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1.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 24(5): 519-528, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35286663

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a review of recent literature on the treatment of moderate-to-severe calcification in coronary and peripheral vasculature with intravascular lithotripsy (Shockwave Medical, Santa Clara, CA). RECENT FINDINGS: Moderate-to-severe calcific plaques constitute a significant proportion of lesions treated with transcatheter interventions in the coronary and peripheral vascular beds and portend lower procedural success rates, increased periprocedural major adverse events, and unfavorable long-term clinical outcomes compared to non-calcific plaques. Intravascular lithotripsy (IVL) is a new technique that uses acoustic shock waves in a balloon-based system to induce fracture in the calcium deposits to facilitate luminal gain and stent expansion. IVL demonstrated high procedural success and low complication rates in the management of moderate-to-severe calcification in coronary and peripheral vascular beds and led to large luminal gain by modification of calcific plaque as assessed by optical coherence tomography. Further studies will determine the role of IVL in an integrated, protocolized approach to the treatment of severely calcified plaques in the coronary and peripheral vascular beds.


Assuntos
Litotripsia , Calcificação Vascular , Acústica , Humanos , Litotripsia/efeitos adversos , Stents , Resultado do Tratamento , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/etiologia , Calcificação Vascular/terapia
2.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 39: 100975, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35242998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intravascular lithotripsy (IVL) can be used to assist stent deployment in severe coronary artery calcifications (CAC). METHODS: Studies employing IVL for CAC lesions were included. The primary outcomes included clinical and angiographic success. The secondary outcomes, including lumen gain, maximum calcium thickness, and calcium angle at the final angiography site, minimal lumen area site, and minimal stent area site, were analyzed by the random-effects model to calculate the pooled standardized mean difference. Tertiary outcomes included safety event ratios. RESULTS: Seven studies (760 patients) were included. The primary outcomes: pooled clinical and angiographic success event ratio parentage of IVL was 94.4% and 94.8%, respectively. On a random effect model for standard inverse variance for secondary outcomes showed: minimal lumen diameter increase with IVL was 4.68 mm (p-value < 0.0001, 95% CI 1.69-5.32); diameter decrease in the stenotic area after IVL session was -5.23 mm (95 CI -22.6-12.8). At the minimal lumen area (MLA) and final minimal stent area (MSA) sites, mean lumen area gain was 1.42 mm2 (95% CI 1.06-1.63; p < 0.00001) and 1.34 mm2 (95% CI 0.71-1.43; p < 0.00001), respectively. IVL reduced calcium thickness at the MLA site (SMD -0.22; 95% CI -0.40-0.04; P = 0.02); calcium angle was not affected at the MLA site. The tertiary outcomes: most common complication was major adverse cardiovascular events (n = 48/669), and least common complication was abrupt closure of the vessel (n = 1/669). CONCLUSIONS: Evidence suggests that IVL safely and effectively facilitates stent deployment with high angiographic and clinical success rates in treating severely calcified coronary lesions.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35325085

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the treatment effects of ticagrelor monotherapy in the very high-risk cohort of patients with concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS AND RESULTS: In the TWILIGHT trial, after 3-month dual antiplatelet therapy with ticagrelor and aspirin post-PCI, event-free patients were randomized to either aspirin or placebo in addition to ticagrelor for 12 months. Those with available information on DM and CKD status were included in this subanalysis and were stratified by the presence or absence of either condition: 3391 (54.1%) had neither DM nor CKD (DM-/CKD-), 1822 (29.0%) had DM only (DM+/CKD-), 561 (8.9%) had CKD only (DM-/CKD+), and 8.0% had both DM and CKD (DM+/CKD+). The incidence of the primary endpoint of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding did not differ according to DM/CKD status (p-trend = 0.13), but there was a significant increase in BARC 3 or 5 bleeding (p-trend<0.001) as well as the key secondary endpoint of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (p-trend<0.001). Ticagrelor plus placebo reduced bleeding events compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin across all four groups, including DM+/CKD+ patients with respect to BARC 2-5 (4.5% vs. 8.7%; HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.24-1.01) as well as BARC 3-5 (0.8% vs. 5.3%; HR 0.15, 95% CI 0.03-0.53) bleeding, with no evidence of heterogeneity. The risk of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke was similar between treatment arms across all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of the presence of DM, CKD, and their combination, ticagrelor monotherapy reduced the risk of bleeding without a significant increase in ischemic events compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin.

4.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 15(3): 282-293, 2022 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35033468

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate if patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI) could benefit from ticagrelor monotherapy in terms of bleeding reduction without any compromise in ischemic event prevention. BACKGROUND: Patients with history of MI who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remain at risk for recurrent ischemic events. The optimal antithrombotic strategy for this cohort remains debated. METHODS: In this prespecified analysis of the randomized TWILIGHT (Ticagrelor With Aspirin or Alone in High-Risk Patients after Coronary Intervention) trial, the authors evaluated the impact of history of MI on treatment effect of ticagrelor monotherapy versus ticagrelor plus aspirin in patients undergoing PCI with drug-eluting stent with at least 1 clinical and 1 angiographic high-risk feature and free from adverse events at 3 months after index PCI. The primary endpoint was Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding, and the key secondary endpoint was the composite of all-cause death, MI, or stroke, both at 12 months after randomization. RESULTS: A total of 1,937 patients (29.7%) with and 4,595 patients (70.3%) without prior MI were randomized to ticagrelor and placebo or ticagrelor and aspirin. At 1 year after randomization, patients with prior MI experienced higher rates of death, MI, or stroke (5.7% vs 3.2%; P < 0.001) but similar BARC types 2 to 5 bleeding (5.0% vs 5.5%; P = 0.677) compared with patients without prior MI. Ticagrelor monotherapy consistently reduced the risk for the primary bleeding outcome in patients with (3.4% vs 6.7%; HR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.33-0.76) and without (4.2% vs 7.0%; HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.45-0.76; Pinteraction = 0.54) prior MI. Rates of the key secondary ischemic outcome were not significantly different between treatment groups irrespective of history of MI (prior MI, 6.0% vs 5.5% [HR: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.75-1.58]; no prior MI, 3.1% vs 3.3% [HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.67-1.28]; Pinteraction = 0.52). CONCLUSIONS: Ticagrelor monotherapy is associated with significantly lower risk for bleeding events compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin, without any compromise in ischemic prevention, among high-risk patients with history of MI undergoing PCI. (Ticagrelor With Aspirin or Alone in High-Risk Patients After Coronary Intervention [TWILIGHT]; NCT02270242).


Assuntos
Stents Farmacológicos , Infarto do Miocárdio , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária , Ticagrelor , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Cardiovasc Revasc Med ; 37: 112-117, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607786

RESUMO

Effective treatment strategies and medical devices continue to be needed in Japan and the United States of America (US) to mitigate the growing burden of cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease. Unfortunately, there can be a delay in gaining cardiovascular device approval in Japan after a device has already been approved and is in use in the US. The Harmonization by Doing (HBD) program; however, can eliminate this delay and reduce the cost of completing a clinical trial in Japan. The HBD proof-of-concept study, COAST, resulted in approval of the Diamondback 360® Coronary Orbital Atherectomy System Micro Crown simultaneously in Japan and the US on the same day. Subsequently, the Diamondback 360® Coronary OAS Classic Crown also received approval in Japan. The COAST study provides further evidence that global clinical trials via HBD for medical devices are practical and advantageous.


Assuntos
Aterectomia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Calcificação Vascular , Aterectomia , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Humanos , Japão , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/terapia
6.
EuroIntervention ; 17(16): 1330-1339, 2022 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34881696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the TWILIGHT trial, ticagrelor monotherapy after a short course of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) was shown to be a safe bleeding avoidance strategy in high-risk patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES). AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ticagrelor monotherapy after three-month DAPT in patients undergoing PCI, according to DES type. METHODS: In the current sub-analysis from TWILIGHT, patients were stratified into three groups based on DES type: durable polymer everolimus-eluting stents (DP-EES), durable polymer zotarolimus-eluting stents (DP-ZES), and biodegradable polymer DES (BP-DES). Bleeding and ischaemic outcomes were assessed at one year after randomisation. RESULTS: Out of 5,769 patients, 3,014 (52.2%) had DP-EES, 1,350 (23.4%) had DP-ZES and 1,405 (24.4%) had BP-DES. Compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin, ticagrelor monotherapy had significantly lower BARC type 2, 3 or 5 bleeding compared with DAPT; DP-EES (3.8% vs 6.7%; HR 0.56, 95% CI: 0.41-0.78), DP-ZES (4.6% vs 6.9%; HR 0.66, 95% CI: 0.42-1.04) and BP-DES (4.2% vs 7.9%; HR 0.52, 95% CI: 0.33-0.81; pinteraction=0.76). Ticagrelor monotherapy resulted in similar rates of death, MI, or stroke: DP-EES (4.2% vs 4.3%; HR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.68-1.37); DP-ZES (4.1% vs 3.1%; HR 1.32; 95% CI: 0.75-2.33); BP-DES (3.9% vs 4.2%; HR 0.92; 95% CI: 0.54-1.55; pinteraction=0.60). In both unadjusted and covariate-adjusted analyses, DES type was not associated with any differences in ischaemic or bleeding complications. CONCLUSIONS: As compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin, ticagrelor monotherapy after a short DAPT duration lowered bleeding complications without increasing the ischaemic risk, irrespective of DES type. We observed no significant differences among DES types.


Assuntos
Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Everolimo/farmacologia , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Stents , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Eur Heart J ; 42(45): 4624-4634, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662382

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients at high bleeding risk (HBR) represent a prevalent subgroup among those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Early aspirin discontinuation after a short course of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) has emerged as a bleeding avoidance strategy. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of ticagrelor monotherapy after 3-month DAPT in a contemporary HBR population. METHODS AND RESULTS: This prespecified analysis of the TWILIGHT trial evaluated the treatment effects of early aspirin withdrawal followed by ticagrelor monotherapy in HBR patients undergoing PCI with drug-eluting stents. After 3 months of ticagrelor plus aspirin, event-free patients were randomized to 12 months of aspirin or placebo in addition to ticagrelor. A total of 1064 (17.2%) met the Academic Research Consortium definition for HBR. Ticagrelor monotherapy reduced the incidence of the primary endpoint of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) 2, 3, or 5 bleeding compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin in HBR (6.3% vs. 11.4%; hazard ratio (HR) 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35-0.82) and non-HBR patients (3.5% vs. 5.9%; HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.46-0.77) with similar relative (Pinteraction = 0.67) but a trend towards greater absolute risk reduction in the former [-5.1% vs. -2.3%; difference in absolute risk differences (ARDs) -2.8%, 95% CI -6.4% to 0.8%, P = 0.130]. A similar pattern was observed for more severe BARC 3 or 5 bleeding with a larger absolute risk reduction in HBR patients (-3.5% vs. -0.5%; difference in ARDs -3.0%, 95% CI -5.2% to -0.8%, P = 0.008). There was no significant difference in the key secondary endpoint of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke between treatment arms, irrespective of HBR status. CONCLUSIONS: Among HBR patients undergoing PCI who completed 3-month DAPT without experiencing major adverse events, aspirin discontinuation followed by ticagrelor monotherapy significantly reduced bleeding without increasing ischaemic events, compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin. The absolute risk reduction in major bleeding was larger in HBR than non-HBR patients.


Assuntos
Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Quimioterapia Combinada , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Eur Heart J ; 42(45): 4683-4693, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423374

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on the safety and efficacy of ticagrelor monotherapy among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS AND RESULTS: In this prespecified subanalysis of the TWILIGHT trial, we evaluated the treatment effects of ticagrelor with or without aspirin according to renal function. The trial enrolled patients undergoing drug-eluting stent implantation who fulfilled at least one clinical and one angiographic high-risk criterion. Chronic kidney disease, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, was a clinical study entry criterion. Following a 3-month period of ticagrelor plus aspirin, event-free patients were randomly assigned to aspirin or placebo on top of ticagrelor for an additional 12 months. Of the 6835 patients randomized and with available eGFR at baseline, 1111 (16.3%) had CKD. Ticagrelor plus placebo reduced the primary endpoint of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding as compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin in both patients with [4.6% vs. 9.0%; hazard ratio (HR) 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31-0.80] and without (4.0% vs. 6.7%; HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.47-0.75; Pinteraction = 0.508) CKD, but the absolute risk reduction was greater in the former group. Rates of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke were not significantly different between the two randomized groups irrespective of the presence (7.9% vs. 5.7%; HR 1.40, 95% CI 0.88-2.22) or absence of (3.2% vs. 3.6%; HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.68-1.20; Pinteraction = 0.111) CKD. CONCLUSION: Among CKD patients undergoing PCI, ticagrelor monotherapy reduced the risk of bleeding without a significant increase in ischaemic events as compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin.


Assuntos
Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(13): 1434-1446, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238553

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of age on the safety and efficacy of ticagrelor monotherapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: As the risk for bleeding and ischemic complications after PCI increases with age, the authors conducted a pre-specified analysis of the TWILIGHT (Ticagrelor With Aspirin or Alone in High-Risk Patients After Coronary Intervention) trial to evaluate the possible benefits of ticagrelor monotherapy according to age. METHODS: The TWILIGHT trial enrolled patients undergoing PCI with drug-eluting stents who fulfilled at least 1 clinical and 1 angiographic high-risk criterion. Age ≥65 years was a clinical entry criterion. After 3 months of dual-antiplatelet therapy with ticagrelor, event-free patients were randomized to ticagrelor plus placebo or ticagrelor plus aspirin for an additional 12 months. The primary endpoint was Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding. The key secondary endpoint was the composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. RESULTS: A total of 3,113 patients (47.7%) were ≥65 years of age. At 1 year after randomization, ticagrelor monotherapy significantly reduced BARC type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding (4.5% vs. 8.2%; hazard ratio: 0.53; 95% confidence interval: 0.40 to 0.71) without increasing ischemic events (4.2% vs. 4.4%; hazard ratio: 0.96; 95% confidence interval: 0.68 to 1.35) compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin among patients ≥65 years of age. These findings were consistent in patients <65 years of age with respect to the primary (pinteraction = 0.62) and key secondary (pinteraction = 0.77) endpoints and across different age categories. CONCLUSIONS: A strategy of ticagrelor monotherapy following 3 months of dual-antiplatelet therapy significantly reduced clinically relevant bleeding compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin without an increase in ischemic events, irrespective of age.


Assuntos
Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Ticagrelor , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
EuroIntervention ; 17(2): e105-e123, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110288

RESUMO

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been increasingly utilised to guide percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Despite the diagnostic utility of OCT, facilitated by its high resolution, the impact of intracoronary OCT on clinical practice has thus far been limited. Difficulty in transitioning from intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), complex image interpretation, lack of a standardised algorithm for PCI guidance, and paucity of data from prospective clinical trials have contributed to the modest adoption. Herein, we provide a comprehensive up-do-date overview on the utility of OCT in coronary artery disease, including technical details, device set-up, simplified OCT image interpretation, recognition of the imaging artefacts, and an algorithmic approach for using OCT in PCI guidance. We discuss the utility of OCT in acute coronary syndromes, provide a summary of the clinical trial data, list the work in progress, and discuss the future directions.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
12.
Interv Cardiol Clin ; 10(3): 323-332, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053619

RESUMO

Advances in intravascular imaging have enabled assessment of the underlying plaque morphology in acute coronary syndromes, which allows for the initiation of individualized therapy. The atherothrombotic substrates for acute coronary syndromes consist of plaque rupture, erosion, and calcified nodule, whereas spontaneous coronary artery dissection, coronary artery spasm, and coronary embolism constitute rarer nonatherothrombotic etiologies. This review provides a brief overview of the data from clinical studies that have used intravascular optical coherence tomography to assess the culprit plaque morphology. We discuss the usefulness of intravascular imaging for effective treatment of patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes by percutaneous coronary intervention.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Placa Aterosclerótica , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Humanos , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ruptura Espontânea , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
13.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(12): 1337-1348, 2021 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939604

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this pooled analysis was to assess the cumulative safety and effectiveness of coronary intravascular lithotripsy (IVL). BACKGROUND: The clinical outcomes of IVL to optimize target lesion preparation in severely calcified de novo coronary stenoses have been examined in 4 prospective studies (Disrupt CAD I [NCT02650128], Disrupt CAD II [NCT03328949], Disrupt CAD III [NCT03595176], and Disrupt CAD IV [NCT04151628]). METHODS: Patient data were pooled from the Disrupt CAD studies, which shared uniform study criteria, endpoint definitions and adjudication, and procedural follow-up. The primary safety endpoint was freedom from major adverse cardiovascular events (composite of cardiac death, all myocardial infarction, or target vessel revascularization) at 30 days. The primary effectiveness endpoint was procedural success, defined as stent delivery with a residual stenosis ≤30% by quantitative coronary angiography without in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular events. Secondary outcomes included serious angiographic complications, target lesion failure, cardiac death, and stent thrombosis at 30 days. RESULTS: Between December 2015 and April 2020, 628 patients were enrolled at 72 sites from 12 countries. Presence of severe calcification was confirmed in 97.0% of target lesions with an average calcified segment length of 41.5 ± 20.0 mm. The primary safety and effectiveness endpoints were achieved in 92.7% and 92.4% of patients, respectively. At 30 days, the rates of target lesion failure, cardiac death, and stent thrombosis were 7.2%, 0.5%, and 0.8%. Rates of post-IVL and final serious angiographic complications were 2.1% and 0.3%, with no IVL-associated perforations, abrupt closure, or episodes of no reflow. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest cohort of patients treated with coronary IVL assessed to date, coronary IVL safely facilitated successful stent implantation in severely calcified coronary lesions with a high rate of procedural success.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Litotripsia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Calcificação Vascular , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/terapia
14.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(4): 33, 2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666772

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Moderate or severe calcification is present in approximately one third of coronary lesions in patients with stable ischemic heart disease and acute coronary syndromes and portends unfavorable procedural results and long-term outcomes. In this review, we provide an overview on the state-of-the-art in evaluation and treatment of calcified coronary lesions. RECENT FINDINGS: Intravascular imaging (intravascular ultrasound or optical coherence tomography) can guide percutaneous coronary intervention of severely calcified lesions. New technologies such as orbital atherectomy and intravascular lithotripsy have significantly expanded the range of available techniques to effectively modify coronary calcium and facilitate stent expansion. Calcium fracture improves lesion compliance and is essential to optimize stent implantation. Intravascular imaging allows for detailed assessment of patterns and severity of coronary calcium that are integrated into scoring systems to predict stent expansion, identifying which lesions require atherectomy for lesion modification. Guided by intravascular imaging, older technologies such as rotational atherectomy and excimer laser can be incorporated with newer technologies such as orbital atherectomy and intravascular lithotripsy into an algorithmic approach for the safe and effective treatment of patients with heavily calcified coronary lesions.


Assuntos
Aterectomia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Tecnologia Disruptiva , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Calcificação Vascular , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/terapia
15.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(4): 444-456, 2021 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602441

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare ticagrelor monotherapy with dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents. BACKGROUND: The role of abbreviated DAPT followed by an oral P2Y12 inhibitor after PCI remains uncertain. METHODS: Two randomized trials, including 14,628 patients undergoing PCI, comparing ticagrelor monotherapy with standard DAPT on centrally adjudicated endpoints were identified, and individual patient data were analyzed using 1-step fixed-effect models. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42019143120). The primary outcomes were the composite of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 3 or 5 bleeding tested for superiority and, if met, the composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or stroke at 1 year, tested for noninferiority against a margin of 1.25 on a hazard ratio (HR) scale. RESULTS: Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 3 or 5 bleeding occurred in fewer patients with ticagrelor than DAPT (0.9% vs. 1.7%, respectively; HR: 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.41 to 0.75; p < 0.001). The composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or stroke occurred in 231 patients (3.2%) with ticagrelor and in 254 patients (3.5%) with DAPT (HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.76 to 1.10; p < 0.001 for noninferiority). Ticagrelor was associated with lower risk for all-cause (HR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.52 to 0.96; p = 0.027) and cardiovascular (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.47 to 0.99; p = 0.044) mortality. Rates of myocardial infarction (2.01% vs. 2.05%; p = 0.88), stent thrombosis (0.29% vs. 0.38%; p = 0.32), and stroke (0.47% vs. 0.36%; p = 0.30) were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Ticagrelor monotherapy was associated with a lower risk for major bleeding compared with standard DAPT, without a concomitant increase in ischemic events.


Assuntos
Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária , Quimioterapia Combinada , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(1): e009354, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907343

RESUMO

Constituting a significant proportion of lesions treated with transcatheter interventions in the coronary arteries, moderate-to-severe calcification portends lower procedural success rates, increased periprocedural major adverse events, and unfavorable long-term clinical outcomes compared with noncalcific plaques. Adapted from the lithotripsy technology for treatment of nephrolithiasis, intravascular lithotripsy is a new technique for treatment of severely calcific lesions that uses acoustic shock waves in a balloon-based system to induce fracture in the calcium deposits to facilitate luminal gain and stent expansion. Herein, we summarize the physics and characteristics of the currently available intravascular lithotripsy system (Shockwave Medical, Santa Clara, CA), the clinical data on intravascular lithotripsy use in the coronary arteries, and future directions for adoption of the technique in percutaneous coronary intervention.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Litotripsia , Calcificação Vascular , Acústica , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Humanos , Litotripsia/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/terapia
17.
EuroIntervention ; 17(4): e294-e300, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large, prospective, multicentre trial recently showed that fractional flow reserve (FFR) derived from coronary angiography (FFRangio) has an accuracy of 92% compared with conventional guidewire-based FFR (FFRwire); however, little is known about whether specific patient/lesion characteristics affect the diagnostic performance. AIMS: The primary goal of the present study was to investigate whether specific patient or lesion characteristics such as high body mass index (BMI), presentation with an acute coronary syndrome, or lesion location affect the diagnostic performance of FFRangio in patients enrolled in the FAST-FFR study. METHODS: FFRangio was measured in a blinded fashion in 301 patients (319 vessels) who were undergoing FFRwire assessment. Using an FFRwire ≤0.80 as a reference, the diagnostic performance of FFRangio was compared in pre-specified subgroups. RESULTS: The mean FFRwire and FFRangio were 0.81±0.13 and 0.80±0.12. Overall, FFRangio had a sensitivity of 93.5% and specificity of 91.2% for predicting FFRwire. Patient characteristics including age, sex, clinical presentation, body mass index, and diabetes did not affect sensitivity or specificity (p>0.05 for all). Similarly, lesion characteristics including calcification and tortuosity did not affect sensitivity or specificity (p>0.05 for all), nor did lesion location (proximal, middle, versus distal). Sensitivity was equally high across all target vessels, while specificity was highest in the LAD and lower (~85%) in the RCA and LCx (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: FFRangio derived from coronary angiography has a high diagnostic performance regardless of patient and most lesion characteristics. The interaction of vessel on the specificity will need to be confirmed in larger cohorts.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Estenose Coronária , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
EuroIntervention ; 16(13): 1085-1091, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540793

RESUMO

AIMS: In the ILUMIEN III trial, among 450 randomised patients with non-complex lesions undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), optical coherence tomography (OCT) guidance led to greater stent expansion than angiography guidance, similar minimal stent area compared to both intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance and angiography guidance, and lower rates of uncorrected dissection and malapposition than both IVUS guidance and angiography guidance. Whether these differences impact on clinical outcomes is unknown. The aim of the present study was to report the 12-month clinical follow-up data from the ILUMIEN III study. METHODS AND RESULTS: OCT-guided PCI, using an external elastic lamina-based protocol, was compared to operator-directed IVUS-guided or angiography-guided PCI. Target lesion failure (TLF) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) at 12 months were adjudicated by a blinded clinical events committee. There were no significant differences in the rates of TLF (2.0% OCT, 3.7% IVUS, 1.4% angiography), MACE (9.8% OCT, 9.1% IVUS, 7.9% angiography), or any of the individual components of these outcomes among the groups. No independent predictors of 12-month stent-related clinical events were identified from final OCT. CONCLUSIONS: In this underpowered study, OCT-guided PCI of non-complex lesions did not show a statistical difference in clinical outcomes at 12 months compared with IVUS or angiography guidance. An appropriately powered trial, including only complex patients and lesions, is underway to substantiate the potential clinical benefit of OCT-guided PCI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02471586.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Stents , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
19.
Cardiovasc Revasc Med ; 23: 38-41, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703583

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The safety and efficacy of an initial intravenous bolus of low-dose heparin (40 IU/kg) was evaluated in biomarker negative patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: A bolus of 70-100 IU/kg of heparin is currently recommended for patients undergoing PCI. However, the ideal dose of heparin has not been evaluated in a randomized trial. The higher dose of 100 IU/kg may increase the risk of bleeding. An initial bolus of low-dose heparin may be advantageous to avoid supratherapeutic activating clotting times (ACT) while still allowing for the administration of additional heparin if the ACT is subtherapeutic. METHODS: From January 2008 to February 2020, 904 patients undergoing elective transfemoral PCI received an initial bolus of 40 IU/kg of heparin. Patients who underwent transradial PCI were not included. Patients were routinely pretreated with dual antiplatelet therapy. The primary end point was the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), urgent target vessel revascularization (TVR) for ischemia, or major bleeding within 30 days after PCI. RESULTS: The initial mean activating clotting time was 235.4 ± 26.6 s. The clinical event rates were low: the primary end point occurred in 5.3%, cardiac death in 1.0%, MI in 3.1%, urgent TVR in 0.7% and major bleeding in 1.9%. Stent thrombosis was uncommon (0.2%). No patients developed profound thrombocytopenia. Three patients (0.3%) had acute limb ischemia that required revascularization. CONCLUSION: An initial strategy of low-dose heparin is associated with low ischemic and bleeding complications in biomarker negative patients who undergo transfemoral PCI.


Assuntos
Heparina , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 98(3): 483-491, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915510

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate the severity and patterns of calcifications in the left main coronary artery (LMCA) and proximal segments of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and left circumflex artery (LCX) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with and without prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). BACKGROUND: CABG may accelerate upstream calcium development. METHODS: OCT images (n = 76) of the LMCA bifurcation from either the LAD or LCX in 76 patients with at least one patent left coronary graft, on average 7.0 ± 5.6 years post-CABG, were compared with 148 OCT images in propensity-score-matched non-CABG controls. RESULTS: Minimum lumen areas in the LMCA, LAD, and LCX in post-CABG patients were smaller than non-CABG controls. Maximum calcium arc and thickness as well as calcium length were greater in the LMCA and LCX, but not in the LAD in post-CABG patients versus non-CABG controls. Calcium located at the carina of a bifurcation, calcified nodules (CN), thin intimal calcium, and lobulated calcium were more prevalent in post-CABG patients. After adjusting for multiple covariates, prior CABG was an independent predictor of calcification at the carina of a bifurcation (odds ratio [OR] 5.77 [95% confidence interval, CI: 1.5-21.6]), thin intimal calcium (4.7 [1.5-14.4]), and the presence of a CN (15.60 [3.2-76.2]). CONCLUSIONS: Prior CABG is associated with greater amount of calcium in the LMCA and the proximal LCX, as well as higher prevalence of atypical calcium patterns, including CN, thin or lobulated calcium, and calcifications located at the carina of a bifurcation, compared with non-CABG controls.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Estenose Coronária , Angiografia Coronária , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Humanos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Resultado do Tratamento
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