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Sci Adv ; 6(30): eaba1195, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743070


Immotile cilia sense extracellular signals such as fluid flow, but whether Ca2+ plays a role in flow sensing has been unclear. Here, we examined the role of ciliary Ca2+ in the flow sensing that initiates the breaking of left-right (L-R) symmetry in the mouse embryo. Intraciliary and cytoplasmic Ca2+ transients were detected in the crown cells at the node. These Ca2+ transients showed L-R asymmetry, which was lost in the absence of fluid flow or the PKD2 channel. Further characterization allowed classification of the Ca2+ transients into two types: cilium-derived, L-R-asymmetric transients (type 1) and cilium-independent transients without an L-R bias (type 2). Type 1 intraciliary transients occurred preferentially at the left posterior region of the node, where L-R symmetry breaking takes place. Suppression of intraciliary Ca2+ transients delayed L-R symmetry breaking. Our results implicate cilium-derived Ca2+ transients in crown cells in initiation of L-R symmetry breaking in the mouse embryo.

Ann Plast Surg ; 72(1): 71-4, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23804029


There have been many anatomical reports to date regarding the course of the facial nerve to the mimetic muscles. However, reports are relatively scarce on the detailed distribution of the terminal branches of the facial nerve to the mimetic muscles. In this study, we performed detailed examination of the terminal facial nerve branches to the mimetic muscles, particularly the branches terminating in the orbicularis oculi muscle and orbicularis oris muscle. Examination was performed on 25 Japanese adult autopsy cases, involving 25 hemifaces. The mean age was 87.4 years (range, 60-102 years). There were 12 men and 13 women (12 left hemifaces and 13 right hemifaces). In each case, the facial nerve was exposed through a preauricular skin incision. The main trunk of the facial nerve was dissected from the stylomastoid foramen. A microscope was used to dissect the terminal branches to the periphery and observe them. The course and distribution were examined for all terminal branches of the facial nerve. However, focus was placed on the course and distribution of the zygomatic branch, buccal branch, and mandibular branch to the orbicularis oculi muscle and orbicularis oris muscle. The temporal branch was distributed to the orbicularis oculi muscle in all cases and the marginal mandibular branch was distributed to the orbicularis oris muscle in all cases. The zygomatic branch was distributed to the orbicularis oculi muscle in all cases, but it was also distributed to the orbicularis oris muscle in 10 of 25 cases. The buccal branch was not distributed to the orbicularis oris muscle in 3 of 25 cases, and it was distributed to the orbicularis oculi muscle in 8 cases. There was no significant difference in the variations. The orbicularis oculi muscle and orbicularis oris muscle perform particularly important movements among the facial mimetic muscles. According to textbooks, the temporal branch and zygomatic branch innervate the orbicularis oculi muscle, and the buccal branch (or the buccal branch and marginal mandibular branch) innervates the orbicularis oris muscle. In this study, we performed dissection of the terminal facial nerve branches that terminate in the orbicularis oculi muscle and orbicularis oris muscle and performed detailed examination of their courses. The results revealed 5 multiple anomalies not in conventional books, and the movements of the muscles might be compensated.

Músculos Faciais/inervação , Nervo Facial/anatomia & histologia , Dissecação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
Congenit Anom (Kyoto) ; 52(3): 155-61, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22925216


Historical control data on rabbit prenatal developmental toxicity studies, performed between 1994-2010, were obtained from 20 laboratories, including 11 pharmaceutical and chemical companies and nine contract laboratories, in Japan. In this paper, data were incorporated from a laboratory if the information was based on 10 studies or more. Japanese White rabbits and New Zealand White rabbits were used for prenatal developmental toxicity studies. The data included maternal reproductive findings at terminal cesarean sections and fetal findings including spontaneous incidences of morphological alterations. No noticeable differences between strains or laboratories were observed in the maternal reproductive and fetal developmental data. The inter-laboratory variations in the incidences of fetal external, visceral, and skeletal alterations seem to be due to differences in the selection of observation parameters, observation criteria, and classification of the findings, and terminology of fetal alterations.

Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/etiologia , Teratogênios/toxicidade , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Feto/anormalidades , Feto/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Coelhos
J Toxicol Sci ; 34 Suppl 1: SP83-9, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19265293


The main focus of this study was to determine the optimal administration period concerning the toxic effects on ovarian morphological changes in the repeated dose toxicity study. In order to assess the morphological and functional changes induced in the ovary by cyclophosphamide (CP), the compound was administrated to female rats at dose levels of 0, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg for the repeated dose toxicity study for 2 or 4 weeks, and at 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg for the female fertility study from 2 weeks prior to mating to Day 7 of pregnancy. In the repeated dose toxicity study, increases in large sized atretic follicles, atrophy of corpora lutea were observed in the 20 mg/kg group in the 4-week study by the histopathological examination of the ovaries. There were no drug-related changes in the ovary in the 2-week study. In the female fertility study, the numbers of implantation were slightly decreased and the corpora lutea of pregnancy was not observed in the 20 mg/kg group. The dose-dependent increase in the incidence of post-implantation loss was observed, and no abnormalities were observed in the estrus cycle and mating in all treated groups. From these findings, the histopathological changes in the ovary are important endpoints for the evaluation of drug-induced ovarian damage as well as caesarean section. In conclusion, a 4-week administration period is sufficient to detect the ovarian toxicity of CP in the repeated dose toxicity study.

Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/toxicidade , Ciclofosfamida/toxicidade , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Animais , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/administração & dosagem , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Implantação do Embrião/efeitos dos fármacos , Perda do Embrião/induzido quimicamente , Embrião de Mamíferos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Estral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Japão , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Folículo Ovariano/patologia , Ovário/patologia , Gravidez , Parcerias Público-Privadas , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sociedades Científicas , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/patologia , Vagina/efeitos dos fármacos , Vagina/patologia
Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi ; 107(2): 84-7, 2003 Feb.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12647332


PURPOSE: To examine the correlation of the presence of meibomian gland dysfunction(MGD) with the incidence of superficial punctate keratopathy (SPK) after penetrating keratoplasty. SUBJECTS & METHODS: We studied 151 eyes of 141 patients that underwent penetrating keratoplasty. SPK and the presence of MGD were evaluated by slit-lamp examination. Tear function was evaluated by Schirmer test. RESULTS: Among 151 eyes investigated, 78 eyes had neither MGD nor hypolacrimation. The number of eyes with MGD only, with hypolacrimation only, or with both MGD and hypolacrimation was 34, 23, and 16. The presence of SPK after penetrating keratoplasty was correlated with the presence of MGD 1 month or 6 months post-surgery, but no correlation was observed with the presence of hypolacrimation. There was no interaction between the presence of MGD and hypolacrimation and the incidence of SPK. CONCLUSION: This study suggested that the active treatment of MGD is important in the post-surgery management of SPK.

Doenças da Córnea/etiologia , Ceratoplastia Penetrante , Glândulas Tarsais/fisiopatologia , Síndromes do Olho Seco/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias