-0.31, -0.15] and -0.26 [-0.36, -0.16], respectively). The standard deviation was larger than 1 for all variables in males and FVC and FEV1/FVC in females. The probability of falling below the LLN was significantly larger than 5% for FEV1 (12.13% [9.64, 14.77]), FVC (15.86% [13.06, 18.81]), and forced expiratory flow at 25%-75% of forced vital capacity (FEF25%-75%) (7.31% [5.29, 9.49]) in males and FVC (11.91% [9.40, 14.60]) in females. FEV1 and FVC z scores increased across low to high body mass index (BMI) groups, and FEV1/FVC decreased from low to high BMI groups. CONCLUSION: GLI equations marginally differ from real-world values, which should be considered by pulmonologists in practice or research.

9.
J Asthma ; : 1-9, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347558

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Childhood asthma is known to be associated with risks of both respiratory and non-respiratory infections. Little is known about the relationship between asthma and the risk of Kawasaki disease (KD). We assessed associations of asthma status and asthma phenotype (e.g. atopic asthma) with KD. METHODS: We performed a population-based retrospective case-control study, using KD cases between January 1, 1979, and December 31, 2016, and two matched controls per case. KD cases were defined by the American Heart Association diagnostic criteria. Asthma status prior to KD (or control) index dates was ascertained by the two asthma criteria, Predetermined Asthma Criteria (PAC) and Asthma Predictive Index (API, a surrogate phenotype of atopic asthma). We assessed whether 4 phenotypes (both PAC + and API+; PAC + only; API + only, and non-asthmatics) were associated with KD. RESULTS: There were 124 KD cases during the study period. The group having both PAC + and API + was significantly associated with the increased odds of KD, compared to non-asthmatics (odds ratio [OR] 4.3; 95% CI: 1.3 - 14.3). While asthma defined by PAC was not associated with KD, asthma defined by PAC positive with eosinophilia (≥4%) was significantly associated with the increased odds of KD (OR: 6.7; 95% CI: 1.6 - 28.6) compared to non-asthmatics. Asthma status defined by API was associated with KD (OR = 4.7; 95% CI: 1.4-15.1). CONCLUSIONS: Atopic asthma may be associated with increased odds of KD. Further prospective studies are needed to determine biological mechanisms underlying the association between atopic asthma and increased odds of KD.

10.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 32(8): 1681-1690, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phthalates can cause respiratory and immunological disorders. However, little is known about the role of serum periostin and YKL-40 levels in mediating the effects of phthalates. We investigated the mediating role of these biomarkers in the relationship between phthalates and airway dysfunction. METHODS: A total of 487 children (aged 10-12 years old) were examined. Four high-molecular-weight phthalate (HMWP) [Σ4 HMWP] metabolites and 3 low-molecular-weight phthalate (LMWP) [Σ3 LMWP] metabolites in urine samples were measured. Serum periostin and YKL-40 levels were measured. Airway function was measured using impulse oscillometry. A mediation model was used to quantify the mediating effects of periostin and YKL-40 on airway dysfunction. RESULTS: After adjustment for height, gender, BMI z-score, aeroallergen sensitization, secondary smoking, and vitamin D level, the level of urinary Σ3 LMWP metabolites was significantly associated with respiratory system resistance at 5 Hz (Rrs5; adjusted ß: 0.020, 95% CI: 0.005-0.034; p = .010). The levels of urinary Σ4 HMWP and Σ3 LMWP metabolites were significantly associated with periostin level, but not with YKL-40 level. In addition, the periostin level was associated with Rrs5 (adjusted ß: 0.048, 95% CI: 0.015-0.081; p = .005) and Rrs20-5 (adjusted ß: 0.040, 95% CI: 0.011-0.069; p = .007). Serum periostin level had a significant effect in mediating the relationship between Σ3 LMWP and Rrs5 (13.9%, 95% CI: 10.7-77.0; p < .001). CONCLUSION: Exposure to LMWPs was significantly associated with airway dysfunction, and this effect was partially attributable to increased serum periostin level.

11.
Br J Sports Med ; 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301715

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the potential associations between physical activity and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe illness from COVID-19 and COVID-19 related death using a nationwide cohort from South Korea. METHODS: Data regarding 212 768 Korean adults (age ≥20 years), who tested for SARS-CoV-2, from 1 January 2020 to 30 May 2020, were obtained from the National Health Insurance Service of South Korea and further linked with the national general health examination from 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2019 to assess physical activity levels. SARS-CoV-2 positivity, severe COVID-19 illness and COVID-19 related death were the main outcomes. The observation period was between 1 January 2020 and 31 July 2020. RESULTS: Out of 76 395 participants who completed the general health examination and were tested for SARS-CoV-2, 2295 (3.0%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 446 (0.58%) had severe illness from COVID-19 and 45 (0.059%) died from COVID-19. Adults who engaged in both aerobic and muscle strengthening activities according to the 2018 physical activity guidelines had a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (2.6% vs 3.1%; adjusted relative risk (aRR), 0.85; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.96), severe COVID-19 illness (0.35% vs 0.66%; aRR 0.42; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.91) and COVID-19 related death (0.02% vs 0.08%; aRR 0.24; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.99) than those who engaged in insufficient aerobic and muscle strengthening activities. Furthermore, the recommended range of metabolic equivalent task (MET; 500-1000 MET min/week) was associated with the maximum beneficial effect size for reduced risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (aRR 0.78; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.92), severe COVID-19 illness (aRR 0.62; 95% CI 0.43 to 0.90) and COVID-19 related death (aRR 0.17; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.98). Similar patterns of association were observed in different sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: Adults who engaged in the recommended levels of physical activity were associated with a decreased likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe COVID-19 illness and COVID-19 related death. Our findings suggest that engaging in physical activity has substantial public health value and demonstrates potential benefits to combat COVID-19.

12.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 3(10): e698-e706, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34179832

RESUMO

Background: Real-world evidence on the association between autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases, therapies related to these diseases, and COVID-19 outcomes are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the potential association between autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases and COVID-19 early in the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We did an exposure-driven, propensity score-matched study using a South Korean nationwide cohort linked to general health examination records. We analysed all South Korean patients aged older than 20 years who underwent SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing between Jan 1 and May 30, 2020, and received general health examination results from the Korean National Health Insurance Service. We defined autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (inflammatory arthritis and connective tissue diseases) based on the relevant ICD-10 codes, with at least two claims (outpatient or inpatient) within 1 year. The outcomes were positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test, severe COVID-19 (requirement of oxygen therapy, intensive care unit admission, application of invasive ventilation, or death), and COVID-19-related death. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were estimated after adjusting for the potential confounders. Findings: Between Jan 1 and May 30, 2020, 133 609 patients (70 050 [52·4%] female and 63 559 [47·6%] male) completed the general health examination and were tested for SARS-CoV-2; 4365 (3·3%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, and 8297 (6·2%) were diagnosed with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases. After matching, patients with an autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease showed an increased likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (adjusted OR 1·19, 95% CI 1·03-1·40; p=0·026), severe COVID-19 outcomes (1·26, 1·02-1·59; p=0·041), and COVID-19-related death (1·69, 1·01-2·84; p=0·046). Similar results were observed in patients with connective tissue disease and inflammatory arthritis. Treatment with any dose of systemic corticosteroids or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were not associated with COVID-19-related outcomes, but those receiving high dose (≥10 mg per day) of systemic corticosteroids had an increased likelihood of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test (adjusted OR 1·47, 95% CI 1·05-2·03; p=0·022), severe COVID-19 outcomes (1·76, 1·06-2·96; p=0·031), and COVID-19-related death (3·34, 1·23-8·90; p=0·017). Interpretation: Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases were associated with an increased likelihood of a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test, worse clinical outcomes of COVID-19, and COVID-19-related deaths in South Korea. A high dose of systemic corticosteroid, but not DMARDs, showed an adverse effect on SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-related clinical outcomes. Funding: National Research Foundation of Korea.

13.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(9): 1970-1972.e3, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940227

RESUMO

Remdesivir has demonstrated clinical benefits in randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)1-4 and was first approved for COVID-19 patients.5 However, whether remdesivir causes gastrointestinal adverse drug reaction (GI-ADRs) including hepatotoxicity is less clear.1-4,6 Therefore, we aimed to detect a diverse spectrum of GI-ADRs associated with remdesivir using VigiBase, the World Health Organization's international pharmacovigilance database of individual case safety reports.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Alanina/análogos & derivados , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Farmacovigilância , SARS-CoV-2 , Organização Mundial da Saúde
14.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 32(7): 1445-1454, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although atopic dermatitis (AD) is associated with certain gene variants, the rapidly increasing incidence of AD suggests that environmental factors contribute to disease development. In this study, we investigated the association of AD incidence and phenotype with antibiotic exposure within 6 months of age, considering the dose administered and genetic risk. METHODS: This study included 1637 children from the COCOA cohort. Pediatric allergists assessed the presence of AD at each visit and obtained information about antibiotic exposure for more than 3 days. IL-13 (rs20541) polymorphism was genotyped by the TaqMan method. We stratified the AD phenotypes into four groups and used multinomial logistic regression models for analysis. RESULTS: Antibiotic exposure within 6 months of age was found to increase the risk of AD within 3 years of life (aOR = 1.40; 95% CI, 1.09-1.81) in dose-dependent manner. Antibiotic exposure more than twice increased the risk of the early-persistent AD phenotype (aOR = 2.50; 95% CI, 1.35-4.63). There was a weak interaction between genetic polymorphisms and environmental factors on the development of AD (p for interaction = 0.06). Children with the IL-13 (rs20541) GA + AA genotype have a higher risk of the early-persistent AD phenotype when exposed to antibiotics more than twice than those with the IL-13 (rs20541) GG genotype and without exposure to antibiotics (aOR = 4.73; 95% CI, 2.01-11.14). CONCLUSION: Antibiotic exposure within 6 months was related to the incidence of early-persistent AD and a dose-dependent increase in the incidence of AD in childhood, whose effect was modified by the IL-13 (rs20541) genotype.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Interleucina-13 , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Dermatite Atópica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Interleucina-13/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo Genético
15.
Clin Respir J ; 15(8): 870-877, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between anemia and allergic diseases have been reported, but the relationship of iron deficiency with airway dysfunction in children remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the relationship between abnormal iron parameters and lung function in schoolchildren. METHODS: Four hundred and forty-five children (10-12 years-old) from 11 elementary schools in were enrolled. The relationships of different iron parameters (hemoglobin, serum iron, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin) with lung function evaluated by impulse oscillometry (airways resistance at 5 Hz [Rrs5], 10 Hz [Rrs10], and the difference of Rrs5 and Rrs20 Hz [Rrs5-20]), and with exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) were evaluated after adjustment for confounders including height, sex, and body mass index z-score, and for additional covariates that could affect airway function. RESULTS: Total airway dysfunction represented by Rrs5 was reduced in participants with low serum iron level (aß: -0.13, 95% CI: -0.23 to -0.03, p = 0.040) after adjustment for key confounders, but did not correlate with other iron profiles. Reduced oscillometric lung function recorded as Rrs5-20 was related with low serum iron and high serum ferritin, but the results were inconsistent after multiple comparisons. Associations were not observed with serum hemoglobin. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased serum iron level was related with airway dysfunction represented as oscillomteric Rrs5. Our results suggest a relationship of reduced lung function with abnormal iron status in children.


Assuntos
Ferro , Pulmão , Resistência das Vias Respiratórias , Criança , Humanos , Oscilometria , Testes de Função Respiratória
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2143, 2021 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495502

RESUMO

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) is an acute-phase reactant that mediates innate immune responses triggered by LPS. Recent studies indicated a positive correlation of circulating LBP level with chronic low-grade inflammation, a condition present in many non-communicable diseases. We determined the association of serum LBP concentration with allergic sensitization in a general pediatric population. Serum LBP was measured in a sample of children (n = 356; mean age = 9.6 ± 0.2 years) in this population-based cross-sectional study. Skin prick tests (SPTs) were performed to assess allergic sensitization to 22 common inhalant and food allergens. One hundred and seven children (30.1%) were nonsensitized, 160 (44.9%) were monosensitized, and 89 (25.0%) were polysensitized. Children who were mono- or polysensitized had a significantly higher median serum LBP level (25.5 ng/mL, inter-quartile range [IQR] 20.3-30.7) than those who were nonsensitized (20.3 ng/mL, IQR = 14.81-25.8, P < 0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis with adjustment for confounders indicated that serum LBP level was positively associated with allergic sensitization overall (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.041; 95% CI 1.007-1.076, P = 0.016), with sensitization to food allergens in particular (aOR 1.080, 95% CI 1.029-1.133, P = 0.002), but not with sensitization to aeroallergens (aOR 1.010, 95% CI 0.982-1.040, P = 0.467). LBP level was not associated with allergic diseases after adjustment. We suggest the possibility of sensitization to food allergens may be related to gut-derived low-grade inflammation, and large sized longitudinal investigations are needed to elucidate the relationship.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/sangue , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/sangue , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/sangue , Proteínas de Fase Aguda , Adolescente , Alérgenos/metabolismo , Criança , Humanos , Razão de Chances
17.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 32(2): 322-330, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between dyslipidemia and atopic dermatitis in children is unclear. This study investigated the association between dyslipidemia and atopic dermatitis in children by analysis of disease onset, risk factors, and disease severity. METHODS: Subset I examined 7-year-old children in elementary school (n = 248), and Subset II was a retrospective long-term follow-up hospital-based study (n = 52 725) conducted from 1986 to 2016 that used propensity score matching. In the Subset I study, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were determined, and the SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index was determined. In the Subset II study, the time of atopic dermatitis onset was determined for asymptomatic subjects whose TC levels were below or above 170 mg/dL. RESULTS: Our Subset I study indicated that children with atopic dermatitis (n = 69, 27.8%) had significantly higher levels of TC and TG, and that the SCORAD index had significant associations with high levels of TC and TG, and a low level of HDL-C. Our Subset II study (1722 with high TC and 6735 with normal TC after propensity score matching) indicated the high TC group had a greater hazard ratio (HR) for the onset of atopic dermatitis (consensus-based HR: 2.47; 95% CI: 1.23, 5.06, P = .012) during 5 years. CONCLUSION: An abnormal blood lipid profile in children is associated with the presence of atopic dermatitis and the SCORAD index. The risk of atopic dermatitis onset was significantly greater with high levels of TC.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Dislipidemias , Criança , HDL-Colesterol , LDL-Colesterol , Dermatite Atópica/diagnóstico , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 32(1): 116-123, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smell dysfunction is highly prevalent worldwide and has adverse effects on quality of life. Smell loss in rhinitis subjects is mainly caused by mechanical obstruction of odorant transmission due to mucosal type 2 inflammation. We determined the association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels with the severity of smell dysfunction in children. METHODS: We measured the olfactory threshold score in a total of 518 children (10-12 years old, 264 boys) using the Sniffin' Sticks kit, and the children were divided into tertiles according to olfactory threshold score. We also assessed serum 25[OH]D level, common aeroallergen-specific immunoglobulin E, rhinitis severity with visual analog scale, and the Total Four Symptom Score, and pre- and post-decongestant nasal patency with acoustic rhinometry. RESULTS: The children with 25(OH)D deficiency had significantly reduced mean olfactory threshold scores when compared to those with 25(OH)D levels of ≥20.0 ng/mL (6.56 ± 3.54 and 7.28 ± 3.87, respectively, P = .036). The proportion of loss of smell function and pre-decongestant nasal patency significantly associated with low 25(OH)D levels (chi-square trend test, P for trend = .007). Likewise, after adjustment for confounders, children with smell loss (third tertile) were significantly associated with low 25(OH)D level (aß=-0.062, 95% CI=-0.064 to -0.060, P = .009) independent of aeroallergen sensitization, and a low pre-decongestant nasal patency. CONCLUSIONS: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D is significantly associated with smell dysfunction independent of aeroallergen sensitization, nasal obstruction, and the presence of allergic rhinitis. This finding may provide insight into the mechanisms involved in the development of olfactory dysfunction.


Assuntos
Obstrução Nasal , Transtornos do Olfato , Rinite Alérgica , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Vitamina D
20.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res ; 13(1): 42-55, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191676

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Asthma is a heterogeneous airway disease occurring in children, and it has various clinical phenotypes. A clear differentiation of the clinical phenotypes can provide better asthma management and prediction of asthma prognosis. Little is currently known about asthma phenotypes in Korean children. This study was designed to identify asthma phenotypes in school-aged Korean children. METHODS: This study enrolled 674 children with physician-diagnosed asthma from the Korean childhood Asthma Study (KAS) cohort. The physicians verified the relevant histories of asthma and comorbid diseases, as well as airway lability and hyper-responsiveness from the results of pulmonary function tests and bronchial provocation tests. Questionnaires regarding the participants' baseline characteristics, their environment and self-rating of asthma control were collected at the time of enrollment. Laboratory tests were performed to assess allergy and airway inflammation. Children with asthma were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis. RESULTS: Of the 674 patients enrolled from the KAS cohort, 447 were included in the cluster analysis. Cluster analysis of these 447 children revealed 4 asthma phenotypes: cluster 1 (n = 216, 48.3%) which was characterized by male-dominant atopic asthma; cluster 2 (n = 79, 17.7%) which was characterized by early-onset atopic asthma with atopic dermatitis; cluster 3 (n = 47, 10.5%) which was characterized by puberty-onset, female-dominant atopic asthma with the low lung function; and cluster 4 (n = 105, 23.5%) which was characterized by early-onset, non-atopic dominant asthma. CONCLUSIONS: The asthma phenotypes among Korean children can be classified into 4 distinct clusters. Long-term follow-up with these phenotypes will be needed to define their prognosis and response to treatment.

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