Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 117
Filtrar
1.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4271-4276, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The anticancer mechanism of itraconazole remains unsolved; therefore, we studied itraconazole-induced alterations in specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) in cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The human cervical squamous carcinoma cell line CaSki was cultured with or without 1 µM itraconazole. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis was conducted to identify SPMs that were influenced by itraconazole. Cell growth experiments were conducted using itraconazole and inhibitors targeting the metabolic pathways of candidate SPMs. RESULTS: Resolvin E3, resolvin E2, prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2), delta-12-PGJ2, and maresin 2 were identified as candidate SPMs. The 12/15-lipoxygenase inhibitor, which is involved in the conversion of 18-hydroxy-eicosapentaenoic acid to resolvin E3, attenuated the inhibitory effect of itraconazole. Inhibition of the PGJ2 metabolic pathway did not interfere with itraconazole treatment. CONCLUSION: The metabolic pathway of SPMs, including resolving E3, could be proposed as an anticancer target of itraconazole.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Itraconazol/farmacologia , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/farmacologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578988

RESUMO

Recently we established a cell-free assay to evaluate "cholesterol uptake capacity (CUC)" as a novel concept for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) functionality and demonstrated the feasibility of CUC for coronary risk stratification, although its regulatory mechanism remains unclear. HDL fluidity affects cholesterol efflux, and trans fatty acids (TFA) reduce lipid membrane fluidity when incorporated into phospholipids (PL). This study aimed to clarify the effect of TFA in HDL-PL on CUC. Serum was collected from 264 patients after coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention to measure CUC and elaidic acid levels in HDL-PL, and in vitro analysis using reconstituted HDL (rHDL) was used to determine the HDL-PL mechanism affecting CUC. CUC was positively associated with HDL-PL levels but negatively associated with the proportion of elaidic acid in HDL-PL (elaidic acid in HDL-PL/HDL-PL ratio). Increased elaidic acid-phosphatidylcholine (PC) content in rHDL exhibited no change in particle size or CUC compared to rHDL containing oleic acid in PC. Recombinant human lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) enhanced CUC, and LCAT-dependent enhancement of CUC and LCAT-dependent cholesterol esterification were suppressed in rHDL containing elaidic acid in PC. Therefore, CUC is affected by HDL-PL concentration, HDL-PL acyl group composition, and LCAT-dependent cholesterol esterification. Elaidic acid precipitated an inhibition of cholesterol uptake and maturation of HDL; therefore, modulation of HDL-PL acyl groups could improve CUC.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17312, 2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453072

RESUMO

Resolvins, are specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) derived from n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. They contribute actively to the resolution of inflammation, but little is known concerning their role in chronic inflammation, such as in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, we performed lipid mediator (LM) profiling in tissues from the paws of SKG arthritic mice using lipid chromatography (LC)/mass spectrometry (MS)/MS-based LM metabololipidomics. We found elevated levels of SPMs including resolvin D5 (RvD5) in these tissues. Moreover, RvD5 levels were significantly correlated with arthritis disease activity. From experiments to assess the role of RvD5 in the pathology of RA, we concluded that RvD5 suppressed Th17 cell differentiation and facilitated regulatory T cell differentiation, as well as inhibiting CD4+ T cell proliferation. Furthermore, RvD5 attenuated osteoclast differentiation and interfered with osteoclastogenesis. Targeting the resolution of inflammation could be promising as a novel treatment for RA.

4.
Int J Neonatal Screen ; 7(3)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287247

RESUMO

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a genetic neuromuscular disorder that causes degeneration of anterior horn cells in the human spinal cord and subsequent loss of motor neurons. The severe form of SMA is among the genetic diseases with the highest infant mortality. Although SMA has been considered incurable, newly developed drugs-nusinersen and onasemnogene abeparvovec-improve the life prognoses and motor functions of affected infants. To maximize the efficacy of these drugs, treatments should be started at the pre-symptomatic stage of SMA. Thus, newborn screening for SMA is now strongly recommended. Herein, we provide some data based on our experience of SMA diagnosis by genetic testing in Japan. A total of 515 patients suspected of having SMA or another lower motor neuron disease were tested. Among these patients, 228 were diagnosed as having SMA with survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) deletion. We analyzed the distribution of clinical subtypes and ages at genetic testing in the SMN1-deleted patients, and estimated the SMA incidence based on data from Osaka and Hyogo prefectures, Japan. Our data showed that confirmed diagnosis by genetic testing was notably delayed, and the estimated incidence was 1 in 30,000-40,000 live births, which seemed notably lower than in other countries. These findings suggest that many diagnosis-delayed or undiagnosed cases may be present in Japan. To prevent this, newborn screening programs for SMA (SMA-NBS) need to be implemented in all Japanese prefectures. In this article, we also introduce our pilot study for SMA-NBS in Osaka Prefecture.

5.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 476(10): 3577-3590, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021470

RESUMO

The carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) is a glucose-responsive transcription factor that increases the transcription of multiple genes. ChREBP is highly localized in the liver, where it upregulates the expression of genes that code for glycolytic and lipogenic enzymes, resulting in the conversion of excess carbohydrate into storage fat. ChREBP knockout (KO) mice display an anti-obese phenotype. However, at this time, role of ChREBP in adipose tissue remains unclear. Therefore, the energy metabolism and morphology of mitochondrial brown adipose tissue (BAT) in ChREBP KO mice was examined. We found increased expression levels of electron transport system proteins including the mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP1), and mitochondrial structural alterations such as dysplasia of the cristae and the presence of small mitochondria in BAT of ChREBP KO mice. Mass spectrometry analyses revealed that fatty acid synthase was absent in the BAT of ChREBP KO mice, which probably led to a reduction in fatty acids and cardiolipin, a regulator of various mitochondrial events. Our study clarified the new role of ChREBP in adipose tissue and its involvement in mitochondrial function. A clearer understanding of ChREBP in mitochondria could pave the way for improvements in obesity management.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/deficiência , Metabolismo Energético , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/genética , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
6.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers ; 25(4): 293-301, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877896

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a lower motor neuron disease with autosomal recessive inheritance caused by homozygous SMN1 deletions. Although SMA has been considered as incurable, newly developed drugs improve life prognoses and motor functions of patients. To maximize the efficacy of the drugs, SMA patients should be treated before symptoms become apparent. Thus, newborn screening for SMA is strongly recommended. In this study, we aim to establish a new simple screening system based on DNA melting peak analysis. Materials and Methods: A total of 124 dried blood spot (DBS) on FTA® ELUTE cards (51 SMN1-deleted patients with SMA, 20 carriers, and 53 controls) were punched and subjected to direct amplification of SMN1 and CFTR (reference gene). Melting peak analyses were performed to detect SMN1 deletions from DBS samples. Results: A combination of allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and melting peak analyses clearly distinguished the DBS samples with and without SMN1. Compared with the results of fresh blood samples, our new system yielded 100% sensitivity and specificity. The advantages of our system include (1) biosafe collection, transfer, and storage for DBS samples, (2) obviating the need for DNA extraction from DBS preventing contamination, (3) preclusion of fluorescent probes leading to low PCR cost, and (4) fast and high-throughput screening for SMN1 deletions. Conclusion: We demonstrate that our system would be applicable to a real-world newborn screening program for SMA, because our new technology is efficient for use in routine clinical laboratories that do not have highly advanced PCR instruments.


Assuntos
Atrofia Muscular Espinal/genética , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Proteína 1 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor/genética , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , DNA/genética , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Éxons , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Frequência do Gene , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/sangue , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/diagnóstico , Desnaturação de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Proteína 1 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor/metabolismo
7.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 557: 62-68, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862461

RESUMO

Clinical and animal studies have suggested a possible beneficial effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Although SGLT2 inhibitors have been shown to reduce hepatic fat deposition in association with loss of body weight, the mechanism of this action has remained unknown. We here show that the SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin ameliorated fatty liver and hyperglycemia without affecting body weight or epididymal fat weight in obese diabetic KKAy mice. Lipidomics analysis based on liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry revealed that canagliflozin treatment increased the amounts of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and resolvin E3 in the liver of these mice. We also found that PGE2 attenuated fat deposition in mouse primary hepatocytes exposed to palmitic acid. Our results thus suggest that PGE2 may play an important role in the amelioration of hepatic fat deposition by canagliflozin, with elucidation of its mechanism of action potentially providing a basis for the development of new therapeutics for NAFLD-NASH.


Assuntos
Canagliflozina/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/química , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/metabolismo , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia
8.
Brain Dev ; 43(7): 745-758, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder caused by homozygous deletion or intragenic mutation of the SMN1 gene. It is well-known that high copy number of its homologous gene, SMN2, modifies the phenotype of SMN1-deleted patients. However, in the patients with intragenic SMN1 mutation, the relationship between phenotype and SMN2 copy number remains unclear. METHODS: We have analyzed a total of 515 Japanese patients with SMA-like symptoms (delayed developmental milestones, respiratory failures, muscle weakness etc.) from 1996 to 2019. SMN1 and SMN2 copy numbers were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) method. Intragenic SMN1 mutations were identified through DNA and RNA analysis of the fresh blood samples. RESULTS: A total of 241 patients were diagnosed as having SMA. The majority of SMA patients showed complete loss of SMN1 (n = 228, 95%), but some patients retained SMN1 and carried an intragenic mutation in the retaining SMN1 (n = 13, 5%). Ten different mutations were identified in these 13 patients, consisting of missense, nonsense, frameshift and splicing defect-causing mutations. The ten mutations were c.275G > C (p.Trp92Ser), c.819_820insT (p.Thr274Tyrfs*32), c.830A > G (p.Tyr277Cys), c.5C > T (p.Ala2Val), c.826 T > C (p.Tyr276His), c.79C > T (p.Gln27*), c.188C > A (p.Ser63*), c.422 T > C (p.Leu141Pro), c.835-2A > G (exon 7 skipping) and c.835-3C > A (exon 7 skipping). It should be noted here that some patients with milder phenotype carried only a single SMN2 copy (n = 3), while other patients with severe phenotype carried 3 SMN2 copies (n = 4). CONCLUSION: Intragenic mutations in SMN1 may contribute more significantly to clinical severity than SMN2 copy numbers.

9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8045, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850245

RESUMO

Cardiac accessory pathways (APs) in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome are conventionally diagnosed with decision tree algorithms; however, there are problems with clinical usage. We assessed the efficacy of the artificial intelligence model using electrocardiography (ECG) and chest X-rays to identify the location of APs. We retrospectively used ECG and chest X-rays to analyse 206 patients with WPW syndrome. Each AP location was defined by an electrophysiological study and divided into four classifications. We developed a deep learning model to classify AP locations and compared the accuracy with that of conventional algorithms. Moreover, 1519 chest X-ray samples from other datasets were used for prior learning, and the combined chest X-ray image and ECG data were put into the previous model to evaluate whether the accuracy improved. The convolutional neural network (CNN) model using ECG data was significantly more accurate than the conventional tree algorithm. In the multimodal model, which implemented input from the combined ECG and chest X-ray data, the accuracy was significantly improved. Deep learning with a combination of ECG and chest X-ray data could effectively identify the AP location, which may be a novel deep learning model for a multimodal model.

10.
Circ J ; 85(10): 1860-1868, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few registries have provided precise information concerning incidence rates for acute heart failure syndrome (AHFS) in Japan.Methods and Results:All hospitals with acute care beds in Awaji Island participated in the Kobe University heart failure registry in Awaji Medical Center (KUNIUMI Registry), a retrospective, population-based AHFS registration study, enabling almost every patient with AHFS in Awaji Island to be registered. From 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2017, 743 patients with de novo AHFS had been registered. Mean age was 82.1±11.5 years. Using the general population of Japan as of 2015 as a standard, age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates for AHFS were 133.8 per 100,000 person-years for male and 120.0 for female. In 2015, there were an estimated 159,702 new-onset patients with AHFS, which was predicted to increase to 252,153 by 2040, and reach a plateau. The proportion of patients aged >85 years accounted for 42.6% in 2015, which was predicted to increase up to 62.5% in 2040. The proportion of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction was estimated at 52.0% in 2015, which was predicted to increase gradually to 57.3% in 2055. CONCLUSIONS: The present analysis suggested that the number of patients with de novo AHFS keeps increasing with progressive aging in Japan. Establishment of countermeasures against the expanding burden of HF is urgently required.

11.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2021 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775978

RESUMO

AIMS: Various pathological processes related to diabetes cause endothelial dysfunction. Eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid (AA) have roles in vascular regulation. Fibrates have recently been shown to attenuate vascular complications in diabetics. Here we examined the effects of pemafibrate, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α modulator, on plasma eicosanoid levels and endothelial function in diabetic mice. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in 7-week-old male wild-type mice by a single injection of streptozotocin (150 mg/kg). Pemafibrate (0.3 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 3 weeks. Untreated mice received vehicle. Circulating levels of eicosanoids and free fatty acids were measured using both gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vascular responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively, were analyzed. RESULTS: Pemafibrate reduced both triglyceride and non-high-density lipoprotein -cholesterol levels (P<0.01), without affecting body weight. It also decreased circulating levels of AA (P<0.001), thromboxane B2 (P<0.001), prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4 (P<0.05), and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (P<0.001), all of which were elevated by the induction of diabetes. In contrast, the plasma levels of 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2, which declined following diabetes induction, remained unaffected by pemafibrate treatment. In diabetic mice, pemafibrate decreased palmitic acid (PA) and stearic acid concentrations (P<0.05). Diabetes induction impaired endothelial function, whereas pemafibrate ameliorated it (P<0.001). The results of ex vivo experiments indicated that eicosanoids or PA impaired endothelial function. CONCLUSION: Pemafibrate diminished the levels of vasoconstrictive eicosanoids and free fatty acids accompanied by a reduction of triglyceride. These effects may be associated with the improvement of endothelial function by pemafibrate in diabetic mice.

12.
Haematologica ; 106(6): 1671-1683, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538151

RESUMO

The mobilization efficiency of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells from bone marrow (BM) to circulation by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is dramatically dispersed in humans and mice with no mechanistic lead for poor mobilizers. The regulatory mechanism for mobilization efficiency by dietary fat was assessed in mice. Fat-free diet (FFD) for 2 weeks greatly increased mobilization compared to normal diet (ND). The BM mRNA level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ), a receptor for lipid mediators, was markedly up-regulated by G-CSF in mice fed with ND and displayed strong positive correlation with widely scattered mobilization efficiency. It was hypothesized that BM fat ligand for PPARδ might inhibit mobilization. The PPARδ agonist inhibited mobilization in mice fed with ND and enhanced mobilization by FFD. Treatment with the PPARδ antagonist and chimeric mice with PPARδ+/- BM showed enhanced mobilization. Immunohistochemical staining and flow cytometry revealed that BM PPARδ expression was enhanced by G-CSF mainly in mature/immature neutrophils. BM lipid mediator analysis revealed that G-CSF treatment and FFD resulted in the exhaustion of ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). EPA induced the up-regulation of genes downstream of PPARδ, such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1α and angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angptl4), in mature/immature neutrophils in vitro and inhibited enhanced mobilization in mice fed with FFD in vivo. Treatment of wild-type mice with the anti-Angptl4 antibody enhanced mobilization together with BM vascular permeability. Collectively, PPARδ signaling in BM mature/immature neutrophils induced by dietary fatty acids negatively regulates mobilization, at least partially, via Angptl4 production.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea , PPAR delta , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos , Mobilização de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Camundongos , PPAR delta/genética
13.
BMC Neurosci ; 22(1): 9, 2021 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously reported that heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) phosphorylation plays an important role in the activation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), resulting in the upregulation of the pentose phosphate pathway and antioxidant effects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. The present study investigated the effect of geranylgeranylacetone, an inducer of HSP27, on ischemia-reperfusion injury in male rats as a preliminary study to see if further research of the effects of geranylgeranylacetone on the ischemic stroke was warranted. METHODS: In all experiments, male Wistar rats were used. First, we conducted pathway activity profiling based on a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify ischemia-reperfusion-related metabolic pathways. Next, we investigated the effects of geranylgeranylacetone on the pentose phosphate pathway and ischemia-reperfusion injury by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunoblotting, and G6PD activity, protein carbonylation and infarct volume analysis. Geranylgeranylacetone or vehicle was injected intracerebroventricularly 3 h prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham operation. RESULTS: Pathway activity profiling demonstrated that changes in the metabolic state depended on reperfusion time and that the pentose phosphate pathway and taurine-hypotaurine metabolism pathway were the most strongly related to reperfusion among 137 metabolic pathways. RT-PCR demonstrated that geranylgeranylacetone did not significantly affect the increase in HSP27 transcript levels after ischemia-reperfusion. Immunoblotting showed that geranylgeranylacetone did not significantly affect the elevation of HSP27 protein levels. However, geranylgeranylacetone significantly increase the elevation of phosphorylation of HSP27 after ischemia-reperfusion. In addition, geranylgeranylacetone significantly affected the increase in G6PD activity, and reduced the increase in protein carbonylation after ischemia-reperfusion. Accordingly, geranylgeranylacetone significantly reduced the infarct size (median 31.3% vs 19.9%, p = 0.0013). CONCLUSIONS: As a preliminary study, these findings suggest that geranylgeranylacetone may be a promising agent for the treatment of ischemic stroke and would be worthy of further study. Further studies are required to clearly delineate the mechanism of geranylgeranylacetone-induced HSP27 phosphorylation in antioxidant effects, which may guide the development of new approaches for minimizing the impact of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.

14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 79, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420169

RESUMO

The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high fat and low carbohydrate diet that produces ketone bodies through imitation of starvation. The combination of KD and Bevacizumab (Bev), a VEGF inhibitor, is considered to further reduce the supply of glucose to the tumor. The metabolite changes in U87 glioblastoma mouse models treated with KD and/or Bev were examined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The combination therapy of KD and Bev showed a decrease in the rate of tumor growth and an increase in the survival time of mice, although KD alone did not have survival benefit. In the metabolome analysis, the pattern of changes for most amino acids are similar between tumor and brain tissues, however, some amino acids such as aspartic acid and glutamic acid were different between tumors and brain tissues. The KD enhanced the anti-tumor efficacy of Bev in a glioblastoma intracranial implantation mouse model, based on lowest levels of microvascular density (CD31) and cellular proliferation markers (Ki-67 and CCND1) in KD + Bev tumors compared to the other groups. These results suggested that KD combined with Bev may be a useful treatment strategy for patients with GBM.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Dieta Cetogênica , Glioblastoma/terapia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Terapia Combinada , Dieta Cetogênica/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/mortalidade , Glicólise , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Transplante de Neoplasias , Análise de Sobrevida
15.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 9(1): 16, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468252

RESUMO

Cancer cells optimize nutrient utilization to supply energetic and biosynthetic pathways. This metabolic process also includes redox maintenance and epigenetic regulation through nucleic acid and protein methylation, which enhance tumorigenicity and clinical resistance. However, less is known about how cancer cells exhibit metabolic flexibility to sustain cell growth and survival from nutrient starvation. Here, we find that serine and glycine levels were higher in low-nutrient regions of tumors in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients than they were in other regions. Metabolic and functional studies in GBM cells demonstrated that serine availability and one-carbon metabolism support glioma cell survival following glutamine deprivation. Serine synthesis was mediated through autophagy rather than glycolysis. Gene expression analysis identified upregulation of methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 2 (MTHFD2) to regulate one-carbon metabolism. In clinical samples, MTHFD2 expression was highest in the nutrient-poor areas around "pseudopalisading necrosis." Genetic suppression of MTHFD2 and autophagy inhibition caused tumor cell death and growth inhibition of glioma cells upon glutamine deprivation. These results highlight a critical role for serine-dependent one-carbon metabolism in surviving glutamine starvation and suggest new therapeutic targets for glioma cells adapting to a low-nutrient microenvironment.

16.
J Cardiol ; 77(6): 645-651, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent reports have revealed that patients who experienced early rehospitalization for heart failure (HF) had worse prognoses in terms of all-cause and cardiovascular deaths as compared to those who did not. However, precipitating factors for early rehospitalization for HF remain unknown. In this study, we assessed the precipitating factors for early rehospitalization and their impact in patients with HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We consecutively included 242 patients (mean age: 80.4 years, females: 46.3%) with a history of rehospitalization for HF. They were divided into 2 groups: the early rehospitalization group (71 patients who were readmitted within 3 months of discharge) and the late rehospitalization group (171 patients who were readmitted after more than 3 months following discharge). During the mean follow-up period of 1,144 days (range: 857-1,417 days), 121 patients (50.0%) died. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients in the early rehospitalization group had worse prognosis (all-cause death and cardiovascular death) than those in the late rehospitalization group (log-rank p<0.001). As the major precipitating factor for rehospitalization, poor compliance with the doctor's instructions on fluid and physical activity restrictions (determined by the patients or their families admittance of non-compliance with the instructions given at the time of discharge) was higher in the early rehospitalization group than in the late rehospitalization group [poor compliance with fluid restriction: 19.7% vs. 7.6% (p = 0.006), poor compliance with physical activity restriction: 21.1% vs. 9.4% (p = 0.013)]. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that early hospital readmission in patients with HF was associated with higher mortality rates. Compared to late rehospitalization, precipitating factors for early rehospitalization were more strongly dependent on the self-care behaviors of the patients. A more effective approach, such as multidisciplinary intervention, is essential to prevent early hospital readmission and subsequent poor prognosis.

17.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 28(6): 630-642, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879149

RESUMO

AIM: The bioactive lipid, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), has various roles in the physiology and pathophysiology of many diseases. There are five S1P receptors; however, the role of each S1P receptor in atherogenesis is still obscure. Here we investigated the contribution of S1P receptor 2 (S1P2) to atherogenesis by using a specific S1P2 antagonist, ONO-5430514, in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/- ) mice. METHODS: Apoe-/- mice fed with a western-type diet (WTD) received ONO-5430514 (30 mg/kg/day) or vehicle. To examine the effect on atherogenesis, Sudan IV staining, histological analysis, qPCR, and vascular reactivity assay was performed. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used for in vitro experiments. RESULTS: WTD-fed Apoe-/- mice had significantly higher S1P2 expression in the aorta compared with wild-type mice. S1P2 antagonist treatment for 20 weeks reduced atherosclerotic lesion development (p<0.05). S1P2 antagonist treatment for 8 weeks ameliorated endothelial dysfunction (p<0.05) accompanied with significant reduction of lipid deposition, macrophage accumulation, and inflammatory molecule expression in the aorta compared with vehicle. S1P2 antagonist attenuated the phosphorylation of JNK in the abdominal aorta compared with vehicle (p<0.05). In HUVEC, S1P promoted inflammatory molecule expression such as MCP-1 and VCAM-1 (p<0.001), which was attenuated by S1P2 antagonist or a JNK inhibitor (p<0.01). S1P2 antagonist also inhibited S1P-induced JNK phosphorylation in HUVEC (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that an S1P2 antagonist attenuates endothelial dysfunction and prevents atherogenesis. S1P2, which promotes inflammatory activation of endothelial cells, might be a therapeutic target for atherosclerosis.

18.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 534: 687-693, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic remodeling in cardiomyocytes is deeply associated with the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF). Glutaminolysis is an anaplerotic pathway that incorporates α-ketoglutarate (αKG) derived from glutamine into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. It is well known that cancer cells depend on glutamine for their increased energy demand and proliferation; however, the physiological roles of glutamine metabolism in failing hearts remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the regulatory mechanisms and biological effects of glutamine metabolism in oxidative stress-induced failing myocardium. METHODS AND RESULTS: The intracellular levels of glutamine, glutamate, and αKG were significantly decreased by H2O2 stimulation in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes (RNCMs). To better understand the metabolic flux in failing myocardium, we performed a stable isotope tracing study and found that glutaminolysis was upregulated in RNCMs under oxidative stress. Consistent with this, the enzymatic activity of glutaminase (Gls), which converts glutamine to glutamate, was augmented in RNCMs treated with H2O2. These findings suggest that glutamine anaplerosis is enhanced in cardiomyocytes under oxidative stress to compensate for the reduction of αKG. Furthermore, the inhibition of Gls reduced cardiac cell viability, ATP production, and glutathione (GSH) synthesis in RNCMs with H2O2 stimulation. Finally, we evaluated the effects of αKG on failing myocardium and observed that dimethyl α-ketoglutarate (DMKG) suppressed oxidative stress-induced cell death likely due to the enhancement of intracellular ATP and GSH levels. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that under oxidative stress, glutaminolysis is upregulated to compensate for the loss of αKG and its replenishment into the TCA cycle, thereby exerting cardioprotective effects by maintaining ATP and GSH levels. Modulation of glutamine metabolism in failing hearts might provide a new therapeutic strategy for HF.


Assuntos
Glutamina/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Metabolismo Energético , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Glutaminase/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Ácidos Cetoglutáricos/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos
19.
Brain Dev ; 43(2): 294-302, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disease caused by homozygous deletion of SMN1 exons 7 and 8. However, exon 8 is retained in some cases, where SMN2 exon 7 recombines with SMN1 exon 8, forming a hybrid SMN gene. It remains unknown how the hybrid SMN gene contribute to the SMA phenotype. METHOD: We analyzed 515 patients with clinical suspicion for SMA. SMN1 exons 7 and 8 deletion was detected by PCR followed by enzyme digestion. Hybrid SMN genes were further analyzed by nucleotide sequencing. SMN2 copy number was determined by real-time PCR. RESULTS: SMN1 exon 7 was deleted in 228 out of 515 patients, and SMN1 exon 8 was also deleted in 204 out of the 228 patients. The remaining 24 patients were judged to carry a hybrid SMN gene. In the patients with SMN1 exon 7 deletion, the frequency of the severe phenotype was significantly lower in the patients with hybrid SMN gene than in the patients without hybrid SMN gene. However, as for the distribution of SMN2 exon 7 copy number among the clinical phenotypes, there was no significant difference between both groups of SMA patients with or without hybrid SMN gene. CONCLUSION: Hybrid SMN genes are not rare in Japanese SMA patients, and it appears to be associated with a less severe phenotype. The phenotype of patients with hybrid SMN gene was determined by the copy number of SMN2 exon 7, as similarly for the patients without hybrid SMN gene.

20.
Int J Neonatal Screen ; 6(2): 43, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073034

RESUMO

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common neuromuscular disease with autosomal recessive inheritance. The disease gene, SMN1, is homozygously deleted in 95% of SMA patients. Although SMA has been an incurable disease, treatment in infancy with newly developed drugs has dramatically improved the disease severity. Thus, there is a strong rationale for newborn and carrier screening for SMA, although implementing SMA carrier screening in the general population is controversial. We previously developed a simple, accurate newborn SMA screening system to detect homozygous SMN1 deletions using dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper. Here, we modified our previous system to detect the heterozygous deletions of SMN1, which indicates SMA carrier status. The system involves a calibrator-normalized relative quantification method using quantitative nested PCR technology. Our system clearly separated the DBS samples with one SMN1 copy (carrier status with a heterozygous deletion of SMN1) from the DBS samples with two SMN1 copies (non-carrier status with no deletion of SMN1). We also analyzed DBS samples from SMA families, confirmed SMA in the affected children, and determined the carrier status of their parents based on the SMN1 copy number. In conclusion, our system will provide essential information for risk assessment and genetic counseling, at least for SMA families.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...