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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393627

RESUMO

The neonicotinoid nitenpyram (NPM) is a multifunctional nitroenamine [(R1N)(R2N)C=CHNO2] pesticide. As a nitroalkene, it is structurally similar to other emerging contaminants such as the pharmaceuticals ranitidine and nizatidine. Because ozone is a common atmospheric oxidant, such compounds may be oxidized on contact with air to form new products that have different toxicity compared to the parent compounds. Here we show that oxidation of thin solid films of NPM by gas-phase ozone produces unexpected products, the majority of which do not contain oxygen, despite the highly oxidizing reactant. A further surprising finding is the formation of gas-phase nitrous acid (HONO), a species known to be a major photolytic source of the highly reactive hydroxyl radical in air. The results of application of a kinetic multilayer model show that reaction was not restricted to the surface layers but, at sufficiently high ozone concentrations, occurred throughout the film. The rate constant derived for the O3-NPM reaction is 1 × 10-18 cm3⋅s-1, and the diffusion coefficient of ozone in the thin film is 9 × 10-10 cm2⋅s-1 These findings highlight the unique chemistry of multifunctional nitroenamines and demonstrate that known chemical mechanisms for individual moieties in such compounds cannot be extrapolated from simple alkenes. This is critical for guiding assessments of the environmental fates and impacts of pesticides and pharmaceuticals, and for providing guidance in designing better future alternatives.

2.
J Phys Chem B ; 124(18): 3836-3843, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290653

RESUMO

We performed classical molecular dynamics simulations to quantify and understand the nonreactive, dermal uptake of volatile organic compounds formed during the ozonolysis of human skin oils. Our results include surface accommodation coefficients, partitioning constants, bulk diffusivities, and desorption lifetimes. These parameters were used to improve and to constrain the kinetic multilayer model of the surface and bulk chemistry of skin (KM-SUB-Skin). By comparing common outputs (bulk accommodation coefficients), we cross-validate the two approaches and, thus, increase the level of trust in their predictions relevant to indoor air chemistry.

3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(3): 1730-1739, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940195

RESUMO

We report elevated levels of gaseous inorganic chlorinated and nitrogenated compounds in indoor air while cleaning with a commercial bleach solution during the House Observations of Microbial and Environmental Chemistry field campaign in summer 2018. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), chlorine (Cl2), and nitryl chloride (ClNO2) reached part-per-billion by volume levels indoors during bleach cleaning-several orders of magnitude higher than typically measured in the outdoor atmosphere. Kinetic modeling revealed that multiphase chemistry plays a central role in controlling indoor chlorine and reactive nitrogen chemistry during these periods. Cl2 production occurred via heterogeneous reactions of HOCl on indoor surfaces. ClNO2 and chloramine (NH2Cl, NHCl2, NCl3) production occurred in the applied bleach via aqueous reactions involving nitrite (NO2-) and ammonia (NH3), respectively. Aqueous-phase and surface chemistry resulted in elevated levels of gas-phase nitrogen dioxide (NO2). We predict hydroxyl (OH) and chlorine (Cl) radical production during these periods (106 and 107 molecules cm-3 s-1, respectively) driven by HOCl and Cl2 photolysis. Ventilation and photolysis accounted for <50% and <0.1% total loss of bleach-related compounds from indoor air, respectively; we conclude that uptake to indoor surfaces is an important additional loss process. Indoor HOCl and nitrogen trichloride (NCl3) mixing ratios during bleach cleaning reported herein are likely detrimental to human health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Cloro , Gases , Humanos , Ácido Hipocloroso , Ventilação
4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(21): 12784-12792, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560535

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a central role in adverse health effects of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). Respiratory deposition can lead to the formation of ROS in the epithelial lining fluid due to redox reactions of PM components with lung antioxidants. As direct quantification of ROS is challenging, PM oxidative potential is more commonly measured using antioxidant surrogates including dithiothreitol and ascorbic acid, assuming that the decay of surrogates corresponds to ROS formation. However, this assumption has not yet been validated and the lack of ROS quantification in the respiratory tract causes major limitations in evaluating PM impacts on oxidative stress. By combining field measurements of size-segregated chemical composition, a human respiratory tract model, and kinetic modeling, we quantified production rates and concentrations of different types of ROS in different regions of the epithelial lining fluid by considering particle-size-dependent respiratory deposition. The extrathoracic region is found to have higher ROS concentrations compared to the bronchial and alveolar regions. Although H2O2 and O2- production is governed by Fe and Cu ions, OH radicals are mainly generated by organic compounds and Fenton-like reactions of metal ions. In winter when affected by biomass burning, model comparisons suggest that humic-like substances (HULIS) contribute to ROS formation substantially. We found that PM oxidative potential is a good indicator of the chemical production of H2O2 and O2- but does not represent OH generation. These results provide rationale and limitations of the use of oxidative potential as an indicator of PM toxicity in epidemiological and toxicological studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(21): 12506-12518, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536707

RESUMO

Highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) play an important role in the formation and evolution of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). However, the abundance of HOMs in different environments and their relation to the oxidative potential of fine particulate matter (PM) are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the relative HOM abundance and radical yield of laboratory-generated SOA and fine PM in ambient air ranging from remote forest areas to highly polluted megacities. By electron paramagnetic resonance and mass spectrometric investigations, we found that the relative abundance of HOMs, especially the dimeric and low-volatility types, in ambient fine PM was positively correlated with the formation of radicals in aqueous PM extracts. SOA from photooxidation of isoprene, ozonolysis of α- and ß-pinene, and fine PM from tropical (central Amazon) and boreal (Hyytiälä, Finland) forests exhibited a higher HOM abundance and radical yield than SOA from photooxidation of naphthalene and fine PM from urban sites (Beijing, Guangzhou, Mainz, Shanghai, and Xi'an), confirming that HOMs are important constituents of biogenic SOA to generate radicals. Our study provides new insights into the chemical relationship of HOM abundance, composition, and sources with the yield of radicals by laboratory and ambient aerosols, enabling better quantification of the component-specific contribution of source- or site-specific fine PM to its climate and health effects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Aerossóis , Pequim , China , Finlândia
6.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(37): 20613-20627, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31528972

RESUMO

Atmospheric aerosol particles with a high viscosity may become inhomogeneously mixed during chemical processing. Models have predicted gradients in condensed phase reactant concentration throughout particles as the result of diffusion and chemical reaction limitations, termed chemical gradients. However, these have never been directly observed for atmospherically relevant particle diameters. We investigated the reaction between ozone and aerosol particles composed of xanthan gum and FeCl2 and observed the in situ chemical reaction that oxidized Fe2+ to Fe3+ using X-ray spectromicroscopy. Iron oxidation state of particles as small as 0.2 µm in diameter were imaged over time with a spatial resolution of tens of nanometers. We found that the loss off Fe2+ accelerated with increasing ozone concentration and relative humidity, RH. Concentric 2-D column integrated profiles of the Fe2+ fraction, α, out of the total iron were derived and demonstrated that particle surfaces became oxidized while particle cores remained unreacted at RH = 0-20%. At higher RH, chemical gradients evolved over time, extended deeper from the particle surface, and Fe2+ became more homogeneously distributed. We used the kinetic multi-layer model for aerosol surface and bulk chemistry (KM-SUB) to simulate ozone reaction constrained with our observations and inferred key parameters as a function of RH including Henry's Law constant for ozone, HO3, and diffusion coefficients for ozone and iron, DO3 and DFe, respectively. We found that HO3 is higher in our xanthan gum/FeCl2 particles than for water and increases when RH decreased from about 80% to dry conditions. This coincided with a decrease in both DO3 and DFe. In order to reproduce observed chemical gradients, our model predicted that ozone could not be present further than a few nanometers from a particle surface indicating near surface reactions were driving changes in iron oxidation state. However, the observed chemical gradients in α observed over hundreds of nanometers must have been the result of iron transport from the particle interior to the surface where ozone oxidation occurred. In the context of our results, we examine the applicability of the reacto-diffusive framework and discuss diffusion limitations for other reactive gas-aerosol systems of atmospheric importance.

7.
Indoor Air ; 29(6): 956-967, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461792

RESUMO

Ozone (O3 ) chemistry is thought to dominate the oxidation of indoor surfaces. We consider the hypothesis that reactions taking place within indoor boundary layers result in greater than anticipated hydroxyl radical (OH) deposition rates. We develop models that account for boundary layer mass-transfer phenomena, O3 -terpene chemistry and OH formation, removal, and deposition; we solve these analytically and by applying numerical methods. For an O3 -limonene system, we find that OH flux to a surface with an O3 reaction probability of 10-8 is 4.3 × 10-5 molec/(cm2 s) which is about 10 times greater than predicted by a traditional boundary layer theory. At very low air exchange rates the OH surface flux can be as much as 10% of that for O3 . This effect becomes less pronounced for more O3 -reactive surfaces. Turbulence intensity does not strongly influence the OH concentration gradient except for surfaces with an O3 reaction probability >10-4 . Although the O3 flux dominates OH flux under most conditions, OH flux can be responsible for as much as 10% of total oxidant uptake to otherwise low-reactivity surfaces. Further, OH chemistry differs from that for ozone; therefore, its deposition is important in understanding the chemical evolution of some indoor surfaces and surface films.

8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(13): 7380-7390, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117537

RESUMO

Aerosol proteinaceous matter is comprised of a substantial fraction of bioaerosols. Its origins and interactions in the atmosphere remain poorly understood. We present observations of total proteins, combined, and free amino acids (CAAs and FAAs) in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples in urban Beijing before and during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit. The decreases in proteins, CAAs and FAAs levels were observed after the implementation of restrictive emission controls. Significant changes were observed for the composition profiles in FAAs with the predominance of valine before the APEC and glycine during the APEC, respectively. These variations could be attributed to the influence of sources, atmospheric processes, and meteorological conditions. FAAs (especially valine and glycine) were suggested to be released by the degradation of high molecular weight proteins/polypeptides by atmospheric oxidants (i.e., ozone and free radicals) and nitrogen dioxide. Besides daytime reactions, nighttime chemistry was found to play an important role in the atmospheric formation of valine during the nights, suggesting the possible influence of NO3 radicals. Our findings provide new insights into the significant impacts of atmospheric oxidation capacity on the occurrence and transformation of aerosol proteinaceous matter which may affect its environmental, climate and health effects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Aerossóis , Ásia , Pequim , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado
9.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 21(8): 1240-1254, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070639

RESUMO

We report on the development of a modelling consortium for chemistry in indoor environments that connects models over a range of spatial and temporal scales, from molecular to room scales and from sub-nanosecond to days, respectively. Our modeling approaches include molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, kinetic process modeling, gas-phase chemistry modeling, organic aerosol modeling, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. These models are applied to investigate ozone reactions with skin and clothing, oxidation of volatile organic compounds and formation of secondary organic aerosols, and mass transport and partitioning of indoor species to surfaces. MD simulations provide molecular pictures of limonene adsorption on SiO2 and ozone interactions with the skin lipid squalene, providing kinetic parameters such as surface accommodation coefficient, desorption lifetime, and bulk diffusivity. These parameters then constrain kinetic process models, which resolve mass transport and chemical reactions in gas and condensed phases for analysis of experimental data. A detailed indoor chemical box model is applied to simulate α-pinene ozonolysis with improved representation of gas-particle partitioning. Application of 2D-volatility basis set reveals that OH-induced aging sometimes drives increases in indoor organic aerosol concentrations, due to organic mass functionalization and enhanced partitioning. CFD simulations show that concentrations of ozone and primary product change near the human surface rapidly, indicating non-uniform spatial distributions from the occupant surface to ambient air, while secondary ozone product is relatively well-mixed throughout the room. This development establishes a framework to integrate different modeling tools and experimental measurements, opening up an avenue for development of comprehensive and integrated models with representations of various chemistry in indoor environments.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Ozônio/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Aerossóis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Humanos , Cinética , Oxirredução , Ozônio/análise , Pele/química , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Propriedades de Superfície , Têxteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(24): 11658-11663, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142653

RESUMO

Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a key polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) often associated with soot particles coated by organic compounds, is a known carcinogen and mutagen. When mixed with organics, the kinetics and mechanisms of chemical transformations of BaP by ozone in indoor and outdoor environments are still not fully elucidated. Using direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART-MS), kinetics studies of the ozonolysis of BaP in thin films exhibited fast initial loss of BaP followed by a slower decay at long exposure times. Kinetic multilayer modeling demonstrates that the slow decay of BaP over long times can be simulated if there is slow diffusion of BaP from the film interior to the surface, resolving long-standing unresolved observations of incomplete PAH decay upon prolonged ozone exposure. Phase separation drives the slow diffusion time scales in multicomponent systems. Specifically, thermodynamic modeling predicts that BaP phase separates from secondary organic aerosol material so that the BaP-rich layer at the surface shields the inner BaP from ozone. Also, BaP is miscible with organic oils such as squalane, linoleic acid, and cooking oil, but its oxidation products are virtually immiscible, resulting in the formation of a viscous surface crust that hinders diffusion of BaP from the film interior to the surface. These findings imply that phase separation and slow diffusion significantly prolong the chemical lifetime of PAHs, affecting long-range transport of PAHs in the atmosphere and their fates in indoor environments.

11.
Chem Sci ; 10(10): 2906-2914, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996868

RESUMO

Indoor surfaces are often coated with organic compounds yet a molecular understanding of what drives these interactions is poorly understood. Herein, the adsorption and desorption of limonene, an organic compound found in indoor environments, on hydroxylated silica (SiO2) surfaces, used to mimic indoor glass surfaces, is investigated by combining vibrational spectroscopy, atomistic computer simulations and kinetic modeling. Infrared spectroscopy shows the interaction involves hydrogen-bonding between limonene and surface O-H groups. Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations confirm the existence of π-hydrogen bonding interactions, with one or two hydrogen bonds between the silica O-H groups and the carbon-carbon double bonds, roughly one third of the time. The concentration and temperature dependent adsorption/desorption kinetics as measured by infrared spectroscopy were reproduced with a kinetic model, yielding the adsorption enthalpy of ∼55 kJ mol-1, which is consistent with the value derived from the MD simulations. Importantly, this integrated experimental, theoretical and kinetic modeling study constitutes a conceptual framework for understanding the interaction of organic compounds with indoor relevant surfaces and thus provides important insights into our understanding of indoor air chemistry and indoor air quality.

12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(20): 11642-11651, 2018 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30234977

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a central role in adverse health effects of air pollutants. Respiratory deposition of fine air particulate matter can lead to the formation of ROS in epithelial lining fluid, potentially causing oxidative stress and inflammation. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) account for a large fraction of fine particulate matter, but their role in adverse health effects is unclear. Here, we quantify and compare the ROS yields and oxidative potential of isoprene, ß-pinene, and naphthalene SOA in water and surrogate lung fluid (SLF). In pure water, isoprene and ß-pinene SOA were found to produce mainly OH and organic radicals, whereas naphthalene SOA produced mainly H2O2 and O2•-. The total molar yields of ROS of isoprene and ß-pinene SOA were 11.8% and 8.2% in water and decreased to 8.5% and 5.2% in SLF, which can be attributed to ROS removal by lung antioxidants. A positive correlation between the total peroxide concentration and ROS yield suggests that organic (hydro)peroxides may play an important role in ROS formation from biogenic SOA. The total molar ROS yields of naphthalene SOA was 1.7% in water and increased to 11.3% in SLF. This strong increase is likely due to redox reaction cycles involving environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFR) or semiquinones, antioxidants, and oxygen, which may promote the formation of H2O2 and the adverse health effects of anthropogenic SOA from aromatic precursors.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Água , Aerossóis , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
13.
Sci Adv ; 4(3): eaap7314, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29750188

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons like benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in atmospheric particulate matter pose a threat to human health because of their high carcinogenicity. In the atmosphere, BaP is mainly degraded through a multiphase reaction with ozone, but the fate and atmospheric transport of BaP are poorly characterized. Earlier modeling studies used reaction rate coefficients determined in laboratory experiments at room temperature, which may overestimate/underestimate degradation rates when applied under atmospheric conditions. Moreover, the effects of diffusion on the particle bulk are not well constrained, leading to large discrepancies between model results and observations. We show how regional and global distributions and transport of BaP can be explained by a new kinetic scheme that provides a realistic description of the temperature and humidity dependence of phase state, diffusivity, and reactivity of BaP-containing particles. Low temperature and humidity can substantially increase the lifetime of BaP and enhance its atmospheric dispersion through both the planetary boundary layer and the free troposphere. The new scheme greatly improves the performance of multiscale models, leading to better agreement with observed BaP concentrations in both source regions and remote regions (Arctic), which cannot be achieved by less-elaborate degradation schemes (deviations by multiple orders of magnitude). Our results highlight the importance of considering temperature and humidity effects on both the phase state of aerosol particles and the chemical reactivity of particulate air pollutants.

14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(22): 15560-15573, 2018 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29808874

RESUMO

Mass transfer between the gas and condensed phases in aerosols can be limited by slow bulk diffusion within viscous particles. During the heterogeneous and multiphase reactions of viscous organic aerosol particles, it is necessary to consider the interplay of numerous mass transfer processes and how they are impacted by viscosity, including the partitioning kinetics of semi-volatile organic reactants, water and oxidants. To constrain kinetic models of the heterogeneous chemistry, measurements must provide information on as many observables as possible. Here, the ozonolysis of maleic acid (MA) in ternary aerosol particles containing water and sucrose is used as a model system. By varying the mass ratio of sucrose to MA and by performing reactions over a wide range of relative humidity, direct measurements show that the viscosity of the particle can be varied over 7 orders of magnitude. Measurements of the volatilisation kinetics of MA show that this range in viscosity leads to a suppression in the effective vapour pressure of MA of 3-4 orders of magnitude. The inferred values of the diffusion coefficient of MA in the particle phase closely mirror the expected change in diffusion coefficient from the Stokes-Einstein equation and the change in viscosity. The kinetics of ozonolysis show a similar dependence on particle viscosity that can be further investigated using the kinetic multi-layer model of aerosol surface and bulk chemistry (KM-SUB). Two scenarios, one constraining the diffusion coefficients for MA to those expected based on the Stokes-Einstein equation and the other including the diffusion coefficients as a fit parameter, yield similarly adequate representations of the ozonolysis kinetics, as inferred from the experimental decay in the signature of the vinylic C-H stretching vibration of MA. However, these two scenarios provide very different parameterisations of the compositional dependence of the diffusion coefficients of ozone within the condensed phase, yielding qualitatively different time-dependent internal concentration profiles. We suggest that this highlights the importance of providing additional experimental observables (e.g. particle size, heterogeneity in composition) if measurements and models are to be universally reconciled.

15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(23): 13749-13754, 2017 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29125742

RESUMO

Terbuthylazine (TBA) is a widely used herbicide, and its heterogeneous reaction with OH radicals is important for assessing its potential to undergo atmospheric long-range transport and to affect the environment and public health. The apparent reaction rate coefficients obtained in different experimental investigations, however, vary by orders of magnitude depending on the applied experimental techniques and conditions. In this study, we used a kinetic multilayer model of aerosol chemistry with reversible surface adsorption and bulk diffusion (KM-SUB) in combination with a Monte Carlo genetic algorithm to simulate the measured decay rates of TBA. Two experimental data sets available from different studies can be described with a consistent set of kinetic parameters resolving the interplay of chemical reaction, mass transport, and shielding effects. Our study suggests that mass transport and shielding effects can substantially extend the atmospheric lifetime of reactive pesticides from a few days to weeks, with strong implications for long-range transport and potential health effects of these substances.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Triazinas , Aerossóis , Oxirredução
16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(23): 13545-13567, 2017 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29111690

RESUMO

Poor air quality is globally the largest environmental health risk. Epidemiological studies have uncovered clear relationships of gaseous pollutants and particulate matter (PM) with adverse health outcomes, including mortality by cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Studies of health impacts by aerosols are highly multidisciplinary with a broad range of scales in space and time. We assess recent advances and future challenges regarding aerosol effects on health from molecular to global scales through epidemiological studies, field measurements, health-related properties of PM, and multiphase interactions of oxidants and PM upon respiratory deposition. Global modeling combined with epidemiological exposure-response functions indicates that ambient air pollution causes more than four million premature deaths per year. Epidemiological studies usually refer to PM mass concentrations, but some health effects may relate to specific constituents such as bioaerosols, polycyclic aromatic compounds, and transition metals. Various analytical techniques and cellular and molecular assays are applied to assess the redox activity of PM and the formation of reactive oxygen species. Multiphase chemical interactions of lung antioxidants with atmospheric pollutants are crucial to the mechanistic and molecular understanding of oxidative stress upon respiratory deposition. The role of distinct PM components in health impacts and mortality needs to be clarified by integrated research on various spatiotemporal scales for better evaluation and mitigation of aerosol effects on public health in the Anthropocene.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Poluição do Ar , Material Particulado
17.
Faraday Discuss ; 200: 165-194, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28574555

RESUMO

Anthropogenic and biogenic gas emissions contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). When present, soot particles from fossil fuel combustion can acquire a coating of SOA. We investigate SOA-soot biogenic-anthropogenic interactions and their impact on ice nucleation in relation to the particles' organic phase state. SOA particles were generated from the OH oxidation of naphthalene, α-pinene, longifolene, or isoprene, with or without the presence of sulfate or soot particles. Corresponding particle glass transition (Tg) and full deliquescence relative humidity (FDRH) were estimated using a numerical diffusion model. Longifolene SOA particles are solid-like and all biogenic SOA sulfate mixtures exhibit a core-shell configuration (i.e. a sulfate-rich core coated with SOA). Biogenic SOA with or without sulfate formed ice at conditions expected for homogeneous ice nucleation, in agreement with respective Tg and FDRH. α-pinene SOA coated soot particles nucleated ice above the homogeneous freezing temperature with soot acting as ice nuclei (IN). At lower temperatures the α-pinene SOA coating can be semisolid, inducing ice nucleation. Naphthalene SOA coated soot particles acted as ice nuclei above and below the homogeneous freezing limit, which can be explained by the presence of a highly viscous SOA phase. Our results suggest that biogenic SOA does not play a significant role in mixed-phase cloud formation and the presence of sulfate renders this even less likely. However, anthropogenic SOA may have an enhancing effect on cloud glaciation under mixed-phase and cirrus cloud conditions compared to biogenic SOA that dominate during pre-industrial times or in pristine areas.

18.
Faraday Discuss ; 200: 251-270, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28574563

RESUMO

Mineral dust and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) account for a major fraction of atmospheric particulate matter, affecting climate, air quality and public health. How mineral dust interacts with SOA to influence cloud chemistry and public health, however, is not well understood. Here, we investigated the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are key species of atmospheric and physiological chemistry, in aqueous mixtures of SOA and mineral dust by applying electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry in combination with a spin-trapping technique, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and a kinetic model. We found that substantial amounts of ROS including OH, superoxide as well as carbon- and oxygen-centred organic radicals can be formed in aqueous mixtures of isoprene, α-pinene, naphthalene SOA and various kinds of mineral dust (ripidolite, montmorillonite, kaolinite, palygorskite, and Saharan dust). The molar yields of total radicals were ∼0.02-0.5% at 295 K, which showed higher values at 310 K, upon 254 nm UV exposure, and under low pH (<3) conditions. ROS formation can be explained by the decomposition of organic hydroperoxides, which are a prominent fraction of SOA, through interactions with water and Fenton-like reactions with dissolved transition metal ions. Our findings imply that the chemical reactivity and aging of SOA particles can be enhanced upon interaction with mineral dust in deliquesced particles or cloud/fog droplets. SOA decomposition could be comparably important to the classical Fenton reaction of H2O2 with Fe2+ and that SOA can be the main source of OH radicals in aqueous droplets at low concentrations of H2O2 and Fe2+. In the human respiratory tract, the inhalation and deposition of SOA and mineral dust can also lead to the release of ROS, which may contribute to oxidative stress and play an important role in the adverse health effects of atmospheric aerosols in the Anthropocene.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/metabolismo , Atmosfera/química , Minerais/metabolismo , Saúde Pública , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Aerossóis/química , Aerossóis/metabolismo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Minerais/química , Material Particulado/química , Material Particulado/metabolismo , Água/química , Água/metabolismo
19.
Faraday Discuss ; 200: 413-427, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28574569

RESUMO

The allergenic potential of airborne proteins may be enhanced via post-translational modification induced by air pollutants like ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The molecular mechanisms and kinetics of the chemical modifications that enhance the allergenicity of proteins, however, are still not fully understood. Here, protein tyrosine nitration and oligomerization upon simultaneous exposure of O3 and NO2 were studied in coated-wall flow-tube and bulk solution experiments under varying atmospherically relevant conditions (5-200 ppb O3, 5-200 ppb NO2, 45-96% RH), using bovine serum albumin as a model protein. Generally, more tyrosine residues were found to react via the nitration pathway than via the oligomerization pathway. Depending on reaction conditions, oligomer mass fractions and nitration degrees were in the ranges of 2.5-25% and 0.5-7%, respectively. The experimental results were well reproduced by the kinetic multilayer model of aerosol surface and bulk chemistry (KM-SUB). The extent of nitration and oligomerization strongly depends on relative humidity (RH) due to moisture-induced phase transition of proteins, highlighting the importance of cloud processing conditions for accelerated protein chemistry. Dimeric and nitrated species were major products in the liquid phase, while protein oligomerization was observed to a greater extent for the solid and semi-solid phase states of proteins. Our results show that the rate of both processes was sensitive towards ambient ozone concentration, but rather insensitive towards different NO2 levels. An increase of tropospheric ozone concentrations in the Anthropocene may thus promote pro-allergic protein modifications and contribute to the observed increase of allergies over the past decades.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Atmosfera/química , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/química , Ozônio/química , Proteínas/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/metabolismo , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ozônio/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo
20.
Geophys Res Lett ; 44(5): 2562-2570, 2017 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28503004

RESUMO

Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) forms a major fraction of organic aerosols in the atmosphere. Knowledge of SOA properties that affect their dynamics in the atmosphere is needed for improving climate models. By combining experimental and modeling techniques, we investigated the factors controlling SOA evaporation under different humidity conditions. Our experiments support the conclusion of particle phase diffusivity limiting the evaporation under dry conditions. Viscosity of particles at dry conditions was estimated to increase several orders of magnitude during evaporation, up to 109 Pa s. However, at atmospherically relevant relative humidity and time scales, our results show that diffusion limitations may have a minor effect on evaporation of the studied α-pinene SOA particles. Based on previous studies and our model simulations, we suggest that, in warm environments dominated by biogenic emissions, the major uncertainty in models describing the SOA particle evaporation is related to the volatility of SOA constituents.

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