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1.
Chest ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The simplified pulmonary embolism severity index (sPESI) score is a practical score for identification of low-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) patients, although it has not been applied in active cancer patients. The current study aimed to evaluate the utility of sPESI score for PE patients with active cancer. METHODS: The COMMAND VTE Registry is a multicenter registry enrolling consecutive patients with acute symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE). The current study population consisted of 368 PE patients with active cancer. The 30-day clinical outcomes were compared between the patients with sPESI score=1 and patients with sPESI score ≥2. RESULTS: Overall, 37 (10%) patients died during 30 days after diagnosis. The cumulative 30-day incidences of mortality, and PE-related death were lower in the patients with sPESI score=1 than in the patients with sPESI score ≥2 (6.3% versus 13.1%, log rank P=0.03, and 0.7% versus 3.9%, log rank P=0.046). Among patients with sPESI score=1, the predominant cause of deaths was cancer. There were no significant differences in the cumulative 30-day incidence of recurrent VTE and major bleeding between the 2 groups (3.9% versus 5.6%, log rank P=0.46, and 6.4% versus 4.5%, log rank P=0.45). CONCLUSIONS: Among PE patients with active cancer, patients with sPESI score=1 had a lower 30-day mortality rate compared with patients with sPESI score ≥2, and they showed a very low PE-related mortality risk, although overall mortality rate remained high due to cancer-related mortality. They also showed relatively high risks for recurrence and major bleeding, suggesting the need for careful follow-up.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571121

RESUMO

The relationship between D-dimer level at diagnosis and long-term clinical outcomes has not been fully evaluated in venous thromboembolism (VTE). The COMMAND VTE Registry is a multicenter registry enrolling consecutive acute symptomatic VTE patients in Japan. Patients with available D-dimer levels at diagnosis (N = 2852) were divided into 4 groups according to the D-dimer levels; Quartile 1 (0.0-4.9 µg/mL): N = 682, Quartile 2 (5.0-9.9 µg/mL) N = 694, Quartile 3 (10.0-19.9 µg/mL) N = 710, and Quartile 4 (≥ 20.0 µg/mL): N = 766. The cumulative incidence of all-cause death was higher in Quartile 4 throughout the entire follow-up period (19.9%, 24.9%, 28.8%, and 41.5% at 5-year, P < 0.0001), as well as both within and beyond 30-day. After adjustment, the excess risk of Quartile 4 relative to Quartile 1 for all-cause death remained significant (HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.29-2.03). Similarly, the excess risk of Quartile 4 relative to Quartile 1 for recurrent VTE was significant (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.02-2.41), which was more prominent in the cancer subgroup. The dominant causes of death in Quartile 4 were pulmonary embolism within 30-day, and cancer beyond 30-day. In conclusions, in VTE patients, elevated D-dimer levels at diagnosis were associated with the increased risk for both short-term and long-term mortality. The higher mortality risk of patients with highest D-dimer levels was driven by the higher risk for fatal PE within 30-day, and by the higher risk for cancer death beyond 30-day. Elevated D-dimer levels were also associated with the increased risk for long-term recurrent VTE, which was more prominent in patients with active cancer.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628575

RESUMO

Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is an established method for diagnosing physiological coronary artery stenosis. A method for computing FFR using coronary computed tomography (CT) images was recently developed. However, its calculation requires off-site supercomputer analysis. Here, we report the preliminary result of a method using simple estimation of boundary conditions. The lumen boundaries of the coronary arteries were semi-automatically delineated using full width at half maximum of CT number profiles. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of the blood flow was performed using the boundary conditions of a fixed pressure at the coronary ostium and flow rates at each outlet. The total inflow at the coronary ostium was estimated based on the uniform wall shear stress hypothesis and corrected using a hyperemic multiplier to gain a hyperemic flow rate. The flow distribution from a parent vessel to the downstream daughter vessels was determined according to Murray's law. FFR estimated by CFD was calculated as FFRCFD = Pd/Pa. We collected patients who underwent coronary CT and coronary angiography followed by invasively measured FFR and compared FFRCFD with FFR. Sensitivity, specificity, and correlations were assessed. A total of 48 patients and 72 arteries were assessed. The correlation coefficient of FFRCFD with FFR was 0.56. The cut-off value was ≤ 0.80, sensitivity was 59.1%, and specificity was 94.0%. CFD-based FFR using simple boundary conditions for on-site clinical computation provided FFRCFD values that were moderately correlated with invasively measured FFR.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222979, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is criticized by some as an expensive treatment in super-elder patients with limited life expectancy. However, there is a knowledge gap regarding the magnitude of clinical benefit provided by TAVI in comparison with conservative management in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) in real clinical practice, which would be important in the decision making for TAVI. METHODS: We combined two independent registries, namely CURRENT AS and K-TAVI registries. CURRENT AS was a multicenter registry enrolling 3815 consecutive patients with severe AS irrespective to treatment modalities between January 2003 and December 2011. K-TAVI was a multicenter, prospective registry including 449 consecutive patients with severe AS, who underwent TAVI with SAPIEN XT balloon-expandable valves between October 2013 and June 2016. In these 2 registries, 449 patients received TAVI and 894 patients were managed with conservative strategy. We conducted propensity score matching and finally obtained a cohort of 556 patients (278 patients for each group) for the analysis. The primary outcome measures were all-cause death and heart failure (HF) hospitalization at 2-year. RESULTS: The cumulative 2-year incidences of all-cause death and HF hospitalization were significantly lower in the TAVI group than in the conservative group (16.8% versus 36.6%, P<0.001, and 10.7% versus 37.2%, P<0.001). After adjusting the residual confounders, TAVI reduced the risks of all-cause death (HR, 0.46; 95%CI, 0.32-0.69; P = 0.0001) and HF hospitalizations (HR, 0.25; 95%CI, 0.16-0.40; P<0.0001) compared with conservative strategy. There was no difference in the cumulative incidence of non-cardiovascular death between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: TAVI in the early Japanese experience was associated with striking risk reduction for all-cause death as well as HF hospitalization as compared with the historical cohort of patients with severe AS who were managed conservatively just before introduction of TAVI in Japan.

5.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 12(8): e008905, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal cutoff value of fractional flow reserve (FFR) derived from coronary computed tomography angiography (FFRCT) remains unclear. METHODS: The current study population consisted of 93 patients with 139 vessels, who had suspected coronary artery disease by computed tomography angiography and underwent invasive FFR. We evaluated diagnostic performance of FFRCT according to different FFRCT cutoff values and FFRCT ranges with invasive FFR ≤0.80 as the reference standard. RESULTS: In per-vessel analysis, median invasive FFR was 0.85 (interquartile range, 0.75-0.90), and 57 out of 139 vessels (41%) showed hemodynamically significant stenosis (≤0.80). Median FFRCT was 0.77 (interquartile range, 0.66-0.84; mean difference [invasive FFR-FFRCT], 0.06±0.11). Per-vessel accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 73%, 95%, 59%, 61%, and 94% for the cutoff value of FFRCT ≤0.80, 81%, 86%, 78%, 73%, and 89% for FFRCT ≤0.75, and 83%, 74%, 89%, 82%, and 83% for FFRCT ≤0.70, respectively. Per-vessel accuracy across the different ranges of FFRCT ≤0.60, 0.61 to 0.70, 0.71 to 0.80, 0.81 to 0.90, and >0.90 with the cutoff value of FFRCT ≤0.80 were 95%, 74%, 32%, 93%, and 100%, respectively. Setting a gray zone of FFRCT 0.71 to 0.80 provided high positive predictive value (82%; n=42/51) in the range of FFRCT ≤0.70 and high negative predictive value (94%; n=48/51) in FFRCT >0.80. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that referral to invasive coronary angiography should be considered individually in the range of FFRCT 0.71 to 0.80, whereas dichotomous decision could be made in FFRCT ≤0.70 and >0.80. Future prospective studies evaluating clinical outcomes are needed to establish optimal FFRCT-based diagnostic algorithm.

6.
Circ J ; 83(11): 2271-2281, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data on the management and prognosis of cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE), leading to uncertainty about optimal management strategies.Methods and Results:The COMMAND VTE Registry is a multicenter registry enrolling 3,027 consecutive acute symptomatic VTE patients in Japan between 2010 and 2014. We divided the entire cohort into 3 groups: active cancer (n=695, 23%), history of cancer (n=243, 8%), and no history of cancer (n=2089, 69%). The rate of anticoagulation discontinuation was higher in patients with active cancer (43.5%, 27.0%, and 27.0%, respectively, at 1 year, P<0.001). The cumulative 5-year incidences of recurrent VTE, major bleeding, and all-cause death were higher in patients with active cancer (recurrent VTE: 17.7%, 10.2%, and 8.6%, P<0.001; major bleeding: 26.6%, 8.8%, and 9.3%, P<0.001; all-cause death: 73.1%, 28.6%, 14.6%, P<0.001). Among the 4 groups classified according to active cancer status, the cumulative 1-year incidence of recurrent VTE was higher in the metastasis group (terminal stage group: 6.4%, metastasis group: 22.1%, under chemotherapy group: 10.8%, and other group: 5.8%, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In a current real-world VTE registry, patients with active cancer had higher risk for VTE recurrence, bleeding, and death, with variations according to cancer status, than patients without active cancer. Anticoagulation therapy was frequently discontinued prematurely in patients with active cancer in discordance with current guideline recommendations.

7.
Circulation ; 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560216

RESUMO

Optimal antithrombotic therapy after percutaneous coronary interventions in high bleeding risk (HBR) patients is an important issue under active discussion. However, no previous study has compared different dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) duration in HBR patients. Recently, we have reported the STOPDAPT-2 (Short and optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy after everolimus-eluting cobalt-chromium stent) trial, suggesting the benefit of 1-month DAPT over 12-month DAPT with reduction of bleeding events without increase in cardiovascular events in an all-comer population1. Very short DAPT might be beneficial particularly in HBR patients, and therefore, we conducted a post-hoc subgroup analysis based on the recently proposed ARC (academic research consortium) HBR criteria2.

8.
Circ J ; 83(10): 2061-2069, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with severe coronary artery disease (CAD) requiring coronary revascularization, the prevalence of surgical ineligibility and its clinical effect on long-term outcomes remain unclear.Methods and Results:Among 15,939 patients with first coronary revascularization in the CREDO-Kyoto percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)/coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) registry cohort-2, we identified 3,982 patients with triple-vessel or left main disease (PCI: n=2,188, and CABG: n=1,794). Surgical ineligibility as documented in hospital charts was present in 142 (6.5%) of 2,188 PCI-patients, which was mainly related to comorbidities and advanced age. The cumulative 5-year incidence of the primary outcome measure (all-cause death/myocardial infarction/stroke) was much higher in PCI-patients with surgical ineligibility than in PCI-patients without surgical ineligibility and in CABG-patients (52.5%, 27.6%, and 24.0%, respectively, log-rank P<0.001). After adjusting for confounders, the excess risk of PCI-patients with surgical ineligibility relative to CABG-patients was substantial (hazard ratio [HR] 1.97, 95% CI 1.51-2.58, P<0.001), while the excess risk of PCI-patients without surgical ineligibility relative to CABG-patients was modest, but remained significant (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.19-1.59, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with severe CAD, PCI-patients with surgical ineligibility had worse long-term outcomes as compared with those without surgical ineligibility and CABG-patients.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389659

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stent only compared with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with triple-vessel disease. BACKGROUND: Selection between PCI and CABG is still a clinically relevant issue in the management of patients with multi-vessel coronary artery disease. METHODS: Among 15,939 patients enrolled in the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG registry/cohort-2, the current study population consisted of 2,193 patients who underwent elective multi-vessel coronary revascularization including left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) either by PCI with sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) only (N = 945) or CABG (N = 1,248). RESULTS: The cumulative 5-year incidence of and the adjusted risk for the primary outcome measure (a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction [MI], or stroke) were not significantly different between PCI and CABG groups (22.6% vs. 23.0%, p = .40, and HR: 1.13, 95%CI: 0.91-1.40, p = .26). The risk of PCI relative to CABG for all-cause death and stroke was also insignificant (HR: 1.19, 95%CI: 0.92-1.53, p = .19; HR: 0.89, 95%CI: 0.62-1.27, p = .51). The adjusted 5-year risk for MI, hospitalization for heart failure (HF), any coronary revascularization and major bleeding was significantly different between the groups (HR: 1.59, 95%CI: 1.10-2.30, p = .01; HR: 1.49, 95%CI: 1.05-2.11, p = .02; HR: 3.70, 95%CI: 2.91-4.70, p < .0001; HR: 0.18, 95%CI: 0.14-0.22, p < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients who underwent coronary revascularization for multiple vessels including LAD, PCI using SES as compared with CABG was associated with a comparable 5-year risk for death/MI/stroke as well as for mortality, but with a markedly higher risk for any coronary revascularization.

10.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(8): e005460, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has not been yet adequately addressed whether the addition of the nonstatin LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol)-lowering agents on top of statins has the same magnitude of risk reduction in the cardiovascular events as compared with more-intensive statin therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs (randomized controlled trials) comparing more- versus less-intensive lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) on clinical outcomes in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk. We included 23 studies involving 133 037 patients (more-intensive LLT: 67 691 patients and less-intensive LLT: 65 346 patients). We evaluated 3 types of more- versus less-intensive LLT including more versus less statins (57 672 patients), combination therapy of ezetimibe versus statins alone (20 688 patients), or a PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9) inhibitor with statins versus statins alone (54 677 patients). The odds for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; equivalent to the composite of coronary heart death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or coronary revascularization) were significantly lower in the more-intensive LLT group compared with the less-intensive LLT group in the entire study population (odds ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.79-0.88; P<0.001), and in all the 3 categories of more-intensive LLT strategies (more-intensive statin therapy: odds ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.76-0.90; P<0.001, ezetimibe: odds ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85-0.96; P<0.001, and PCSK9 inhibitors: odds ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.73-0.90; P<0.001) with numerically greater relative odds reduction by more-intensive statin therapy and PCSK9 inhibitors than by ezetimibe. Odds reduction for MACE per 20 mg/dL LDL-C reduction was also different across the 3 types of more-intensive LLT (more-intensive statin therapy: 17.4%, ezetimibe: 11.0%, and PCSK9 inhibitors: 6.6%). CONCLUSIONS: In this meta-analysis, more-intensive LLT as compared with less-intensive LLT was associated with significant odds reduction for MACE in the entire study population and in all the 3 categories of more-intensive LLT such as more-intensive statin therapy, ezetimibe, and PCSK9 inhibitors. However, overall odds reduction for MACE and odds reduction for MACE per 20 mg/dL LDL-C reduction were different across the 3 types of more-intensive LLT. Registration: URLs: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/ and http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr. Unique identifiers: PROSPERO: CRD42018081196, and UMIN-CTR: R000036229.

11.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 48(4): 587-595, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278648

RESUMO

There is still uncertainty about the optimal usage of thrombolysis for acute pulmonary embolisms (PEs), leading to a widely varying usage in the real world. The COMMAND VTE Registry is a multicenter retrospective registry enrolling consecutive patients with acute symptomatic venous thromboembolisms (VTEs) in Japan. The present study population consisted of 1549 patients with PEs treated with tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) thrombolysis (N = 180, 12%) or without thrombolysis (N = 1369). Thrombolysis with t-PA was implemented in 33% of patients with severe PEs, and 9.2% of patients with mild PEs with a wide variation across the participating centers. Patients with t-PA thrombolysis were younger, and less frequently had active cancer, history of major bleeding, and anemia. At 30 days, t-PA thrombolysis as compared to no thrombolysis was associated with similar mortality rates (5.0% vs. 6.9%, P = 0.33), but a lower adjusted mortality risk (OR 0.41; 95% CI 0.18-0.90, P = 0.03), while it was associated with a trend for higher rates of major bleeding (5.6% vs. 2.9%, P = 0.06) and a significantly higher adjusted risk for major bleeding (OR 2.39; 95% CI 1.06-5.36, P = 0.03). In patients with severe PEs, the mortality rates at 30 days were significantly lower in the t-PA thrombolysis group than no thrombolysis group (15% vs. 37%, P = 0.006). In the present real-world VTE registry in Japan, t-PA thrombolysis was not infrequently implemented, not only in patients with severe PEs, but also in patients with mild PEs. A substantial mortality risk reduction might be suggested with t-PA thrombolysis in patients with severe PEs.

12.
Circ J ; 83(9): 1944-1953, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has not been a previous report on the long-term outcomes of those patients who refuse aortic valve replacement (AVR) despite physicians' recommendations.Methods and Results:Among 3,815 consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) enrolled in the CURRENT AS registry, the study population comprised 2,005 symptomatic patients, who were subdivided into 3 groups by their treatment strategy and the reasons for conservative strategy (Initial AVR group: n=905; Patient rejection group: n=256; Physician judgment group, n=844). The primary outcome measure was a composite of aortic valve-related death and heart failure hospitalization. Patients in the patient rejection group as compared with those in the physician judgment group were younger, and had less comorbidities, and lower surgical risk scores. The cumulative 5-year incidence of the primary outcome measure in the patient rejection group was markedly higher than that in the initial AVR group, and was similar to that in the physician judgment group (60.7%, 19.0%, and 66.4%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Patient rejection was the reason for non-referral to AVR in nearly one-quarter of the symptomatic patients with severe AS who were managed conservatively. The dismal outcome in patients who refused AVR was similar to that in patients who were not referred to AVR based on physician judgment despite less comorbidities and lower surgical risk scores in the former than in the latter.

13.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(6): e007822, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177822

RESUMO

Background The risk factors and long-term clinical outcomes of patients with definite stent thrombosis (ST) after second-generation drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation have not yet been adequately assessed. Methods and Results The REAL-ST (Retrospective Multicenter Registry of ST After First- and Second-Generation DES Implantation) included 313 definite ST of second-generation DES (early ST, n=179; late ST, n=66; very late ST, n=68). Four patients without definite ST of second-generation DES were identified as control patients for each ST case. Risk factors of definite ST were mostly different according to the timing of ST: ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, and unstable angina at presentation, current smoking, left ventricular ejection fraction <40%, prior percutaneous coronary intervention, stent overlap, severely calcified lesion, left main coronary artery lesion, proximal left anterior descending lesion, postdiameter stenosis ≥20%, for early ST; age <70 years, ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction at presentation, hemodialysis, left ventricular ejection fraction <40%, in-stent restenosis, and severely calcified lesion for late ST; and proximal left anterior descending lesion and in-stent restenosis for very late ST. Cumulative 4-year incidence of death after the index ST events was significantly higher in the ST patients than control patients (33.0% versus 12.3%, P<0.001 for early ST versus control; 30.6% versus 14.2%, P<0.001 for late ST versus control; and 28.0% versus 13.0%, P<0.001 for very late ST versus control, respectively). Conclusions Risk factors of definite ST after second-generation DES implantation were mostly different according to the timing of ST. Definite ST patients showed unfavorable long-term clinical outcomes compared with those without definite ST. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.umin.ac.jp . Unique identifier: UMIN000025181.

14.
Thromb Haemost ; 119(9): 1498-1507, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data assessing the risk for bleeding on anticoagulation therapy beyond the acute phase in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE). The present study aimed to identify risk factors for major bleeding during prolonged anticoagulation therapy in VTE patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The COMMAND VTE Registry is a multicenter registry enrolling 3,027 consecutive patients with acute symptomatic VTE. The current study population consisted of 2,728 patients who received anticoagulation therapy beyond the acute phase, after excluding those patients with major bleeding events (n = 48), death (n = 66), or loss to follow-up (n = 32) during the initial parenteral anticoagulation period within 10 days after diagnosis, and those without anticoagulation therapy beyond 10 days after diagnosis (n = 153). RESULTS: During the median follow-up period of 555 days, major bleeding occurred in 189 patients (70 patients within 3 months; 119 patients beyond 3 months) with fatal bleeding in 24 patients (13%). The cumulative incidence of major bleeding was 2.7% at 3 months, 5.2% at 1 year, and 11.8% at 5 years. Active cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 3.06, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.23-4.18), previous major bleeding (HR, 2.38, 95% CI, 1.51-3.59), anemia (HR, 1.75, 95% CI, 1.27-2.43), thrombocytopenia (HR, 2.11, 95% CI, 1.27-3.33), and age ≥75 years (HR, 1.64, 95% CI, 1.22-2.20) were independently associated with an increased risk for major bleeding by the multivariable Cox regression model. CONCLUSION: Major bleeding events were not uncommon during prolonged anticoagulation therapy in real-world VTE patients. Active cancer, previous major bleeding, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and old age were the independent risk factors for major bleeding.

15.
JAMA ; 321(24): 2414-2427, 2019 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237644

RESUMO

Importance: Very short mandatory dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with a drug-eluting stent may be an attractive option. Objective: To test the hypothesis of noninferiority of 1 month of DAPT compared with standard 12 months of DAPT for a composite end point of cardiovascular and bleeding events. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical trial enrolling 3045 patients who underwent PCI at 90 hospitals in Japan from December 2015 through December 2017. Final 1-year clinical follow-up was completed in January 2019. Interventions: Patients were randomized either to 1 month of DAPT followed by clopidogrel monotherapy (n=1523) or to 12 months of DAPT with aspirin and clopidogrel (n=1522). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, definite stent thrombosis, or major or minor bleeding at 12 months, with a relative noninferiority margin of 50%. The major secondary cardiovascular end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, MI, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, or definite stent thrombosis and the major secondary bleeding end point was major or minor bleeding. Results: Among 3045 patients randomized, 36 withdrew consent; of 3009 remaining, 2974 (99%) completed the trial. One-month DAPT was both noninferior and superior to 12-month DAPT for the primary end point, occurring in 2.36% with 1-month DAPT and 3.70% with 12-month DAPT (absolute difference, -1.34% [95% CI, -2.57% to -0.11%]; hazard ratio [HR], 0.64 [95% CI, 0.42-0.98]), meeting criteria for noninferiority (P < .001) and for superiority (P = .04). The major secondary cardiovascular end point occurred in 1.96% with 1-month DAPT and 2.51% with 12-month DAPT (absolute difference, -0.55% [95% CI, -1.62% to 0.52%]; HR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.49-1.29]), meeting criteria for noninferiority (P = .005) but not for superiority (P = .34). The major secondary bleeding end point occurred in 0.41% with 1-month DAPT and 1.54% with 12-month DAPT (absolute difference, -1.13% [95% CI, -1.84% to -0.42%]; HR, 0.26 [95% CI, 0.11-0.64]; P = .004 for superiority). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients undergoing PCI, 1 month of DAPT followed by clopidogrel monotherapy, compared with 12 months of DAPT with aspirin and clopidogrel, resulted in a significantly lower rate of a composite of cardiovascular and bleeding events, meeting criteria for both noninferiority and superiority. These findings suggest that a shorter duration of DAPT may provide benefit, although given study limitations, additional research is needed in other populations. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02619760.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico
16.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 5(1): 39, 2019 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171787

RESUMO

ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is the most acute manifestation of coronary artery disease and is associated with great morbidity and mortality. A complete thrombotic occlusion developing from an atherosclerotic plaque in an epicardial coronary vessel is the cause of STEMI in the majority of cases. Early diagnosis and immediate reperfusion are the most effective ways to limit myocardial ischaemia and infarct size and thereby reduce the risk of post-STEMI complications and heart failure. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become the preferred reperfusion strategy in patients with STEMI; if PCI cannot be performed within 120 minutes of STEMI diagnosis, fibrinolysis therapy should be administered to dissolve the occluding thrombus. The initiation of networks to provide around-the-clock cardiac catheterization availability and the generation of standard operating procedures within hospital systems have helped to reduce the time to reperfusion therapy. Together with new advances in antithrombotic therapy and preventive measures, these developments have resulted in a decrease in mortality from STEMI. However, a substantial amount of patients still experience recurrent cardiovascular events after STEMI. New insights have been gained regarding the pathophysiology of STEMI and feed into the development of new treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Troponina I/análise , Troponina I/sangue
17.
Int J Cardiol ; 292: 198-204, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The duration of anticoagulation therapy after venous thromboembolism (VTE) should be based on the balance between risks of recurrent VTE and bleeding. However, there is uncertainty about the impact of these events on subsequent mortality. METHODS: We evaluated the association of recurrent VTE and major bleeding events with mortality among 3026 patients in the COMMAND VTE Registry. We estimated the risks of the recurrent VTE events and the major bleeding events for subsequent mortality by the time-updated multivariable Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: During the median follow-up period of 1218 days, 225 patients developed recurrent VTE events, 274 patients developed major bleeding events, and 763 patients died. The multivariable Cox proportional hazard model revealed that both the recurrent VTE and major bleeding events were strongly associated with subsequent mortality risk (recurrent VTE: HR 3.24, 95%CI 2.57-4.08, P < 0.001; major bleeding: HR 3.53, 95%CI 2.88-4.31, P < 0.001). Both the recurrent pulmonary embolism (PE) and recurrent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) events were associated with subsequent mortality risk (recurrent PE events: HR 4.42, 95%CI 3.28-5.95, P < 0.001; recurrent DVT events: HR 2.42, 95%CI 1.75-3.36, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In the real-world patients with VTE, both the recurrent VTE events and the major bleeding events were strongly associated with subsequent mortality risk with the comparable effect size. The recurrent PE and recurrent DVT events were also associated with increased risks for mortality, although the magnitude of the effect on mortality was numerically greater with the recurrent PE events than with the recurrent DVT events.

18.
Radiology ; 292(2): 343-351, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184558

RESUMO

Background Coronary CT angiography with noninvasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) predicts lesion-specific ischemia when compared with invasive FFR. The longer term prognostic value of CT-derived FFR (FFRCT) is unknown. Purpose To determine the prognostic value of FFRCT when compared with coronary CT angiography and describe the relationship of the numeric value of FFRCT with outcomes. Materials and Methods This prospective subanalysis of the NXT study (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01757678) evaluated participants suspected of having stable coronary artery disease who were referred for invasive angiography and who underwent FFR, coronary CT angiography, and FFRCT. The incidence of the composite primary end point of death, myocardial infarction, and any revascularization and the composite secondary end point of major adverse cardiac events (MACE: cardiac death, myocardial infarction, unplanned revascularization) were compared for an FFRCT of 0.8 or less versus stenosis of 50% or greater on coronary CT angiograms, with treating physicians blinded to the FFRCT result. Results Long-term outcomes were obtained in 206 individuals (age, 64 years ± 9.5), including 64% men. At median follow-up of 4.7 years, there were no cardiac deaths or myocardial infarctions in participants with normal FFRCT. The incidence of the primary end point was more frequent in participants with positive FFRCT compared with clinically significant stenosis at coronary CT angiography (73.4% [80 of 109] vs 48.7% [91 of 187], respectively; P < .001), with the majority of outcomes being planned revascularization. Corresponding hazard ratios (HRs) were 9.2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.1, 17; P < .001) for FFRCT and 5.9 (95% CI: 1.5, 24; P = .01) for coronary CT angiography. FFRCT was a superior predictor compared with coronary CT angiography for primary end point (C-index FFRCT, 0.76 vs coronary CT angiography, 0.54; P < .001) and MACE (FFRCT, 0.71 vs coronary CT angiography, 0.52; P = .001). Frequency of MACE was higher in participants with positive FFRCT compared with coronary CT angiography (15.6% [17 of 109] vs 10.2% [19 of 187], respectively; P = .02), driven by unplanned revascularization. MACE HR was 5.5 (95% CI: 1.6, 19; P = .006) for FFRCT and 2.0 (95% CI: 0.3, 14; P = .46) for coronary CT angiography. Each 0.05-unit FFRCT reduction was independently associated with greater incidence of primary end point (HR, 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4, 1.9; P < .001) and MACE (HR, 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.8; P < .001). Conclusion In stable patients referred for invasive angiography, a CT-derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT) value of 0.8 or less was a predictor of long-term outcomes driven by planned and unplanned revascularization and was superior to clinically significant stenosis on coronary CT angiograms. Additionally, the numeric value of FFRCT was an independent predictor of outcomes. © RSNA, 2019 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Dennie and Rubens in this issue.

19.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; : 2048872619827471, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rate of intracranial haemorrhage after an acute coronary syndrome has been studied in detail in the era of thrombolysis; however, in the contemporary era of percutaneous coronary intervention, most of the data have been derived from clinical trials. With this background, we aim to analyse the incidence, timing, predictors and prognostic impact of post-discharge intracranial haemorrhage in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS: We analysed data from the BleeMACS registry (patients discharged for acute coronary syndrome and undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention from Europe, Asia and America, 2003-2014). Analyses were conducted using a competing risk framework. Uni and multivariate predictors of intracranial haemorrhage were assessed using the Fine-Gray proportional hazards regression analysis. The endpoint was 1-year post-discharge intracranial haemorrhage. RESULTS: Of 11,136 patients, 30 presented with intracranial haemorrhage during the first year (0.27%). The median time to intracranial haemorrhage was 150 days (interquartile range 55.7-319.5). The fatality rate of intracranial haemorrhage was very high (30%). After multivariate analysis, only age (subhazard ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.07) and prior stroke/transient ischaemic attack (hazard ratio 3.29, 95% confidence interval 1.36-8.00) were independently associated with a higher risk of intracranial haemorrhage. Hypertension showed a trend to associate with higher intracranial haemorrhage rate. The combination of older age (⩾75 years), prior stroke/transient ischaemic attack, and/or hypertension allowed us to identify most of the patients with intracranial haemorrhage (86.7%). The annual rate of intracranial haemorrhage was 0.1% in patients with no risk factors, 0.2% in those with one factor, 0.6% in those with two factors and 1.3% in those with three factors. CONCLUSION: The incidence of intracranial haemorrhage in the first year after an acute coronary syndrome treated with percutaneous coronary intervention is low. Advanced age, previous stroke/transient ischaemic attack, and hypertension are the main predictors of increased intracranial haemorrhage risk.

20.
Circ J ; 83(7): 1581-1589, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains controversial whether sex category is a risk for recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) and major bleeding among VTE patients.Methods and Results:The COMMAND VTE Registry is a multicenter registry enrolling 3,027 consecutive acute symptomatic VTE patients from 29 centers in Japan between January 2010 and August 2014. We compared the clinical characteristics and outcomes of men and women. Men accounted for 1,169 (39%) and women 1,858 (61%). Compared with women, men were younger (64.9±14.7 vs. 68.6±15.6 years old, P<0.001), more often had prior VTE (7.2% vs. 5.1%, P=0.02), and less often had transient risk factors for VTE (30% vs. 40%, P<0.001). The proportions of active cancer and pulmonary embolism were comparable between men and women (24% vs. 22%, P=0.26; 56% vs. 57%, P=0.48, respectively). The cumulative 3-year incidences of recurrent VTE, major bleeding, and all-cause death were not significantly different between men and women (7.0% vs. 8.6%, P=0.47; 10.6% vs. 9.2%, P=0.25; 25.2% vs. 23.4%, P=0.35, respectively). The adjusted risks of men relative to women for recurrent VTE and for major bleeding remained insignificant (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.63-1.09, P=0.17; HR 1.15, 95% CI 0.90-1.47, P=0.25, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In real-world VTE patients, the clinical characteristics differed between men and women, but there was not a large sex-related difference in the risks for recurrent VTE or major bleeding.

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