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1.
J Med Invest ; 68(3.4): 354-361, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759158

RESUMO

Purpose : To predict local control / failure by a multiparametric approach using magnetic resonance (MR)-derived tumor morphological and functional parameters in pharynx squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients. Materials and Methods : Twenty-eight patients with oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal SCCs were included in this study. Quantitative morphological parameters and intratumoral characteristics on T2-weighted images, tumor blood flow from pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling, and tumor diffusion parameters of three diffusion models from multi-b-value diffusion-weighted imaging as well as patients' characteristics were analyzed. The patients were divided into local control / failure groups. Univariate and multiparametric analysis were performed for the patient group division. Results : The value of morphological parameter of 'sphericity' and intratumoral characteristic of 'homogeneity' was revealed respectively significant for the prediction of the local control status in univariate analysis. Higher diagnostic performance was obtained with the sensitivity of 0.8, specificity of 0.75, positive predictive value of 0.89, negative predictive value of 0.6 and accuracy of 0.79 by multiparametric diagnostic model compared to results in the univariate analysis. Conclusion : A multiparametric analysis with MR-derived quantitative parameters may be useful to predict local control in pharynx SCC patients. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 354-361, August, 2021.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Faringe , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Faringe/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço
2.
J Radiat Res ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617104

RESUMO

The prediction of liver Dmean with 3-dimensional radiation treatment planning (3DRTP) is time consuming in the selection of proton beam therapy (PBT), and deep learning prediction generally requires large and tumor-specific databases. We developed a simple dose prediction tool (SDP) using deep learning and a novel contour-based data augmentation (CDA) approach and assessed its usability. We trained the SDP to predict the liver Dmean immediately. Five and two computed tomography (CT) data sets of actual patients with liver cancer were used for the training and validation. Data augmentation was performed by artificially embedding 199 contours of virtual clinical target volume (CTV) into CT images for each patient. The data sets of the CTVs and OARs are labeled with liver Dmean for six different treatment plans using two-dimensional calculations assuming all tissue densities as 1.0. The test of the validated model was performed using 10 unlabeled CT data sets of actual patients. Contouring only of the liver and CTV was required as input. The mean relative error (MRE), the mean percentage error (MPE) and regression coefficient between the planned and predicted Dmean was 0.1637, 6.6%, and 0.9455, respectively. The mean time required for the inference of liver Dmean of the six different treatment plans for a patient was 4.47±0.13 seconds. We conclude that the SDP is cost-effective and usable for gross estimation of liver Dmean in the clinic although the accuracy should be improved further if we need the accuracy of liver Dmean to be compatible with 3DRTP.

3.
J Radiat Res ; 62(5): 926-933, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196697

RESUMO

The purpose of this work is to show the usefulness of a prediction method of tumor location based on partial least squares regression (PLSR) using multiple fiducial markers. The trajectory data of respiratory motion of four internal fiducial markers inserted in lungs were used for the analysis. The position of one of the four markers was assumed to be the tumor position and was predicted by other three fiducial markers. Regression coefficients for prediction of the position of the tumor-assumed marker from the fiducial markers' positions is derived by PLSR. The tracking error and the gating error were evaluated assuming two possible variations. First, the variation of the position definition of the tumor and the markers on treatment planning computed tomograhy (CT) images. Second, the intra-fractional anatomical variation which leads the distance change between the tumor and markers during the course of treatment. For comparison, rigid predictions and ordinally multiple linear regression (MLR) predictions were also evaluated. The tracking and gating errors of PLSR prediction were smaller than those of other prediction methods. Ninety-fifth percentile of tracking/gating error in all trials were 3.7/4.1 mm, respectively in PLSR prediction for superior-inferior direction. The results suggested that PLSR prediction was robust to variations, and clinically applicable accuracy could be achievable for targeting tumors.

4.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 22(7): 165-176, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080303

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The real-time tumor tracking radiotherapy (RTRT) system requires periodic quality assurance (QA) and quality control. The goal of this study is to propose QA procedures from the viewpoint of imaging devices in the RTRT system. METHODS: Tracking by the RTRT system (equips two sets of colored image intensifiers (colored I.I.s) fluoroscopy units) for the moving gold-marker (diameter 2.0 mm) in a rotating phantom were performed under various X-ray conditions. To analyze the relationship between fluoroscopic image quality and precision of gold marker coordinate calculation, the standard deviation of the 3D coordinate (σ3D [mm]) of the gold marker, the mean of the pattern recognition score (PRS) and the standard deviation of the distance between rays (DBR) (σDBR [mm]) were evaluated. RESULTS: When tracking with speed of 10-60 mm/s, σDBR increased, though the mean PRS did not change significantly (p>0.05). On the contrary, the mean PRS increased depending on the integral noise equivalent quanta (∫NEQ) that is an indicator of image quality calculated from the modulation transfer function (MTF) as an indicator of spatial resolution and the noise power spectrum (NPS) as an indicator of noise characteristic. CONCLUSION: The indicators of NEQ, MTF, and NPS were useful for managing the tracking accuracy of the RTRT system. We propose observing the change of these indicators as additional QA procedures for each imaging device from the commissioning baseline.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Radioterapia (Especialidade) , Fluoroscopia , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Imagens de Fantasmas , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica
5.
J Radiat Res ; 62(4): 626-633, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33948661

RESUMO

In spot scanning proton therapy (SSPT), the spot position relative to the target may fluctuate through tumor motion even when gating the radiation by utilizing a fiducial marker. We have established a procedure that evaluates the delivered dose distribution by utilizing log data on tumor motion and spot information. The purpose of this study is to show the reliability of the dose distributions for liver tumors treated with real-time-image gated SSPT (RGPT). In the evaluation procedure, the delivered spot information and the marker position are synchronized on the basis of log data on the timing of the spot irradiation and fluoroscopic X-ray irradiation. Then a treatment planning system reconstructs the delivered dose distribution. Dose distributions accumulated for all fractions were reconstructed for eight liver cases. The log data were acquired in all 168 fractions for all eight cases. The evaluation was performed for the values of maximum dose, minimum dose, D99, and D5-D95 for the clinical target volumes (CTVs) and mean liver dose (MLD) scaled by the prescribed dose. These dosimetric parameters were statistically compared between the planned dose distribution and the reconstructed dose distribution. The mean difference of the maximum dose was 1.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.6%-2.1%). Regarding the minimum dose, the mean difference was 0.1% (95% CI: -0.5%-0.7%). The mean differences of D99, D5-D95 and MLD were below 1%. The reliability of dose distributions for liver tumors treated with RGPT-SSPT was shown by the evaluation of the accumulated dose distributions.

6.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 560: 14-20, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965785

RESUMO

Clock genes express circadian rhythms in most organs. These rhythms are organized throughout the whole body, regulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the brain. Disturbance of these clock gene expression rhythms is a risk factor for diseases such as obesity. In the present study, to explore the role of clock genes in developing diabetes, we examined the effect of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced high glucose on Period1 (Per1) gene expression rhythm in the liver and the olfactory bub (OB) in the brain. We found a drastic increase of Per1 expression in both tissues after STZ injection while blood glucose content was low. After a rapid expression peak, Per1 expression showed no rhythm. Associated with an increase of glucose content, behavior became arrhythmic. Finally, we succeeded in detecting an increase of Per1 expression in mice hair follicles on day 1 after STZ administration, before the onset of symptoms. These results show that elevated Per1 expression by STZ plays an important role in the aggravation of diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Bulbo Olfatório/metabolismo , Proteínas Circadianas Period/biossíntese , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Ingestão de Líquidos/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica , Cabelo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cabelo/metabolismo , Locomoção , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Circadianas Period/genética , Periodicidade , Estreptozocina
7.
J Radiat Res ; 62(3): 483-493, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899102

RESUMO

We developed a confidence interval-(CI) assessing model in multivariable normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) modeling for predicting radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) in primary liver cancer patients using clinical and dosimetric data. Both the mean NTCP and difference in the mean NTCP (ΔNTCP) between two treatment plans of different radiotherapy modalities were further evaluated and their CIs were assessed. Clinical data were retrospectively reviewed in 322 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 215) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (n = 107) treated with photon therapy. Dose-volume histograms of normal liver were reduced to mean liver dose (MLD) based on the fraction size-adjusted equivalent uniform dose. The most predictive variables were used to build the model based on multivariable logistic regression analysis with bootstrapping. Internal validation was performed using the cross-validation leave-one-out method. Both the mean NTCP and the mean ΔNTCP with 95% CIs were calculated from computationally generated multivariate random sets of NTCP model parameters using variance-covariance matrix information. RILD occurred in 108/322 patients (33.5%). The NTCP model with three clinical and one dosimetric parameter (tumor type, Child-Pugh class, hepatitis infection status and MLD) was most predictive, with an area under the receiver operative characteristics curve (AUC) of 0.79 (95% CI 0.74-0.84). In eight clinical subgroups based on the three clinical parameters, both the mean NTCP and the mean ΔNTCP with 95% CIs were able to be estimated computationally. The multivariable NTCP model with the assessment of 95% CIs has potential to improve the reliability of the NTCP model-based approach to select the appropriate radiotherapy modality for each patient.

8.
Phys Med Biol ; 66(6): 065029, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626513

RESUMO

Integrated-type proton computed tomography (pCT) measures proton stopping power ratio (SPR) images for proton therapy treatment planning, but its image quality is degraded due to noise and scatter. Although several correction methods have been proposed, techniques that include estimation of uncertainty are limited. This study proposes a novel uncertainty-aware pCT image correction method using a Bayesian convolutional neural network (BCNN). A DenseNet-based BCNN was constructed to predict both a corrected SPR image and its uncertainty from a noisy SPR image. A total 432 noisy SPR images of 6 non-anthropomorphic and 3 head phantoms were collected with Monte Carlo simulations, while true noise-free images were calculated with known geometric and chemical components. Heteroscedastic loss and deep ensemble techniques were performed to estimate aleatoric and epistemic uncertainties by training 25 unique BCNN models. 200-epoch end-to-end training was performed for each model independently. Feasibility of the predicted uncertainty was demonstrated after applying two post-hoc calibrations and calculating spot-specific path length uncertainty distribution. For evaluation, accuracy of head SPR images and water-equivalent thickness (WET) corrected by the trained BCNN models was compared with a conventional method and non-Bayesian CNN model. BCNN-corrected SPR images represent noise-free images with high accuracy. Mean absolute error in test data was improved from 0.263 for uncorrected images to 0.0538 for BCNN-corrected images. Moreover, the calibrated uncertainty represents accurate confidence levels, and the BCNN-corrected calibrated WET was more accurate than non-Bayesian CNN with high statistical significance. Computation time for calculating one image and its uncertainties with 25 BCNN models is 0.7 s with a consumer grade GPU. Our model is able to predict accurate pCT images as well as two types of uncertainty. These uncertainties will be useful to identify potential cause of SPR errors and develop a spot-specific range margin criterion, toward elaboration of uncertainty-guided proton therapy.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , Aprendizado Profundo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Cabeça/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Algoritmos , Calibragem , Humanos , Método de Monte Carlo , Redes Neurais de Computação , Terapia com Prótons , Prótons , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Incerteza
9.
Luminescence ; 36(1): 94-98, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721066

RESUMO

Circadian disturbance of clock gene expression is a risk factor for diseases such as obesity, cancer, and sleep disorders. To study these diseases, it is necessary to monitor and analyze the expression rhythm of clock genes in the whole body for a long duration. The bioluminescent reporter enzyme firefly luciferase and its substrate d-luciferin have been used to generate optical signals from tissues in vivo with high sensitivity. However, little information is known about the stability of d-luciferin to detect gene expression in living animals for a long duration. In the present study, we examined the stability of a luciferin solution over 21 days. l-Luciferin, which is synthesized using racemization of d-luciferin, was at high concentrations after 21 days. In addition, we showed that bioluminescence of Period1 (Per1) expression in the liver was significantly decreased compared with the day 1 solution, although locomotor activity rhythm was not affected. These results showed that d-luciferin should be applied to the mouse within, at most, 7 days to detect bioluminescence of Per1 gene expression rhythm in vivo.


Assuntos
Luciferases de Vaga-Lume , Medições Luminescentes , Animais , Benzotiazóis , Luciferina de Vaga-Lumes , Expressão Gênica , Luciferases de Vaga-Lume/genética , Camundongos
10.
Auris Nasus Larynx ; 48(1): 131-137, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723597

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite of rapid advances in endoscopic surgery, the gold standard for sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SNSCC) surgery has remained the open approach with en-block resection due to the aggressive nature of SNSCC, including frequent recurrence and high mortality rate. For that reason, few studies have focused on SNSCC treated by endoscopic surgery alone. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of endoscopic surgery for patients with SNSCC. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for 15 consecutive SNSCC patients who underwent endoscopic surgery without an open approach. We carefully selected patients whose tumor attachment sites could be fully visualized and completely resected through an endonasal approach. RESULTS: Of the fifteen patients, 4 patients (27%) were diagnosed with T1, 7 (47%) with T2, 4 (27%) with T3, and no patients with T4a or T4b disease. Four of the 15 (27%) patients showed positive surgical margins. The 5-yr overall survival, disease-specific survival, and local control rate was 72.4%, 79.6%, and 92.9%, respectively. The 5-yr disease-specific survival for T1, T2, and T3 disease was 100% and 75% and 75%, respectively. Patients with negative surgical margins had a better disease-specific survival rate than did those with positive surgical margins (p = 0.0253). CONCLUSION: Endoscopic surgery for patients with SNSCC appears to afford an effective method in selected cases. The achievement of negative surgical margins with a good view of the tumor attachment site was considered to be critical to the management of SNSCC.

11.
J Radiat Res ; 62(2): 329-337, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372202

RESUMO

Pharyngeal cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) using a model-based approach were retrospectively reviewed, and acute toxicities were analyzed. From June 2016 to March 2019, 15 pharyngeal (7 naso-, 5 oro- and 3 hypo-pharyngeal) cancer patients received IMPT with robust optimization. Simulation plans for IMPT and intensity-modulated X-ray therapy (IMXT) were generated before treatment. We also reviewed 127 pharyngeal cancer patients with IMXT in the same treatment period. In the simulation planning comparison, all of the normal-tissue complication probability values for dysphagia, dysgeusia, tube-feeding dependence and xerostomia were lower for IMPT than for IMXT in the 15 patients. After completing IMPT, 13 patients completed the evaluation, and 12 of these patients had a complete response. The proportions of patients who experienced grade 2 or worse acute toxicities in the IMPT and IMXT cohorts were 21.4 and 56.5% for dysphagia (P < 0.05), 46.7 and 76.3% for dysgeusia (P < 0.05), 73.3 and 62.8% for xerostomia (P = 0.43), 73.3 and 90.6% for mucositis (P = 0.08) and 66.7 and 76.4% for dermatitis (P = 0.42), respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that IMPT was independently associated with a lower rate of grade 2 or worse dysphagia and dysgeusia. After propensity score matching, 12 pairs of IMPT and IMXT patients were selected. Dysphagia was also statistically lower in IMPT than in IMXT (P < 0.05). IMPT using a model-based approach may have clinical benefits for acute dysphagia.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Faríngeas/radioterapia , Terapia com Prótons/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Neoplasias Faríngeas/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Raios X , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 22(1): 174-183, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338323

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate potential advantages of adaptive intensity-modulated proton beam therapy (A-IMPT) by comparing it to adaptive intensity-modulated X-ray therapy (A-IMXT) for nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC). METHODS: Ten patients with NPC treated with A-IMXT (step and shoot approach) and concomitant chemotherapy between 2014 and 2016 were selected. In the actual treatment, 46 Gy in 23 fractions (46Gy/23Fx.) was prescribed using the initial plan and 24Gy/12Fx was prescribed using an adapted plan thereafter. New treatment planning of A-IMPT was made for the same patients using equivalent dose fractionation schedule and dose constraints. The dose volume statistics based on deformable images and dose accumulation was used in the comparison of A-IMXT with A-IMPT. RESULTS: The means of the Dmean of the right parotid gland (P < 0.001), right TM joint (P < 0.001), left TM joint (P < 0.001), oral cavity (P < 0.001), supraglottic larynx (P = 0.001), glottic larynx (P < 0.001), , middle PCM (P = 0.0371), interior PCM (P < 0.001), cricopharyngeal muscle (P = 0.03643), and thyroid gland (P = 0.00216), in A-IMPT are lower than those of A-IMXT, with statistical significance. The means of, D0.03cc , and Dmean of each sub portion of auditory apparatus and D30% for Eustachian tube and D0.5cc for mastoid volume in A-IMPT are significantly lower than those of A-IMXT. The mean doses to the oral cavity, supraglottic larynx, and glottic larynx were all reduced by more than 20 Gy (RBE = 1.1). CONCLUSIONS: An adaptive approach is suggested to enhance the potential benefit of IMPT compared to IMXT to reduce adverse effects for patients with NPC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Terapia com Prótons , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Humanos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/radioterapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/radioterapia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador
13.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 21(12): 10-19, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151643

RESUMO

A synchrotron-based real-time image gated spot-scanning proton beam therapy (RGPT) system with inserted fiducial markers can irradiate a moving tumor with high accuracy. As gated treatments increase the beam delivery time, this study aimed to investigate the frequency of intra-field adjustments corresponding to the baseline shift or drift and the beam delivery efficiency of a synchrotron-based RGPT system. Data from 118 patients corresponding to 127 treatment plans and 2810 sessions between October 2016 and March 2019 were collected. We quantitatively analyzed the proton beam delivery time, the difference between the ideal beam delivery time based on a simulated synchrotron magnetic excitation pattern and the actual treatment beam delivery time, frequency corresponding to the baseline shift or drift, and the gating efficiency of the synchrotron-based RGPT system according to the proton beam delivery machine log data. The mean actual beam delivery time was 7.1 min, and the simulated beam delivery time in an ideal environment with the same treatment plan was 2.9 min. The average difference between the actual and simulated beam delivery time per session was 4.3 min. The average frequency of intra-field adjustments corresponding to baseline shift or drift and beam delivery efficiency were 21.7% and 61.8%, respectively. Based on our clinical experience with a synchrotron-based RGPT system, we determined the frequency corresponding to baseline shift or drift and the beam delivery efficiency using the beam delivery machine log data. To maintain treatment accuracy within ± 2.0 mm, intra-field adjustments corresponding to baseline shift or drift were required in approximately 20% of cases. Further improvements in beam delivery efficiency may be realized by shortening the beam delivery time.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Terapia com Prótons , Marcadores Fiduciais , Humanos , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Cintilografia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Síncrotrons
14.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 620, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110168

RESUMO

Enhanced invasiveness, a critical determinant of metastasis and poor prognosis, has been observed in cancer cells that survive cancer therapy, including radiotherapy. Here, we show that invasiveness in radiation-surviving cancer cells is associated with alterations in lysosomal exocytosis caused by the enhanced activation of Arl8b, a small GTPase that regulates lysosomal trafficking. The binding of Arl8b with its effector, SKIP, is increased after radiation through regulation of BORC-subunits. Knockdown of Arl8b or BORC-subunits decreases lysosomal exocytosis and the invasiveness of radiation-surviving cells. Notably, high expression of ARL8B and BORC-subunit genes is significantly correlated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Sp1, an ATM-regulated transcription factor, is found to increase BORC-subunit genes expression after radiation. In vivo experiments show that ablation of Arl8b decreases IR-induced invasive tumor growth and distant metastasis. These findings suggest that BORC-Arl8b-mediated lysosomal trafficking is a target for improving radiotherapy by inhibiting invasive tumor growth and metastasis.


Assuntos
Fatores de Ribosilação do ADP/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Lisossomos/fisiologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Fatores de Ribosilação do ADP/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Subunidades Proteicas , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/genética , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/metabolismo
15.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 529(4): 898-903, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819596

RESUMO

Clock genes express circadian rhythms in most organs. These rhythms are organized throughout the whole body, regulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the brain. Disturbance of these clock gene expression rhythms is a risk factor for diseases such as obesity and cancer. To understand the mechanism of regulating clock gene expression rhythms in vivo, multiple real time recording systems are required. In the present study, we developed a double recording system of Period1 expression rhythm in peripheral tissue (liver) and the brain. In peripheral tissue, quantification of gene expression in a steadily moving target was achieved by using a photomultiplier tube (PMT) attached to a tissue contact optical sensor (TCS). Using this technique, we were able to analyze circadian rhythms of clock gene expression over a prolonged period in the liver and olfactory bub (OB) of the brain. The present double recording system has no effect on behavioral activity or rhythm. Our novel system thus successfully quantifies clock gene expression in deep areas of the body in freely moving mice for a period sufficient to analyze circadian dynamics. In addition, our double recording system can be widely applied to many areas of biomedical research, as well as applications beyond medicine.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinal Luminoso , Fígado/fisiologia , Bulbo Olfatório/fisiologia , Proteínas Circadianas Period/genética , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/fisiologia , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos da radiação , Eletrodos Implantados , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Luz , Fígado/efeitos da radiação , Luciferases/genética , Luciferases/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Movimento/fisiologia , Bulbo Olfatório/efeitos da radiação , Optogenética , Proteínas Circadianas Period/metabolismo , Técnicas Estereotáxicas , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/efeitos da radiação
16.
Phys Med Biol ; 65(21): 215007, 2020 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604078

RESUMO

This study proposes a near-real-time spot-scanning proton dose calculation method with probabilistic uncertainty estimation using a three-dimensional convolutional neural network (3D-CNN). CT images and clinical target volume contours of 215 head and neck cancer patients were collected from a public database. 1484 and 488 plans were extracted for training and testing the 3D-CNN model, respectively. Spot beam data and single-field uniform dose (SFUD) labels were calculated for each plan using an open-source dose calculation toolkit. Variable spot data were converted into a fixed-size volume hereby called a 'peak map' (PM). 300 epochs of end-to-end training was implemented using sets of stopping power ratio and PM as input. Moreover, transfer learning techniques were used to adjust the trained model to SFUD doses calculated with different beam parameters and calculation algorithm using only 7.95% of training data used for the base model. Finally, accuracy of the 3D-CNN-calculated doses and model uncertainty was reviewed with several evaluation metrics. The 3D-CNN model calculates 3D proton dose distributions accurately with a mean absolute error of 0.778 cGyE. The predicted uncertainty is correlated with dose errors at high contrast edges. Averaged Sørensen-Dice similarity coefficients between binarized outputs and ground truths are mostly above 80%. Once the 3D-CNN model was well-trained, it can be efficiently fine-tuned for different proton doses by transfer learning techniques. Inference time for calculating one dose distribution is around 0.8 s for a plan using 1500 spot beams with a consumer grade GPU. A novel spot-scanning proton dose calculation method using 3D-CNN was developed. The 3D-CNN model is able to calculate 3D doses and uncertainty with any SFUD spot data and beam irradiation angles. Our proposed method should be readily extendable to other setups and plans and be useful for dose verification, image-guided proton therapy, or other applications.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Terapia com Prótons , Incerteza , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Humanos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
Med Phys ; 47(9): 4644-4655, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652574

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the sublethal damage (SLD) repair effect in prolonged proton irradiation using the biophysical model with various cell-specific parameters of (α/ß)x and T1/2 (repair half time). At present, most of the model-based studies on protons have focused on acute radiation, neglecting the reduction in biological effectiveness due to SLD repair during the delivery of radiation. Nevertheless, the dose-rate dependency of biological effectiveness may become more important as advanced treatment techniques, such as hypofractionation and respiratory gating, come into clinical practice, as these techniques sometimes require long treatment times. Also, while previous research using the biophysical model revealed a large repair effect with a high physical dose, the dependence of the repair effect on cell-specific parameters has not been evaluated systematically. METHODS: Biological dose [relative biological effectiveness (RBE) × physical dose] calculation with repair included was carried out using the linear energy transfer (LET)-dependent linear-quadratic (LQ) model combined with the theory of dual radiation action (TDRA). First, we extended the dose protraction factor in the LQ model for the arbitrary number of different LET proton irradiations delivered sequentially with arbitrary time lags, referring to the TDRA. Using the LQ model, the decrease in biological dose due to SLD repair was systematically evaluated for spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) irradiation in a water phantom with the possible ranges of both (α/ß)x and repair parameters ((α/ß)x  = 1-15 Gy, T1/2  = 0-90 min). Then, to consider more realistic irradiation conditions, clinical cases of prostate, liver, and lung tumors were examined with the cell-specific parameters for each tumor obtained from the literature. Biological D99% and biological dose homogeneity coefficient (HC) were calculated for the clinical target volumes (CTVs), assuming dose-rate structures with a total irradiation time of 0-60 min. RESULTS: The differences in the cell-specific parameters resulted in considerable variation in the repair effect. The biological dose reduction found at the center of the SOBP with 30 min of continuous irradiation varied from 1.13% to 14.4% with a T1/2 range of 1-90 min when (α/ß)x is fixed as 10 Gy. It varied from 2.3% to 6.8% with an (α/ß)x range of 1-15 Gy for a fixed value of T1/2  = 30 min. The decrease in biological D99% per 10 min was 2.6, 1.2, and 3.0% for the prostate, liver, and lung tumor cases, respectively. The value of the biological D99% reduction was neither in the order of (α/ß)x nor prescribed dose, but both comparably contributed to the repair effect. The variation of HC was within the range of 0.5% for all cases; therefore, the dose distribution was not distorted. CONCLUSION: The reduction in biological dose caused by the SLD repair largely depends on the cell-specific parameters in addition to the physical dose. The parameters should be considered carefully in the evaluation of the repair effect in prolonged proton irradiation.


Assuntos
Terapia com Prótons , Prótons , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Transferência Linear de Energia , Masculino , Imagens de Fantasmas , Radiação Ionizante , Eficiência Biológica Relativa
18.
Luminescence ; 35(8): 1248-1253, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573071

RESUMO

Because the disruption of circadian clock gene is a risk factor in many diseases such as obesity and cancer, it is important to monitor and analyzed the expression of the rhythm of the clock gene throughout the body over a long period of time. Although we previously reported on a new gene expression analysis system tracking a target position on the body surface of freely moving mice, the experimental apparatus required a large space. We have therefore developed an in vivo recording system using a portable photomultiplier tube (PMT) system attached to an optical fibre. Directly connecting the target area with the device, we could easily measure the photon counts in a very small space. However, little information is known about the characteristics of optical fibres when exposed to twisting/looping in association with a moving mouse and the effect of the surface of optical fibre. In the present study, we report on the characteristics of optical fibres to detect gene expression rhythm in freely moving mice. Using this portable optical device directly connected with a target area, we were able to measure the circadian rhythm of clock gene expression over a prolonged period in freely moving mice in a small space.


Assuntos
Bulbo Olfatório , Núcleo Supraquiasmático , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica , Expressão Gênica , Camundongos
19.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 52(4): 1187-1196, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying structural and functional abnormalities in bipolar (BD) and major depressive disorders (MDD) is important for understanding biological processes. HYPOTHESIS: Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) may be able to detect the brain's microstructural alterations in BD and MDD and any differences between the two. STUDY TYPE: Prospective. SUBJECTS: In all, 16 BD patients, 19 MDD patients, and 20 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: DKI at 3.0T. ASSESSMENT: The major DKI indices of the brain were compared voxel-by-voxel among the three groups. Significantly different voxels were tested for correlation with clinical variables (ie, Young Mania Rating Scale [YMRS], 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [17-HDRS], Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, total disease duration, duration of current episode, and the number of past manic/depressive episodes). The performance of the DKI indices in identifying microstructural alterations was estimated. STATISTICAL TESTS: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for group comparison of DKI indices. The performance of these indices in detecting microstructural alterations was determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Pearson's product-moment correlation analyses were used to test the correlations of these indices with clinical variables. RESULTS: DKI revealed widespread microstructural alterations across the brain in each disorder (P < 0.05). Some were significantly different between the two disorders. Mean kurtosis (MK) in the gray matter of the right inferior parietal lobe was able to distinguish BD and MDD with an accuracy of 0.906. A strong correlation was revealed between MK in that region and YMRS in BD patients (r = -0.641, corrected P = 0.042) or 17-HDRS in MDD patients (r = -0.613, corrected P = 0.030). There were also strong correlations between a few other DKI indices and disease duration (r = -0.676 or 0.626, corrected P < 0.05). DATA CONCLUSION: DKI detected microstructural brain alterations in BD and MDD. Its indices may be useful to distinguish the two disorders or to reflect disease severity and duration. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2020;52:1187-1196.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Substância Cinzenta , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 21(4): 13-21, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068347

RESUMO

Spot-scanning particle therapy possesses advantages, such as high conformity to the target and efficient energy utilization compared with those of the passive scattering irradiation technique. However, this irradiation technique is sensitive to target motion. In the current clinical situation, some motion management techniques, such as respiratory-gated irradiation, which uses an external or internal surrogate, have been clinically applied. In surrogate-based gating, the size of the gating window is fixed during the treatment in the current treatment system. In this study, we propose a dynamic gating window technique, which optimizes the size of gating window for each spot by considering a possible dosimetric error. The effectiveness of the dynamic gating window technique was evaluated by simulating irradiation using a moving target in a water phantom. In dosimetric characteristics comparison, the dynamic gating window technique exhibited better performance in all evaluation volumes with different effective depths compared with that of the fixed gate approach. The variation of dosimetric characteristics according to the target depth was small in dynamic gate compared to fixed gate. These results suggest that the dynamic gating window technique can maintain an acceptable dose distribution regardless of the target depth. The overall gating efficiency of the dynamic gate was approximately equal or greater than that of the fixed gating window. In dynamic gate, as the target depth becomes shallower, the gating efficiency will be reduced, although dosimetric characteristics will be maintained regardless of the target depth. The results of this study suggest that the proposed gating technique may potentially improve the dose distribution. However, additional evaluations should be undertaken in the future to determine clinical applicability by assuming the specifications of the treatment system and clinical situation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Pulmão/efeitos da radiação , Imagens de Fantasmas , Radiometria/métodos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doses de Radiação
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