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1.
Br J Haematol ; 2020 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386081

RESUMO

Previous genomic studies have revealed the genomic landscape of myeloma cells. Although some of the genomic abnormalities shown are believed to be correlated to the molecular pathogenesis of multiple myeloma and/or clinical outcome, these correlations are not fully understood. The aim of this study is to elucidate the correlation between genomic abnormalities and clinical characteristics by targeted capture sequencing in the Japanese multiple myeloma cohort. We analysed 154 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. The analysis revealed that the study cohort consisted of a less frequent hyperdiploid subtype (37·0%) with relatively high frequencies of KRAS mutation (36·4%) and IGH-CCND1 translocation (26·6%) compared with previous reports. Moreover, our targeted capture sequencing strategy was able to detect rare IGH-associated chromosomal translocations, such as IGH-CCND2 and IGH-MAFA. Interestingly, all 10 patients harboured MAX mutations accompanied by 14q23 deletion. The patients with del(17p) exhibited an unfavourable clinical outcome, and the presence of KRAS mutation was associated with shorter survival in patients with multiple myeloma, harbouring IGH-CCND1. Thus, our study provides a detailed landscape of genomic abnormalities, which may have potential clinical application for patients with multiple myeloma.

3.
Genome Res ; 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209592

RESUMO

Microsatellites are repeats of 1- to 6-bp units, and approximately 10 million microsatellites have been identified across the human genome. Microsatellites are vulnerable to DNA mismatch errors and have thus been used to detect cancers with mismatch repair deficiency. To reveal the mutational landscape of microsatellite repeat regions at the genome level, we analyzed approximately 20.1 billion microsatellites in 2717 whole genomes of pan-cancer samples across 21 tissue types. First, we developed a new insertion and deletion caller (MIMcall) that takes into consideration the error patterns of different types of microsatellites. Among the 2717 pan-cancer samples, our analysis identified 31 samples, including colorectal, uterus, and stomach cancers, with a higher proportion of mutated microsatellite (≥0.03), which we defined as microsatellite instability (MSI) cancers of genome-wide level. Next, we found 20 highly mutated microsatellites that can be used to detect MSI cancers with high sensitivity. Third, we found that replication timing and DNA shape were significantly associated with mutation rates of microsatellites. Last, analysis of mutations in mismatch repair genes showed that somatic SNVs and short indels had larger functional impacts than germline mutations and structural variations. Our analysis provides a comprehensive picture of mutations in the microsatellite regions and reveals possible causes of mutations, as well as provides a useful marker set for MSI detection.

4.
Blood Adv ; 4(5): 845-854, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126143

RESUMO

Loss-of-function mutations in ten-eleven translocation-2 (TET2) are recurrent events in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) as well as in preleukemic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) of age-related clonal hematopoiesis. TET3 mutations are infrequent in AML, but the level of TET3 expression in HSCs has been found to decline with age. We examined the impact of gradual decrease of TET function in AML development by generating mice with Tet deficiency at various degrees. Tet2f/f and Tet3f/f mice were crossed with mice expressing Mx1-Cre to generate Tet2f/wtTet3f/fMx-Cre+ (T2ΔT3), Tet2f/fTet3f/wtMx-Cre+ (ΔT2T3), and Tet2f/fTet3f/fMx-Cre+ (ΔT2ΔT3) mice. All ΔT2ΔT3 mice died of aggressive AML at a median survival of 10.7 weeks. By comparison, T2ΔT3 and ΔT2T3 mice developed AML at longer latencies, with a median survival of ∼27 weeks. Remarkably, all 9 T2ΔT3 and 8 ΔT2T3 mice with AML showed inactivation of the remaining nontargeted Tet2 or Tet3 allele, respectively, owing to exonic loss in either gene or stop-gain mutations in Tet3. Recurrent mutations other than Tet3 were not noted in any mice by whole-exome sequencing. Spontaneous inactivation of residual Tet2 or Tet3 alleles is a recurrent genetic event during the development of AML with Tet insufficiency.

5.
Nature ; 578(7793): 129-136, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025019

RESUMO

Transcript alterations often result from somatic changes in cancer genomes1. Various forms of RNA alterations have been described in cancer, including overexpression2, altered splicing3 and gene fusions4; however, it is difficult to attribute these to underlying genomic changes owing to heterogeneity among patients and tumour types, and the relatively small cohorts of patients for whom samples have been analysed by both transcriptome and whole-genome sequencing. Here we present, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive catalogue of cancer-associated gene alterations to date, obtained by characterizing tumour transcriptomes from 1,188 donors of the Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes (PCAWG) Consortium of the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)5. Using matched whole-genome sequencing data, we associated several categories of RNA alterations with germline and somatic DNA alterations, and identified probable genetic mechanisms. Somatic copy-number alterations were the major drivers of variations in total gene and allele-specific expression. We identified 649 associations of somatic single-nucleotide variants with gene expression in cis, of which 68.4% involved associations with flanking non-coding regions of the gene. We found 1,900 splicing alterations associated with somatic mutations, including the formation of exons within introns in proximity to Alu elements. In addition, 82% of gene fusions were associated with structural variants, including 75 of a new class, termed 'bridged' fusions, in which a third genomic location bridges two genes. We observed transcriptomic alteration signatures that differ between cancer types and have associations with variations in DNA mutational signatures. This compendium of RNA alterations in the genomic context provides a rich resource for identifying genes and mechanisms that are functionally implicated in cancer.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias/genética , RNA/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , DNA de Neoplasias , Genoma Humano , Genômica , Humanos , Transcriptoma
6.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036070

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Studies are yet to characterize the differences in molecular profiles of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) among divergent ethnic groups. Herein, we conducted comprehensive molecular profiling of LUAD in never or light smokers from Asia to discover novel targetable mutations and prognostic biomarkers of this distinct disease entity. METHODS: We analyzed 996 cases of Japanese LUAD and performed whole-exome sequencing and RNA-seq in 125 cases of Japanese LUAD negative for the driver oncogenes defined by conventional laboratory testing. We also investigated the clinical and pathologic characteristics among the 996 cases. RESULTS: Driver oncogenes were identified in 88 cases (70.4%) with specific hotspot mutations differing from those in The Cancer Genome Atlas study. Two actionable novel fusions of FGFR2 and NRG2α were also identified. Clustering on the basis of mRNA expression profiles, but not genetic mutational ones, could predict patient prognosis. The risk score generated by the expression of a three-gene set was a strong prognostic marker for overall survival and progression-free survival in our cohort, and was further validated using The Cancer Genome Atlas cohort. Among the 996 cases, each driver alteration is distributed across all histologic subtypes. Adenocarcinoma in situ was identified to harbor driver mutations, suggesting that these alterations are early events in the pathogenesis of LUAD. ERBB2 mutations were over-represented in young adults. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates the value of applying gene expression profiling for predicting the prognosis after a surgical operation, and that the identification of actionable mutations is important for optimizing targeted drugs in Japanese LUAD.

7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 73, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911629

RESUMO

Cancer development is an evolutionary genomic process with parallels to Darwinian selection. It requires acquisition of multiple somatic mutations that collectively cause a malignant phenotype and continuous clonal evolution is often linked to tumor progression. Here, we show the clonal evolution structure in 15 myelofibrosis (MF) patients while receiving treatment with JAK inhibitors (mean follow-up 3.9 years). Whole-exome sequencing at multiple time points reveal acquisition of somatic mutations and copy number aberrations over time. While JAK inhibition therapy does not seem to create a clear evolutionary bottleneck, we observe a more complex clonal architecture over time, and appearance of unrelated clones. Disease progression associates with increased genetic heterogeneity and gain of RAS/RTK pathway mutations. Clonal diversity results in clone-specific expansion within different myeloid cell lineages. Single-cell genotyping of circulating CD34 + progenitor cells allows the reconstruction of MF phylogeny demonstrating loss of heterozygosity and parallel evolution as recurrent events.


Assuntos
Evolução Clonal , Mielofibrose Primária/genética , Idoso , Exoma , Feminino , Seguimentos , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Proteína Oncogênica p21(ras)/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Célula Única , Células-Tronco/citologia
8.
Haematologica ; 105(2): 358-365, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101757

RESUMO

Ionizing radiation is a risk factor for myeloid neoplasms including myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and atomic bomb survivors have been shown to have a significantly higher risk of MDS. Our previous analyses demonstrated that MDS among these survivors had a significantly higher frequency of complex karyotypes and structural alterations of chromosomes 3, 8, and 11. However, there was no difference in the median survival time between MDS among survivors compared with those of de novo origin. This suggested that a different pathophysiology may underlie the causative genetic aberrations for those among survivors. In this study, we performed genome analyses of MDS among survivors and found that proximally exposed patients had significantly fewer mutations in genes such as TET2 along the DNA methylation pathways, and they had a significantly higher rate of 11q deletions. Among the genes located in the deleted portion of chromosome 11, alterations of ATM were significantly more frequent in proximally exposed group with mutations identified on the remaining allele in 2 out of 5 cases. TP53, which is frequently mutated in therapy-related myeloid neoplasms, was equally affected between proximally and distally exposed patients. These results suggested that the genetic aberration profiles in MDS among atomic bomb survivors differed from those in therapy-related and de novo origin. Considering the role of ATM in DNA damage response after radiation exposure, further studies are warranted to elucidate how 11q deletion and aberrations of ATM contribute to the pathogenesis of MDS after radiation exposure.

9.
Nature ; 577(7789): 260-265, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853061

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation is accompanied by recurring cycles of tissue destruction and repair and is associated with an increased risk of cancer1-3. However, how such cycles affect the clonal composition of tissues, particularly in terms of cancer development, remains unknown. Here we show that in patients with ulcerative colitis, the inflamed intestine undergoes widespread remodelling by pervasive clones, many of which are positively selected by acquiring mutations that commonly involve the NFKBIZ, TRAF3IP2, ZC3H12A, PIGR and HNRNPF genes and are implicated in the downregulation of IL-17 and other pro-inflammatory signals. Mutational profiles vary substantially between colitis-associated cancer and non-dysplastic tissues in ulcerative colitis, which indicates that there are distinct mechanisms of positive selection in both tissues. In particular, mutations in NFKBIZ are highly prevalent in the epithelium of patients with ulcerative colitis but rarely found in both sporadic and colitis-associated cancer, indicating that NFKBIZ-mutant cells are selected against during colorectal carcinogenesis. In further support of this negative selection, we found that tumour formation was significantly attenuated in Nfkbiz-mutant mice and cell competition was compromised by disruption of NFKBIZ in human colorectal cancer cells. Our results highlight common and discrete mechanisms of clonal selection in inflammatory tissues, which reveal unexpected cancer vulnerabilities that could potentially be exploited for therapeutics in colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Colite Ulcerativa/genética , Taxa de Mutação , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais
10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5386, 2019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772163

RESUMO

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) arise in older adults through stepwise acquisitions of multiple somatic mutations. Here, analyzing 1809 MDS patients, we infer clonal architecture by using a stringent, the single-cell sequencing validated PyClone bioanalytic pipeline, and assess the position of the mutations within the clonal architecture. All 3,971 mutations are grouped based on their rank in the deduced clonal hierarchy (dominant and secondary). We evaluated how they affect the resultant morphology, progression, survival and response to therapies. Mutations of SF3B1, U2AF1, and TP53 are more likely to be dominant, those of ASXL1, CBL, and KRAS are secondary. Among distinct combinations of dominant/secondary mutations we identified 37 significant relationships, of which 12 affect clinical phenotypes, 5 cooperatively associate with poor prognosis. They also predict response to hypomethylating therapies. The clonal hierarchy has distinct ranking and the resultant invariant combinations of dominant/secondary mutations yield novel insights into the specific clinical phenotype of MDS.

12.
Mol Genet Metab Rep ; 21: 100531, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687339

RESUMO

Purpose: Part of the weakness of exome analysis lies in the inability to detect aberrant splicing. An evaluation of the post-splicing mRNA sequence concurrently with genomic variants could improve the diagnostic rate. We aimed to investigate publicly available exome sequencing data and its matching transcriptomics data of phenotypically normal individuals to identify alternatively spliced variants from known genes associated with autosomal recessive disorders under the premise that some of the subjects could be carriers of such disorders. Methods: Aberrant splicing events and their triggering genomic variants were detected with the aid of Bayesian network method "SAVNet" which was originally developed for cancer genomics. Results: Forty aberrant splicing events including exon skipping, the creation of a new splice site, and the use of a cryptic splice site in response to the disruption of the authentic site were detected in 1916 genes among 31 of the 179 subjects from the 1000 Genomes Project. The predicted effects on proteins were either frameshift mutations (30) or large in-frame insertions or deletions (10). Five missense mutations and 2 silent mutations were reinterpreted as triggering major changes in transcript sequences. The detection rate of provisionally truncating pathogenic variants increased by 19%, compared with a conventional exome analysis. Conclusion: The coupling interpretation of exome and transcriptome data enhances the performance of conventional exome analyses through the proper interpretation of intronic variants that are outside of the GT/AG splicing consensus sequences and also allows the reinterpretation of "missense" or "silent" substitutions that can indeed have drastic effects on splicing.

13.
Blood Adv ; 3(20): 3157-3169, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648321

RESUMO

Recent advances in the genetic understanding of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have improved clinical outcomes in pediatric patients. However, ∼40% of patients with pediatric AML relapse, resulting in a relatively low overall survival rate of ∼70%. The objective of this study was to reveal the comprehensive genetic background of pediatric AML. We performed transcriptome analysis (RNA sequencing [RNA-seq]) in 139 of the 369 patients with de novo pediatric AML who were enrolled in the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group AML-05 trial and investigated correlations between genetic aberrations and clinical information. Using RNA-seq, we identified 54 in-frame gene fusions and 1 RUNX1 out-of-frame fusion in 53 of 139 patients. Moreover, we found at least 258 gene fusions in 369 patients (70%) through reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and RNA-seq. Five gene rearrangements were newly identified, namely, NPM1-CCDC28A, TRIP12-NPM1, MLLT10-DNAJC1, TBL1XR1-RARB, and RUNX1-FNBP1. In addition, we found rare gene rearrangements, namely, MYB-GATA1, NPM1-MLF1, ETV6-NCOA2, ETV6-MECOM, ETV6-CTNNB1, RUNX1-PRDM16, RUNX1-CBFA2T2, and RUNX1-CBFA2T3. Among the remaining 111 patients, KMT2A-PTD, biallelic CEBPA, and NPM1 gene mutations were found in 11, 23, and 17 patients, respectively. These mutations were completely mutually exclusive with any gene fusions. RNA-seq unmasked the complexity of gene rearrangements and mutations in pediatric AML. We identified potentially disease-causing alterations in nearly all patients with AML, including novel gene fusions. Our results indicated that a subset of patients with pediatric AML represent a distinct entity that may be discriminated from their adult counterparts. Based on these results, risk stratification should be reconsidered.

14.
Blood Adv ; 3(20): 3111-3122, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648334

RESUMO

Ring sideroblasts (RS) emerge as result of aberrant erythroid differentiation leading to excessive mitochondrial iron accumulation, a characteristic feature for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with mutations in the spliceosome gene SF3B1. However, RS can also be observed in patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The objective of this study was to characterize RS in patients with AML. Clinically, RS-AML is enriched for ELN adverse risk (55%). In line with this finding, 35% of all cases had complex cytogenetic aberrancies, and TP53 was most recurrently mutated in this cohort (37%), followed by DNMT3A (26%), RUNX1 (25%), TET2 (20%), and ASXL1 (19%). In contrast to RS-MDS, the incidence of SF3B1 mutations was low (8%). Whole-exome sequencing and SNP array analysis on a subset of patients did not uncover a single genetic defect underlying the RS phenotype. Shared genetic defects between erythroblasts and total mononuclear cell fraction indicate common ancestry for the erythroid lineage and the myeloid blast cells in patients with RS-AML. RNA sequencing analysis on CD34+ AML cells revealed differential gene expression between RS-AML and non RS-AML cases, including genes involved in megakaryocyte and erythroid differentiation. Furthermore, several heme metabolism-related genes were found to be upregulated in RS- CD34+ AML cells, as was observed in SF3B1mut MDS. These results demonstrate that although the genetic background of RS-AML differs from that of RS-MDS, they have certain downstream effector pathways in common.

15.
Cancer Sci ; 110(10): 3358-3367, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385395

RESUMO

Children with Down syndrome (DS) are at a 20-fold increased risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Compared to children with ALL and no DS (non-DS-ALL), those with DS and ALL (DS-ALL) harbor uncommon genetic alterations, suggesting DS-ALL could have distinct biological features. Recent studies have implicated several genes on chromosome 21 in DS-ALL, but the precise mechanisms predisposing children with DS to ALL remain unknown. Our integrated genetic/epigenetic analysis revealed that DS-ALL was highly heterogeneous with many subtypes. Although each subtype had genetic/epigenetic profiles similar to those found in non-DS-ALL, the subtype distribution differed significantly between groups. The Philadelphia chromosome-like subtype, a high-risk B-cell lineage variant relatively rare among the entire pediatric ALL population, was the most common form in DS-ALL. Hypermethylation of RUNX1 on chromosome 21 was also found in DS-ALL, but not non-DS-ALL. RUNX1 is essential for differentiation of blood cells, especially B cells; thus, hypermethylation of the RUNX1 promoter in B-cell precursors might be associated with increased incidence of B-cell precursor ALL in DS patients.


Assuntos
Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Metilação de DNA , Síndrome de Down/complicações , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Criança , Cromossomos Humanos Par 21/genética , Síndrome de Down/genética , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Cromossomo Filadélfia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Sequência de RNA
16.
Leukemia ; 33(12): 2867-2883, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092896

RESUMO

Peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL, NOS) is a diagnosis of exclusion, being the most common entity in mature T-cell neoplasms, and its molecular pathogenesis remains significantly understudied. Here, combining whole-exome and targeted-capture sequencing, gene-expression profiling, and immunohistochemical analysis of tumor samples from 133 cases, we have delineated the entire landscape of somatic alterations, and discovered frequently affected driver pathways in PTCL, NOS, with and without a T-follicular helper (TFH) cell phenotype. In addition to previously reported mutational targets, we identified a number of novel recurrently altered genes, such as KMT2C, SETD1B, YTHDF2, and PDCD1. We integrated these genetic drivers using hierarchical clustering and identified a previously undescribed molecular subtype characterized by TP53 and/or CDKN2A mutations and deletions in non-TFH PTCL, NOS. This subtype exhibited different prognosis and unique genetic features associated with extensive chromosomal instability, which preferentially affected molecules involved in immune escape and transcriptional regulation, such as HLA-A/B and IKZF2. Taken together, our findings provide novel insights into the molecular pathogenesis of PTCL, NOS by highlighting their genetic heterogeneity. These results should help to devise a novel molecular classification of PTCLs and to exploit a new therapeutic strategy for this group of aggressive malignancies.

17.
Bioinformatics ; 35(21): 4247-4254, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924874

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Detection of somatic mutations from tumor and matched normal sequencing data has become among the most important analysis methods in cancer research. Some existing mutation callers have focused on additional information, e.g. heterozygous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) nearby mutation candidates or overlapping paired-end read information. However, existing methods cannot take multiple information sources into account simultaneously. Existing Bayesian hierarchical model-based methods construct two generative models, the tumor model and error model, and limited information sources have been modeled. RESULTS: We proposed a Bayesian model integration framework named as partitioning-based model integration. In this framework, through introducing partitions for paired-end reads based on given information sources, we integrate existing generative models and utilize multiple information sources. Based on that, we constructed a novel Bayesian hierarchical model-based method named as OHVarfinDer. In both the tumor model and error model, we introduced partitions for a set of paired-end reads that cover a mutation candidate position, and applied a different generative model for each category of paired-end reads. We demonstrated that our method can utilize both heterozygous SNP information and overlapping paired-end read information effectively in simulation datasets and real datasets. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: https://github.com/takumorizo/OHVarfinDer. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

18.
J Gastroenterol ; 54(7): 628-640, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30756187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrently develops in cirrhotic liver containing a number of regenerative nodules (RNs). However, the biological tumorigenic potential of RNs is still unclear. To uncover the molecular bases of tumorigenesis in liver cirrhosis, we investigated the genetic aberrations in RNs of cirrhotic tissues using next-generation sequencing. METHODS: We isolated 205 RNs and 7 HCC tissues from the whole explanted livers of 10 randomly selected patients who had undergone living-donor liver transplantation. Whole-exome sequencing and additional targeted deep sequencing on 30 selected HCC-related genes were conducted to reveal the mutational landscape of RNs and HCCs. RESULTS: Whole-exome sequencing demonstrated that RNs frequently harbored relatively high-abundance genetic alterations, suggesting a clonal structure of each RN in cirrhotic liver. The mutation signature observed in RNs was similar to those determined in HCC, characterized by a predominance of C>T transitions, followed by T>C and C>A mutations. Targeted deep sequencing analyses of RNs identified nonsynonymous low-abundance mutations in various tumor-related genes, including TP53 and ARID1A. In contrast, TERT promoter mutations were not detected in any of the RNs examined. Consistently, TERT expression levels in RNs were comparable to those in normal livers, whereas every HCC tissue demonstrated an elevated level of TERT expression. CONCLUSION: Analyses of RNs constructing cirrhotic liver indicated that a variety of genetic aberrations accumulate in the cirrhotic liver before the development of clinically and histologically overt HCC. These aberrations in RNs could provide the basis of tumorigenesis in patients with liver cirrhosis.

19.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 60(1): 39-45, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726823

RESUMO

T-cell large granular lymphocyte (T-LGL) leukemia is a chronic T-cell monoclonal disease that is occasionally associated with pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). A 71-year-old previously healthy man complained of physical fatigue and exhibited anemia (hemoglobin, 10.5 g/dl) with lymphocytosis (76%) showing LGL. The LGL cells expressed CD3, CD7, CD8, and T-cell receptor (TCR) -α/ß. TCR-ß/γ gene rearrangement was positive. He was thus diagnosed with CD8+ T-LGL leukemia. Anemia progressed with low reticulocyte count (0.11%), and the patient became blood transfusion-dependent, but no distinct abnormality caused the anemia. Bone marrow aspiration revealed an increase in lymphocytes (33.6%) and a decrease in erythroblasts (M/E ratio, 6.1). He was thus diagnosed with T-LGL-associated PRCA. Oral cyclosporin A administration resulted in prompt improvement of anemia, suggesting its high sensitivity. Whole-exome sequencing of his peripheral blood DNA revealed somatic mutations in 33 genes, including the STAT3 gene, implying their roles in T-LGL leukemia.


Assuntos
Ciclosporina/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Linfocítica Granular Grande/complicações , Aplasia Pura de Série Vermelha/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Idoso , Humanos , Linfocitose , Masculino , Mutação
20.
Blood Adv ; 3(4): 588-595, 2019 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30792187

RESUMO

Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL) is a rare subtype of peripheral T-cell lymphoma affecting younger patients and associated with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. To clarify the molecular pathogenesis of SPTCL, we analyzed paired tumor and germline DNAs from 13 patients by whole-exome sequencing. All cases were Asians and were phenotypically sporadic with no family history of SPTCL. Consistent with a recent report, germline mutations in HAVCR2, encoding T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 3 (TIM3), were identified in 11 of 13 (85%) cases. All mutated cases were primary SPTCL, whereas the 2 cases without mutation were secondary SPTCL associated with underlying diseases, including viral infection and autoimmune disease. Ten patients harbored homozygous p.Y82C mutations, and 1 showed compound heterozygous mutations (p.Y82C and p.T101I). Both missense mutations altered highly conserved residues located in the extracellular immunoglobulin variable-like domain. According to the Genome Aggregation Database of >138 500 general individuals, both mutations were documented with minor allele frequencies < 0.007, indicating remarkable enrichment of these HAVCR2 alleles in SPTCL. SPTCL cells also harbored somatic mutations (6.2 per patient) that are frequently identified in genes associated with epigenetic regulation and signal transduction. In conclusion, individuals harboring biallelic HAVCR2 (TIM3) germline mutations were highly susceptible to sporadic SPTCL, which was also associated with clonal somatic mutations.

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