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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350149

RESUMO

The search for safe and effective patient management strategies during weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass is ongoing; intravenous calcium is occasionally used as a first-line drug. The physiologic role of calcium suggests that it can support the function of the cardiovascular system during this critical period. Patients may be mildly hypocalcemic after cardiopulmonary bypass; however, this degree of hypocalcemia does not significantly impair the cardiovascular system. The transient beneficial effects of calcium administration (increase in arterial blood pressure, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac index, stroke volume, and coronary perfusion pressure) might be helpful in cases of moderate contractility reduction or vasoplegia. Nonetheless, effects on clinically relevant endpoints are unknown, and possible systemic side effects, such as transient reduction in internal mammary artery graft flow, attenuation of the effects of ß-sympathomimetics, "stone heart" phenomenon, and pancreatic cellular injury, may limit the use of calcium salts. Further studies are needed to expand the understanding of the effects of calcium administration on patient outcomes.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 380(13): 1214-1225, 2019 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Volatile (inhaled) anesthetic agents have cardioprotective effects, which might improve clinical outcomes in patients undergoing coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, multicenter, single-blind, controlled trial at 36 centers in 13 countries. Patients scheduled to undergo elective CABG were randomly assigned to an intraoperative anesthetic regimen that included a volatile anesthetic (desflurane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane) or to total intravenous anesthesia. The primary outcome was death from any cause at 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 5400 patients were randomly assigned: 2709 to the volatile anesthetics group and 2691 to the total intravenous anesthesia group. On-pump CABG was performed in 64% of patients, with a mean duration of cardiopulmonary bypass of 79 minutes. The two groups were similar with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline, the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, and the number of grafts. At the time of the second interim analysis, the data and safety monitoring board advised that the trial should be stopped for futility. No significant difference between the groups with respect to deaths from any cause was seen at 1 year (2.8% in the volatile anesthetics group and 3.0% in the total intravenous anesthesia group; relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 1.29; P = 0.71), with data available for 5353 patients (99.1%), or at 30 days (1.4% and 1.3%, respectively; relative risk, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.76), with data available for 5398 patients (99.9%). There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the secondary outcomes or in the incidence of prespecified adverse events, including myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing elective CABG, anesthesia with a volatile agent did not result in significantly fewer deaths at 1 year than total intravenous anesthesia. (Funded by the Italian Ministry of Health; MYRIAD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02105610.).


Assuntos
Anestesia Intravenosa , Anestésicos Gerais/farmacologia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Administração por Inalação , Idoso , Anestesia Geral , Anestésicos Intravenosos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Método Simples-Cego , Volume Sistólico
7.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(5): 2241-2245, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29336961

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the 1-year survival in cardiac surgical patients with lung disease, including previously undiagnosed cases. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were performed in 454 patients before surgery. Abnormal respiratory patterns were defined as follows: obstructive (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity <0.70), restrictive (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ≥0.70 and forced vital capacity <80% of predicted), and mixed. Overall 1-year mortality was 3.3%. Among 31 patients with documented chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), mortality was 9.6%, hazard ratio (HR) 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-12.80, p = 0.04. Of 423 patients without history of COPD, 57 obstructive, 46 restrictive, and 4 mixed abnormal patterns were identified. Of a total of 72 with obstructive lung disease confirmed by PFT (ie, 15 of COPD patients and 57 newly identified cases), 6.9% died, HR 2.75, 95% CI 0.98-8.07, p = 0.06. When combined with cases of COPD where a respiratory abnormality was confirmed (26 patients), newly diagnosed obstructive lung disease (57 patients) was significantly associated with 1-year mortality, HR 4.13, 95% CI 1.50-11.42, p = 0.006. The adjustment for EuroSCORE II did not change the results. CONCLUSIONS: Combination of confirmed preexisting lung disease and newly diagnosed cases provides a clear link to mid-term mortality.

8.
Nutrients ; 9(11)2017 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29156619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of study was to test the hypothesis that early enteral nutrition (EN) with calorie-dense and protein rich enteral formula improves enteral energy and protein delivery in critically ill cardiac patients. METHODS: Prospective randomized pilot study of 40 ventilated adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with use of cardiopulmonary bypass receiving inotropic support postoperatively. Patients were to receive either standard isocaloric (1000 Kcal/L and 38 g/L protein) early EN (n = 20) or calorie-dense and protein-rich (1300 Kcal/L and 66.7 g/L protein) early EN (n = 20). RESULTS: The mean time to EN initiation was 27 ± 11 h. Early EN with the calorie-dense formula provided significantly more energy and protein enteral delivery on the 2nd, (p < 0.0001), 5th (p = 0.036), and 7th days (p = 0.024), and was associated with higher levels of prealbumin concentration on the 14th day (0.13 ± 0.01 g/L and 0.21 ± 0.1 g/L; p = 0.04) and significantly increased levels of transferrin on the 3rd, 5th, and 7th day (p < 0.05) after surgery. CONCLUSION: Present findings support hypothesis that early EN using a calorie-dense and protein rich formula leads to better enteral energy and protein delivery and higher levels of short-lived serum proteins.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Ingestão de Energia , Nutrição Enteral , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/cirurgia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Alimentos Formulados , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Pré-Albumina/análise , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Transferrina/análise , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 59: 38-43, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28533194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is initial evidence that the use of volatile anesthetics can reduce the postoperative release of cardiac troponin I, the need for inotropic support, and the number of patients requiring prolonged hospitalization following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Nevertheless, small randomized controlled trials have failed to demonstrate a survival advantage. Thus, whether volatile anesthetics improve the postoperative outcome of cardiac surgical patients remains uncertain. An adequately powered randomized controlled trial appears desirable. DESIGN: Single blinded, international, multicenter randomized controlled trial with 1:1 allocation ratio. SETTING: Tertiary and University hospitals. INTERVENTIONS: Patients (n=10,600) undergoing coronary artery bypass graft will be randomized to receive either volatile anesthetic as part of the anesthetic plan, or total intravenous anesthesia. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary end point of the study will be one-year mortality (any cause). Secondary endpoints will be 30-day mortality; 30-day death or non-fatal myocardial infarction (composite endpoint); cardiac mortality at 30day and at one year; incidence of hospital re-admission during the one year follow-up period and duration of intensive care unit, and hospital stay. The sample size is based on the hypothesis that volatile anesthetics will reduce 1-year unadjusted mortality from 3% to 2%, using a two-sided alpha error of 0.05, and a power of 0.9. CONCLUSIONS: The trial will determine whether the simple intervention of adding a volatile anesthetic, an intervention that can be implemented by all anesthesiologists, can improve one-year survival in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery.


Assuntos
Anestesia em Procedimentos Cardíacos , Anestésicos Inalatórios , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Adulto , Anestesia em Procedimentos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Anestesia em Procedimentos Cardíacos/métodos , Anestésicos Inalatórios/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Inalatórios/química , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Análise de Sobrevida , Volatilização
10.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 31(6): 2010-2016, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28242146

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and impact of abnormal respiratory patterns in cardiac surgery patients. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Pulmonary function tests were performed in 454 patients before surgery. Abnormal respiratory patterns were defined as follows: obstructive (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1]/forced vital capacity [FVC]<0.70), restrictive (FEV1/FVC≥0.70 and FVC<80% of predicted), and mixed (FEV1/FVC<0.70 and both FEV1 and FVC<80% of predicted). Of the 31 patients with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, no abnormal respiratory pattern was confirmed in 5. Of the 423 patients without a history of lung disease, the authors newly identified 57 obstructive, 46 restrictive, and 4 mixed patterns. Therefore, lung disease was reclassified in 24.7% of cases. Independent predictors of obstructive pattern were age, male sex, history of smoking, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Obstructive lung disease was associated with 16 hours or longer ventilation. A reduced FEV1 was associated with a likelihood of atrial fibrillation (1-L decrement, odds ratio: 1.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-to-1.90, p = 0.04) and hospitalization time (regression coefficient: 1.23, 95% confidence interval: 0.54-to-1.91, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal respiratory patterns are common and often underdiagnosed in the cardiac surgery setting. Pulmonary function tests help reveal patients at risk of complications and may provide an opportunity for intervention.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Pletismografia/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Transtornos Respiratórios/diagnóstico , Transtornos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/tendências , Estudos de Coortes , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pletismografia/tendências , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/tendências , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Testes de Função Respiratória/tendências
11.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 59: 38-43, 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-37191

RESUMO

Objective: There is initial evidence that the use of volatile anesthetics can reduce the postoperative release of cardiac troponin I, the need for inotropic support, and the number of patients requiring prolonged hospitalization following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Nevertheless,small Randomized Controlled Trials have failed to demonstrate a survival advantage. Thus, whethervolatile anesthetics improve the postoperative outcome of cardiac surgical patients remains uncertain. An adequately powered randomized controlled trial appears desirable.Design: Single blinded, international, multicenter randomized controlled trial with 1:1 allocation ratio.Setting: Tertiary and University hospitals. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Anestesia , Mortalidade , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos
14.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 15(1): 18-22, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22493101

RESUMO

Remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) gained attention as a possibility to reduce myocardial injury after a subsequent sustained episode of myocardial ischaemia. This prospective randomized study was carried out to assess whether RIPC reduces myocardial injury in coronary artery bypass grafting patients. Eighty patients were assigned to remote preconditioning or control treatment. Ischaemic preconditioning was induced by three 5-min cycles of upper limb ischaemia and reperfusion after anaesthesia induction. Haemodynamic and markers of myocardial damage were analysed preoperatively and over 48 h postoperatively. The cardiac index was higher immediately after remote preconditioning in the main group. There were no differences in other haemodynamic, troponin I and creatine kinase-MB concentrations at any time point between groups. Thus, short-term remote preconditioning improves haemodynamics and does not reduce myocardial injury after coronary artery bypass surgery. Further study of high-risk patients may be needed to fully evaluate the clinical effect of RIPC.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Precondicionamento Isquêmico Miocárdico/métodos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Extremidade Superior/irrigação sanguínea , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/sangue , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/sangue , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/etiologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Federação Russa , Fatores de Tempo , Torniquetes , Resultado do Tratamento , Troponina I/sangue , Função Ventricular Esquerda
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