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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 403-412, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303265

RESUMO

POU3F3, also referred to as Brain-1, is a well-known transcription factor involved in the development of the central nervous system, but it has not previously been associated with a neurodevelopmental disorder. Here, we report the identification of 19 individuals with heterozygous POU3F3 disruptions, most of which are de novo variants. All individuals had developmental delays and/or intellectual disability and impairments in speech and language skills. Thirteen individuals had characteristic low-set, prominent, and/or cupped ears. Brain abnormalities were observed in seven of eleven MRI reports. POU3F3 is an intronless gene, insensitive to nonsense-mediated decay, and 13 individuals carried protein-truncating variants. All truncating variants that we tested in cellular models led to aberrant subcellular localization of the encoded protein. Luciferase assays demonstrated negative effects of these alleles on transcriptional activation of a reporter with a FOXP2-derived binding motif. In addition to the loss-of-function variants, five individuals had missense variants that clustered at specific positions within the functional domains, and one small in-frame deletion was identified. Two missense variants showed reduced transactivation capacity in our assays, whereas one variant displayed gain-of-function effects, suggesting a distinct pathophysiological mechanism. In bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) interaction assays, all the truncated POU3F3 versions that we tested had significantly impaired dimerization capacities, whereas all missense variants showed unaffected dimerization with wild-type POU3F3. Taken together, our identification and functional cell-based analyses of pathogenic variants in POU3F3, coupled with a clinical characterization, implicate disruptions of this gene in a characteristic neurodevelopmental disorder.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1060-1072, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104773

RESUMO

The developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are heterogeneous disorders with a strong genetic contribution, but the underlying genetic etiology remains unknown in a significant proportion of individuals. To explore whether statistical support for genetic etiologies can be generated on the basis of phenotypic features, we analyzed whole-exome sequencing data and phenotypic similarities by using Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) in 314 individuals with DEEs. We identified a de novo c.508C>T (p.Arg170Trp) variant in AP2M1 in two individuals with a phenotypic similarity that was higher than expected by chance (p = 0.003) and a phenotype related to epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures. We subsequently found the same de novo variant in two individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and generalized epilepsy in a cohort of 2,310 individuals who underwent diagnostic whole-exome sequencing. AP2M1 encodes the µ-subunit of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2), which is involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and synaptic vesicle recycling. Modeling of protein dynamics indicated that the p.Arg170Trp variant impairs the conformational activation and thermodynamic entropy of the AP-2 complex. Functional complementation of both the µ-subunit carrying the p.Arg170Trp variant in human cells and astrocytes derived from AP-2µ conditional knockout mice revealed a significant impairment of CME of transferrin. In contrast, stability, expression levels, membrane recruitment, and localization were not impaired, suggesting a functional alteration of the AP-2 complex as the underlying disease mechanism. We establish a recurrent pathogenic variant in AP2M1 as a cause of DEEs with distinct phenotypic features, and we implicate dysfunction of the early steps of endocytosis as a disease mechanism in epilepsy.

3.
Kidney Int ; 95(6): 1494-1504, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005274

RESUMO

Although genetic testing is increasingly used in clinical nephrology, a large number of patients with congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) remain undiagnosed with current gene panels. Therefore, careful curation of novel genetic findings is key to improving diagnostic yields. We recently described a novel intellectual disability syndrome caused by de novo heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the splicing factor SON. Here, we show that many of these patients, including two previously unreported, exhibit a wide array of kidney abnormalities. Detailed phenotyping of 14 patients with SON haploinsufficiency identified kidney anomalies in 8 patients, including horseshoe kidney, unilateral renal hypoplasia, and renal cysts. Recurrent urinary tract infections, electrolyte disturbances, and hypertension were also observed in some patients. SON knockdown in kidney cell lines leads to abnormal pre-mRNA splicing, resulting in decreased expression of several established CAKUT genes. Furthermore, these molecular events were observed in patient-derived cells with SON haploinsufficiency. Taken together, our data suggest that the wide spectrum of phenotypes in patients with a pathogenic SON mutation is a consequence of impaired pre-mRNA splicing of several CAKUT genes. We propose that genetic testing panels designed to diagnose children with a kidney phenotype should include the SON gene.

4.
Genet Med ; 21(10): 2199-2207, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894705

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated clinical and genetic features enriched in patients with multiple Mendelian conditions to determine which patients are more likely to have multiple potentially relevant genetic findings (MPRF). METHODS: Results of the first 7698 patients who underwent exome sequencing at Ambry Genetics were reviewed. Clinical and genetic features were examined and degree of phenotypic overlap between the genetic diagnoses was evaluated. RESULTS: Among patients referred for exome sequencing, 2% had MPRF. MPRF were more common in patients from consanguineous families and patients with greater clinical complexity. The difference in average number of organ systems affected is small: 4.3 (multiple findings) vs. 3.9 (single finding) and may not be distinguished in clinic. CONCLUSION: Patients with multiple genetic diagnoses had a slightly higher number of organ systems affected than patients with single genetic diagnoses, largely because the comorbid conditions affected overlapping organ systems. Exome testing may be beneficial for all cases with multiple organ systems affected. The identification of multiple relevant genetic findings in 2% of exome patients highlights the utility of a comprehensive molecular workup and updated interpretation of existing genomic data; a single definitive molecular diagnosis from analysis of a limited number of genes may not be the end of a diagnostic odyssey.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 708, 2019 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755616

RESUMO

Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (ARSs) link specific amino acids with their cognate transfer RNAs in a critical early step of protein translation. Mutations in ARSs have emerged as a cause of recessive, often complex neurological disease traits. Here we report an allelic series consisting of seven novel and two previously reported biallelic variants in valyl-tRNA synthetase (VARS) in ten patients with a developmental encephalopathy with microcephaly, often associated with early-onset epilepsy. In silico, in vitro, and yeast complementation assays demonstrate that the underlying pathomechanism of these mutations is most likely a loss of protein function. Zebrafish modeling accurately recapitulated some of the key neurological disease traits. These results provide both genetic and biological insights into neurodevelopmental disease and pave the way for further in-depth research on ARS related recessive disorders and precision therapies.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Valina-tRNA Ligase/genética , Alelos , Animais , Encefalopatias/enzimologia , Encefalopatias/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epilepsia/enzimologia , Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/patologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Microcefalia/enzimologia , Microcefalia/patologia , Modelos Moleculares , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/enzimologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Linhagem , Prosencéfalo/patologia , Peixe-Zebra
6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(2): 203-212, 2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612693

RESUMO

Using exome sequencing, we have identified de novo variants in MAPK8IP3 in 13 unrelated individuals presenting with an overlapping phenotype of mild to severe intellectual disability. The de novo variants comprise six missense variants, three of which are recurrent, and three truncating variants. Brain anomalies such as perisylvian polymicrogyria, cerebral or cerebellar atrophy, and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum were consistent among individuals harboring recurrent de novo missense variants. MAPK8IP3 has been shown to be involved in the retrograde axonal-transport machinery, but many of its specific functions are yet to be elucidated. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 system to target six conserved amino acid positions in Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that two of the six investigated human alterations led to a significantly elevated density of axonal lysosomes, and five variants were associated with adverse locomotion. Reverse-engineering normalized the observed adverse effects back to wild-type levels. Combining genetic, phenotypic, and functional findings, as well as the significant enrichment of de novo variants in MAPK8IP3 within our total cohort of 27,232 individuals who underwent exome sequencing, we implicate de novo variants in MAPK8IP3 as a cause of a neurodevelopmental disorder with intellectual disability and variable brain anomalies.

7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2018 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450763

RESUMO

Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome (HKLLS) is a genetically heterogeneous lymphatic dysplasia with characteristic of facial dysmorphism, neurocognitive impairments, and abnormalities of the pericardium, intestinal tract, and extremities. It is an autosomal recessive condition caused by biallelic mutations in CCBE1 (collagen- and calcium-binding epidermal growth factor domain-containing protein 1) (HKLLS1; OMIM 235510) or FAT4 (HKLLS2; OMIM 616006). CCBE1 acts via ADAMTS3 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs-3 protease) to enhance vascular endothelial growth factor C signaling. There is report of one family supporting mutations in ADAMTS3 as causative for the phenotype labeled as HKLLS3. Here, we report an additional case of HKLLS that appears to be associated with homozygous nonsense mutation of ADAMTS3.

8.
J Med Genet ; 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During mouse embryonic development the protein kinase domain containing, cytoplasmic (Pkdcc) gene, also known as Vlk, is expressed in several tissues including the ventral midbrain, with particularly strong expression in branchial arches and limb buds. Homozygous Pkdcc knockout mice have dysmorphic features and shortened long bones as the most obvious morphological abnormalities. The human PKDCC gene has currently not been associated with any disorders. OBJECTIVE: To use clinical diagnostic exome sequencing (DES) for providing genetic diagnoses to two apparently unrelated patients with similar skeletal abnormalities comprising rhizomelic shortening of limbs and dysmorphic features. METHODS: Patient-parents trio DES was carried out and the identified candidate variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: Each patient had a homozygous gene disrupting variant in PKDCC considered to explain the skeletal phenotypes shared by both. The first patient was homozygous for the nonsense variant p.(Tyr217*) (NM_1 38 370 c.651C>A) expected to result in nonsense-mediated decay of the mutant transcripts, whereas the second patient was homozygous for the splice donor variant c.639+1G>T predicted to abolish the donor splice site by three in silico splice prediction algorithms. CONCLUSIONS: Biallelic gene disrupting variants in PKDCC in humans, just like in mice, cause dysmorphic features and rhizomelic shortening of limbs.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(4): 557-573, 2018 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29576218

RESUMO

Mitochondrial disorders causing neurodegeneration in childhood are genetically heterogeneous, and the underlying genetic etiology remains unknown in many affected individuals. We identified biallelic variants in PMPCB in individuals of four families including one family with two affected siblings with neurodegeneration and cerebellar atrophy. PMPCB encodes the catalytic subunit of the essential mitochondrial processing protease (MPP), which is required for maturation of the majority of mitochondrial precursor proteins. Mitochondria isolated from two fibroblast cell lines and induced pluripotent stem cells derived from one affected individual and differentiated neuroepithelial stem cells showed reduced PMPCB levels and accumulation of the processing intermediate of frataxin, a sensitive substrate for MPP dysfunction. Introduction of the identified PMPCB variants into the homologous S. cerevisiae Mas1 protein resulted in a severe growth and MPP processing defect leading to the accumulation of mitochondrial precursor proteins and early impairment of the biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters, which are indispensable for a broad range of crucial cellular functions. Analysis of biopsy materials of an affected individual revealed changes and decreased activity in iron-sulfur cluster-containing respiratory chain complexes and dysfunction of mitochondrial and cytosolic Fe-S cluster-dependent enzymes. We conclude that biallelic mutations in PMPCB cause defects in MPP proteolytic activity leading to dysregulation of iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis and triggering a complex neurological phenotype of neurodegeneration in early childhood.

11.
Genet Med ; 20(9): 1099-1102, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29388939

RESUMO

In the published version of this paper, some of the columns in the last three rows of Table 3 were mistakenly transposed. The corrected table appears below. In col. 6 of the row for DNMT3A, "S3" was published in the original article. However, in the revised table for the corrigendum, it has been corrected to "S1". In col. 6 of the row for SON, "S3" was published in the original article. However, in the revised table for the corrigendum, it has been corrected to "S2".

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(1): 188-195, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29304374

RESUMO

Fucosyltransferase 8 (FUT8) encodes a Golgi-localized α1,6 fucosyltransferase that is essential for transferring the monosaccharide fucose into N-linked glycoproteins, a process known as "core fucosylation." Here we describe three unrelated individuals, who presented with intrauterine growth retardation, severe developmental and growth delays with shortened limbs, neurological impairments, and respiratory complications. Each underwent whole-exome sequencing and was found to carry pathogenic variants in FUT8. The first individual (consanguineous family) was homozygous for c.715C>T (p.Arg239∗), while the second (non-consanguineous family) was compound heterozygous for c.1009C>G (p.Arg337Gly) and a splice site variant c.1259+5G>T. The third individual (consanguineous family) was homozygous for a c.943C>T (p.Arg315∗). Splicing analysis confirmed the c.1259+5G>T resulted in expression of an abnormal FUT8 transcript lacking exon 9. Functional studies using primary fibroblasts from two affected individuals revealed a complete lack of FUT8 protein expression that ultimately resulted in substantial deficiencies in total core fucosylated N-glycans. Furthermore, serum samples from all three individuals showed a complete loss of core fucosylation. Here, we show that loss of function mutations in FUT8 cause a congenital disorder of glycosylation (FUT8-CDG) characterized by defective core fucosylation that phenotypically parallels some aspects of the Fut8-/- knockout mouse. Importantly, identification of additional affected individuals can be easily achieved through analysis of core fucosylation of N-glycans.

13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(6): 1013-1020, 2017 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29220673

RESUMO

Using trio whole-exome sequencing, we have identified de novo heterozygous pathogenic variants in GRIA4 in five unrelated individuals with intellectual disability and other symptoms. GRIA4 encodes an AMPA receptor subunit known as GluR4, which is found on excitatory glutamatergic synapses and is important for learning and memory. Four of the variants are located in the highly conserved SYTANLAAF motif in the transmembrane protein M3, and the fifth is in an extra-cellular domain. Molecular modeling of the altered protein showed that three of the variants in the SYTANLAAF motif orient toward the center of the pore region and most likely lead to disturbance of the gating mechanism. The fourth variant in the SYTANLAAF motif most likely results in reduced permeability. The variant in the extracellular domain potentially interferes with the binding between the monomers. On the basis of clinical information and genetic results, and the fact that other subunits of the AMPA receptor have already been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, we suggest that pathogenic de novo variants in GRIA4 lead to intellectual disability with or without seizures, gait abnormalities, problems of social behavior, and other variable features.


Assuntos
Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos dos Movimentos/genética , Receptores de AMPA/genética , Convulsões/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Comportamento Problema , Comportamento Social , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
14.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(24): 4937-4950, 2017 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29040572

RESUMO

Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are ubiquitous cofactors essential to various cellular processes, including mitochondrial respiration, DNA repair, and iron homeostasis. A steadily increasing number of disorders are being associated with disrupted biogenesis of Fe-S clusters. Here, we conducted whole-exome sequencing of patients with optic atrophy and other neurological signs of mitochondriopathy and identified 17 individuals from 13 unrelated families with recessive mutations in FDXR, encoding the mitochondrial membrane-associated flavoprotein ferrodoxin reductase required for electron transport from NADPH to cytochrome P450. In vitro enzymatic assays in patient fibroblast cells showed deficient ferredoxin NADP reductase activity and mitochondrial dysfunction evidenced by low oxygen consumption rates (OCRs), complex activities, ATP production and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Such defects were rescued by overexpression of wild-type FDXR. Moreover, we found that mice carrying a spontaneous mutation allelic to the most common mutation found in patients displayed progressive gait abnormalities and vision loss, in addition to biochemical defects consistent with the major clinical features of the disease. Taken together, these data provide the first demonstration that germline, hypomorphic mutations in FDXR cause a novel mitochondriopathy and optic atrophy in humans.


Assuntos
Ferredoxinas/genética , Atrofia Óptica/genética , Sulfito Redutase (Ferredoxina)/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transporte de Elétrons , Feminino , Ferredoxinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Ferro/metabolismo , Proteínas com Ferro-Enxofre/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Mutagênese , Mutação , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Linhagem , Sulfito Redutase (Ferredoxina)/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(4): 503-515, 2017 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28942966

RESUMO

Bromodomain PHD finger transcription factor (BPTF) is the largest subunit of nucleosome remodeling factor (NURF), a member of the ISWI chromatin-remodeling complex. However, the clinical consequences of disruption of this complex remain largely uncharacterized. BPTF is required for anterior-posterior axis formation of the mouse embryo and was shown to promote posterior neuroectodermal fate by enhancing Smad2-activated wnt8 expression in zebrafish. Here, we report eight loss-of-function and two missense variants (eight de novo and two of unknown origin) in BPTF on 17q24.2. The BPTF variants were found in unrelated individuals aged between 2.1 and 13 years, who manifest variable degrees of developmental delay/intellectual disability (10/10), speech delay (10/10), postnatal microcephaly (7/9), and dysmorphic features (9/10). Using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing of bptf in zebrafish to induce a loss of gene function, we observed a significant reduction in head size of F0 mutants compared to control larvae. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and phospho-histone H3 (PH3) staining to assess apoptosis and cell proliferation, respectively, showed a significant increase in cell death in F0 mutants compared to controls. Additionally, we observed a substantial increase of the ceratohyal angle of the craniofacial skeleton in bptf F0 mutants, indicating abnormal craniofacial patterning. Taken together, our data demonstrate the pathogenic role of BPTF haploinsufficiency in syndromic neurodevelopmental anomalies and extend the clinical spectrum of human disorders caused by ablation of chromatin remodeling complexes.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Antígenos Nucleares/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Adolescente , Animais , Antígenos Nucleares/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Estudos de Coortes , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Feminino , Edição de Genes , Haploinsuficiência/fisiologia , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/patologia , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Microcefalia/patologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Fenótipo , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(4): 516-524, 2017 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28942967

RESUMO

Exome sequencing has readily enabled the discovery of the genetic mutations responsible for a wide range of diseases. This success has been particularly remarkable in the severe epilepsies and other neurodevelopmental diseases for which rare, often de novo, mutations play a significant role in disease risk. Despite significant progress, the high genetic heterogeneity of these disorders often requires large sample sizes to identify a critical mass of individuals with disease-causing mutations in a single gene. By pooling genetic findings across multiple studies, we have identified six individuals with severe developmental delay (6/6), refractory seizures (5/6), and similar dysmorphic features (3/6), each harboring a de novo mutation in PPP3CA. PPP3CA encodes the alpha isoform of a subunit of calcineurin. Calcineurin encodes a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that plays a role in a wide range of biological processes, including being a key regulator of synaptic vesicle recycling at nerve terminals. Five individuals with de novo PPP3CA mutations were identified among 4,760 trio probands with neurodevelopmental diseases; this is highly unlikely to occur by chance (p = 1.2 × 10-8) given the size and mutability of the gene. Additionally, a sixth individual with a de novo mutation in PPP3CA was connected to this study through GeneMatcher. Based on these findings, we securely implicate PPP3CA in early-onset refractory epilepsy and further support the emerging role for synaptic dysregulation in epilepsy.


Assuntos
Calcineurina/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Epilepsia/patologia , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Síndrome de Lennox Gastaut/patologia , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Espasmos Infantis/patologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Neurology ; 89(4): 385-394, 2017 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28667181

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the phenotypic spectrum caused by mutations in dynamin 1 (DNM1), encoding the presynaptic protein DNM1, and to investigate possible genotype-phenotype correlations and predicted functional consequences based on structural modeling. METHODS: We reviewed phenotypic data of 21 patients (7 previously published) with DNM1 mutations. We compared mutation data to known functional data and undertook biomolecular modeling to assess the effect of the mutations on protein function. RESULTS: We identified 19 patients with de novo mutations in DNM1 and a sibling pair who had an inherited mutation from a mosaic parent. Seven patients (33.3%) carried the recurrent p.Arg237Trp mutation. A common phenotype emerged that included severe to profound intellectual disability and muscular hypotonia in all patients and an epilepsy characterized by infantile spasms in 16 of 21 patients, frequently evolving into Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Two patients had profound global developmental delay without seizures. In addition, we describe a single patient with normal development before the onset of a catastrophic epilepsy, consistent with febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome at 4 years. All mutations cluster within the GTPase or middle domains, and structural modeling and existing functional data suggest a dominant-negative effect on DMN1 function. CONCLUSIONS: The phenotypic spectrum of DNM1-related encephalopathy is relatively homogeneous, in contrast to many other genetic epilepsies. Up to one-third of patients carry the recurrent p.Arg237Trp variant, which is now one of the most common recurrent variants in epileptic encephalopathies identified to date. Given the predicted dominant-negative mechanism of this mutation, this variant presents a prime target for therapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Encefalopatias/metabolismo , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Mutação , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Proteínas de Homeodomínio , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Fenótipo , Proteína de Homoeobox de Baixa Estatura , Irmãos , Vesículas Sinápticas/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(9): 2505-2510, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28650581

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in the mitochondrial aminoacyl tRNA synthetases lead to deficiencies in mitochondrial protein synthesis and are associated with a broad range of clinical presentations usually with early onset and inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Of the 19 mitochondrial aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, WARS2, encoding mitochondrial tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase, was as of late the only one that had not been associated with disease in humans. A case of a family with pathogenic variants in WARS2 that caused mainly intellectual disability, speech impairment, aggressiveness, and athetosis was recently reported. Here we substantially extend and consolidate the symptomatology of WARS2 by presenting a patient with severe infantile-onset leukoencephalopathy, profound intellectual disability, spastic quadriplegia, epilepsy, microcephaly, short stature, failure to thrive, cerebral atrophy, and periventricular white matter abnormalities. He was found by whole-exome sequencing to have compound heterozygous variants in WARS2, c.938A>T (p.K313M) and c.298_300delCTT (p.L100del). De novo synthesis of proteins inside mitochondria was reduced in the patient's fibroblasts, leading to significantly lower steady-state levels of respiratory chain subunits compared to control and resulting in lower oxygen consumption rates.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Leucoencefalopatias/genética , Quadriplegia/genética , Triptofano-tRNA Ligase/genética , Idade de Início , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Leucoencefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Microcefalia , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mutação , Quadriplegia/fisiopatologia , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem , Adulto Jovem
19.
Hum Mutat ; 38(5): 600-608, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28106320

RESUMO

Ascertaining a diagnosis through exome sequencing can provide potential benefits to patients, insurance companies, and the healthcare system. Yet, as diagnostic sequencing is increasingly employed, vast amounts of human genetic data are produced that need careful curation. We discuss methods for accurately assessing the clinical validity of gene-disease relationships to interpret new research findings in a clinical context and increase the diagnostic rate. The specifics of a gene-disease scoring system adapted for use in a clinical laboratory are described. In turn, clinical validity scoring of gene-disease relationships can inform exome reporting for the identification of new or the upgrade of previous, clinically relevant gene findings. Our retrospective analysis of all reclassification reports from the first 4 years of diagnostic exome sequencing showed that 78% were due to new gene-disease discoveries published in the literature. Among all exome positive/likely positive findings in characterized genes, 32% were in genetic etiologies that were discovered after 2010. Our data underscore the importance and benefits of active and up-to-date curation of a gene-disease database combined with critical clinical validity scoring and proactive reanalysis in the clinical genomics era.


Assuntos
Exoma , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Estudos de Associação Genética/normas , Genômica/normas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Genet Med ; 19(2): 224-235, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27513193

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diagnostic exome sequencing (DES) is now a commonly ordered test for individuals with undiagnosed genetic disorders. In addition to providing a diagnosis for characterized diseases, exome sequencing has the capacity to uncover novel candidate genes for disease. METHODS: Family-based DES included analysis of both characterized and novel genetic etiologies. To evaluate candidate genes for disease in the clinical setting, we developed a systematic, rule-based classification schema. RESULTS: Testing identified a candidate gene among 7.7% (72/934) of patients referred for DES; 37 (4.0%) and 35 (3.7%) of the genes received evidence scores of "candidate" and "suspected candidate," respectively. A total of 71 independent candidate genes were reported among the 72 patients, and 38% (27/71) were subsequently corroborated in the peer-reviewed literature. This rate of corroboration increased to 51.9% (27/52) among patients whose gene was reported at least 12 months previously. CONCLUSIONS: Herein, we provide transparent, comprehensive, and standardized scoring criteria for the clinical reporting of candidate genes. These results demonstrate that DES is an integral tool for genetic diagnosis, especially for elucidating the molecular basis for both characterized and novel candidate genetic etiologies. Gene discoveries also advance the understanding of normal human biology and more common diseases.Genet Med 19 2, 224-235.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Exoma/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/patologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Mutação
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