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1.
JHEP Rep ; : 100258, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33644724

RESUMO

Background & Aims: Abnormal liver tests are common in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, but a possible direct role of the virus in liver injury and its association with short-term outcomes are controversial. Therefore, we aimed to compare the pattern of abnormal liver tests in SARS-CoV-2 patients with those of patients infected with influenza, a non-hepatotropic respiratory virus, and their association with worse outcomes during hospitalization. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 1737 hospitalized patients (865 with influenza and 872 with SARS-Cov-2) in a tertiary medical center. We defined abnormal liver tests as GPT or GOT ≥40IU/ML at any time-point during hospitalization. Results: Abnormal liver tests were mild-moderate in the majority of patients regardless of infection type, but the majority of patients with influenza had a transaminases peak earlier during hospitalization compared to patients with SARS-Cov-2. Abnormal liver tests correlated with markers of severe disease in either influenza or SARS-Cov-2 infections, and were associated with death, occurring mainly in patients with severe liver tests abnormalities (>200IU/L) (38.7% and 60% of patients with influenza or SARS-Cov-2, respectively). In multivariate analysis, controlling for age, gender, lymphopenia and CRP, liver tests abnormalities remained significantly associated with death for influenza (OR= 4.344, 95% CI 2.218-8.508) and SARS-Cov-2 (OR= 3.898, 95% CI 2.203-6.896). These results were confirmed upon propensity score matching. Conclusions: Abnormal liver tests during hospitalization with SARS-Cov-2 or influenza infections are common, may differ in their time-course and reflect disease severity. They are associated with worse outcomes, mainly in patients with severe liver test abnormalities, regardless of infection type.

2.
Oncoimmunology ; 10(1): 1865653, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33552685

RESUMO

Both pembrolizumab (P) and combination of pembrolizumab with platinum-based chemotherapy (PCT) represent standard 1st-line options for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) with PD-L1 tumor proportion score (TPS) ≥50%. The two strategies have never been compared in a randomized trial. 256 consecutive patients with EGFR/ALK/ROS1-wild-type PD-L1 TPS ≥50% aNSCLC receiving P (group P, n = 203) or PCT (group PCT, n = 53) as a 1st-line treatment were identified in the electronic databases of 4 Israeli cancer centers. Time-to-treatment discontinuation (TTD) and overall survival (OS) were assessed. Baseline characteristics were well balanced, except for age and ECOG PS differences in favor of group PCT. Median (m)TTD was 4.9 months (mo) (95% CI, 3.1-7.6) vs 8.0mo (95% CI, 4.7-15.6) (p-0.09), mOS was 12.5mo (95% CI, 9.8-16.4) vs 20.4mo (95% CI, 10.8-NR) (p-0.08), with P and PCT, respectively. In the propensity score matching analysis (n = 106; 53 patients in each group matched for age, sex and ECOG PS), mTTD was 7.9mo (95% CI, 2.8-12.7) vs 8.0mo (95% CI, 4.7-15.6) (p-0.41), and mOS was 13.3mo (95% CI, 6.8-20.3) vs 20.4mo (95% CI, 10.8-NR) (p-0.18), with P and PCT, respectively. Among various subgroups of patients examined, only in females (n = 86) mOS differed significantly between treatments (10.2mo (95% CI, 6.8-17.2) with P vs NR (95% CI, 11.4-NR) with PCT; p-0.02). In the real-world setting, no statistically significant differences in long-term outcomes with P vs PCT were observed; a prospective randomized trial addressing the comparative efficacy of P and PCT in different patient subgroups is highly anticipated.List of abbreviations: AE - adverse events; ALK - anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene; ALT - alanine aminotransferase; (a)NSCLC - (advanced) non-small cell lung cancer; AST - aspartate aminotransferase; BRAF - v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B; BRCA2 - BReast CAncer gene 2; c-Met - tyrosine-protein kinase Met; CTCAE, v. 4.03 - Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.03; CTLA-4 - cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4; ECOG PS - Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status; EGFR - epidermal growth factor receptor gene; FISH - fluorescent in situ hybridization; HER2 - human epidermal growth factor receptor 2; IC - tumor-infiltrating immune cells; ICI - immune check-point inhibitors; IHC - immunohistochemistry; IQR - interquartile range; irAE - immune related adverse events; ISCORT - Israeli Society for Clinical Oncology and Radiotherapy; KRAS - Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog; (m)TTD -(median) time-to-treatment discontinuation; mo - months; (m)OS - (median) overall survival; (m)PFS - (median) progression-free survival; muts/Mb - mutations per megabase; NA - not specified/not available; NOS - not otherwise specified; NR - not reported/not reached; ORR - objective response rate; P - pembrolizumab; PCR - polymerase chain reaction; PCT - combination of pembrolizumab with platinum-based chemotherapy; PD - progression of disease; PD-1 - programmed cell death-1; PD-L1 - programmed cell death ligand-1; pts - patients; RET - proto-oncogene RET; ROS1 - proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase ROS1; SD - standard deviation; STK11 - serine/threonine kinase 11; TC - tumor cells; TMB - Tumor mutation burden; TPS - tumor proportion score.

3.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are scarce data on venous-thromboembolism (VTE) rates among non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). The Khorana Score (KS), used to guide thromboprophylaxis in cancer patients, was validated in patients receiving chemotherapy. OBJECTIVE: To assess VTE rates and KS performance among NSCLC patients treated with ICI or chemotherapy. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of NSCLC patients starting either ICI or Platinum-based chemotherapy. The 6-month cumulative incidence of VTE in the ICI and chemotherapy cohorts and hazard-ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated, using death as a competing risk. Sub-group analysis of low (0-1) and high (≥2) KS risk groups was performed. RESULTS: The study included 345 NSCLC patients receiving single agent ICI (n=176) or chemotherapy (n=169). The 6-month cumulative incidence of VTE was 7.1% in the chemotherapy cohort and 4.5% in the ICI cohort (HR for chemotherapy = 1.6, 95% CI 0.66-3.9). Among chemotherapy treated patients, the high-risk KS group had a trend towards a higher VTE incidence, compared to patients with a low-risk KS (HR 3.04, 95% CI 0.82-11.22). Among ICI-treated patients, the high-risk KS group had a trend towards a lower VTE incidence compared to the low-risk group (HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.02-1.36). CONCLUSIONS: VTE rates were higher among NSCLC patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy than those treated with ICI alone, though the precision of the relative estimate is low. The KS did not identify high-risk ICI-treated patients, suggesting that an ICI-specific risk model is warranted.

4.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 23(1): 17-22, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low folate levels are associated with megaloblastic anemia, neural tube defects, and an increased risk of cancer. Data are scarce regarding the sex aspect of this deficiency. OBJECTIVES: To assess sex differences in folate levels in a large cohort of patients and to investigate the effect of low folate levels on homocysteine concentrations. METHODS: Data were collected from medical records of patients examined at a screening center in Israel between 2000 and 2014. Cross sectional analysis was conducted on 9214 males and 4336 females. RESULTS: The average age was 48.4 ± 9.5 years for males and 47.6 ± 9.4 years for females. Average folate levels were 19.2 ± 8.6 and 22.4 ±10.3 nmol/L in males and females, respectively (P < 0.001). The prevalence of folate levels below 12.2 nmol/L was 19.5% in males compared to 11.6% in females (P < 0.001). In patients with low folate levels and normal B12 levels, homocysteine levels above 15 µmol/L were found in 32.4% of males and 11.4% of females (P < 0.001). Males had a significantly higher odds ratio (OR) of having folate levels below 12.2 nmol/L: OR 1.84 (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.66-2.05) in a non-adjusted model, and OR 2.02 (95%CI 1.82-2.27) adjusted for age, smoking status, body mass index, kidney function, albumin, and triglycerides levels. CONCLUSIONS: Folate levels are lower in males compared to females, which may contribute to the higher homocysteine levels found in males and thus to their increased risk of developing atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease.


Assuntos
Ácido Fólico/sangue , Homocisteína/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12 , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/epidemiologia
5.
Maturitas ; 142: 17-23, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158483

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It is well recognized that the presentation, treatment, and outcomes of various diseases may differ between men and women. We recently reported a 7.4% rate of denosumab-associated hypocalcemia in community-dwelling osteoporotic patients. This study sought to investigate the role of gender in this complication. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective community-dwelling cohort. METHOD: The databases of a large health maintenance organization were searched for adult patients treated with denosumab for osteoporosis in 2010-2018. Rates and predictors of denosumab-associated hypocalcemia (serum calcium ≤8.5 mg/mL) were analyzed by gender. RESULTS: The cohort included 1871 women and 134 men. Compared with the women, the men were characterized by older median age (81 vs. 77 years, p = 0.005), higher likelihood to receive denosumab as a first-line treatment (22% vs. 6%, p < 0.001), less treatment with calcium supplements (42% vs. 53%, p = 0.012), and lower median eGFR level (66.1 vs. 79.8 mL/min/1.73m2, p < 0.001). Denosumab-associated hypocalcemia developed in 133 women (7.1%) and 16 men (11.9%) (p = 0.04); the drug was discontinued in 75% and 61%, respectively. The strongest predictors of hypocalcemia in women were levels of pretreatment albumin-adjusted serum calcium (OR 0.08, 95% CI (0.04, 0.14)) and creatinine (OR 2.43, 95% CI (1.45, 4.05)). There were no predictors in men. On propensity matching of 126 men and 126 women, gender was not a predictor of hypocalcemia. CONCLUSION: Denosumab-treated men were significantly older than treated women and had a lower eGFR and more advanced osteoporosis. These findings suggest that selection bias rather than male genderper se underlies the higher rate of denosumab-associated hypocalcemia in men.

6.
Clin Imaging ; 71: 24-28, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171362

RESUMO

Neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) is increasingly used in breast cancer (BC), yet, the recommended time interval between NAT completion, preoperative imaging assessment, and breast surgery is not clearly defined. This single-center retrospective study investigated tumor growth between NAT completion and surgery. The analysis included 106 BC patients who received NAT (69% chemotherapy alone, 31% chemotherapy plus anti-HER2 therapy), had post-NAT breast MRI, and definitive surgery between 2012 and 2019. The median time interval between end-of-treatment and surgery was 6 weeks; 90% had surgery within 8 weeks of NAT completion, and 10% had surgery 8-12 weeks after NAT completion. No significant correlation was found between any of the time intervals (i.e., NAT completion-to-surgery, NAT completion-to-MRI, post-NAT MRI to surgery) and the tumor size as captured in the pathology report. The only parameter that was significantly correlated with pathological tumor size was tumor size as measured on the post NAT MRI (P < .0001). The difference in tumor size between post NAT MRI and surgical pathology did not correlate with the time interval between end-of-treatment and surgery. The ratio between residual tumor size on post-NAT MRI and the time interval from the end-of-treatment to surgery, significantly correlated with the tumor size on surgical pathology (P < .0001) suggesting that NAT has a beneficial effect weeks after end-of-treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that for patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery within 4-8 weeks of completing NAT is reasonable, and is unlikely to result in a clinically significant change in residual tumor size.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875571

RESUMO

In advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (aNSCLC), stopping nivolumab after 12 months negatively affects outcomes. We performed a world data-based analysis assessing the value of nivolumab continuation and optimal dosing beyond 24 months. Out of 697 consecutive patients with aNSCLC in whom nivolumab was initiated between 2015 and 2018, 45 patients receiving nivolumab for ≥24 months were selected. These were divided into Groups A: nivolumab administered at a dose 3 mg/kg q2 weeks/240 mg q2 weeks/480 mg q4 weeks, n = 25; B: nivolumab re-scheduled to a nonstandard dose 3 mg/kg q3 weeks-q8 weeks, n = 13; C: nivolumab stopped after 24 months, n = 7; (in Groups B and C-for reasons other than progressive disease or intolerable toxicity). Progression-free survival (PFS) (Revised Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1) and safety (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.03) were assessed. With median follow-up of 35.6 months (interquartile range 28.4-41.8), 4%, 31%, 29% and 30% of patients progressed in Groups A, B, C and B+C, respectively. PFS at 36 months since nivolumab initiation comprised 100%, 67%, 67% and 67%, in Groups A, B, C and B+C, respectively. PFS at 40 months since nivolumab initiation comprised 83%, 67%, 67% and 67%, in Groups A, B, C and B+C, respectively. Allocation to Group A vs Group B, C and B+C was associated with hazard ratio for PFS-0.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.02-1.77, P-.15), 0.20 (95% CI, 0.02-2.25, P-.19) and 0.20 (95% CI, 0.02-1.66, P-.14), respectively. No differences in newly occurring or worsening adverse events between the groups were observed. A trend for worse PFS was observed with alternative nivolumab scheduling or quitting 24 months after initiation. Continuing nivolumab at a standard dose until disease progression or intolerable toxicity remains the standard treatment option.

8.
United European Gastroenterol J ; : 2050640620951403, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastric intestinal metaplasia is a pre-cancerous condition associated with multiple factors. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether cumulative proton pump inhibitor dose is associated with the diagnosis of gastric intestinal metaplasia while controlling for multiple variables. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients who underwent upper endoscopy with gastric biopsy between 2005 and 2014. Covariate data retrieved included age, sex, ethnicity, smoking status, Helicobacter pylori status (based on clarithromycin-amoxicillin-proton pump inhibitor issued), cumulative proton pump inhibitor issued within 10 years (quartiles (PPI-Q1-4) of daily drug dose), anti-parietal cell antibodies, body mass index and comorbidity index. RESULTS: Of the 14,147 included patients (median age 63.4 years; women 54.4%; Helicobacter pylori-positive 29.0%), 1244 (8.8%) had gastric intestinal metaplasia. Increasing age, Helicobacter pylori infection, smoking, anti-parietal cell antibodies and proton pump inhibitor use were all associated with the diagnosis of gastric intestinal metaplasia. Upper quartiles of cumulative proton pump inhibitor doses (PPI-Q4 and PPI-Q3 vs. PPI-Q1) were associated with the diagnosis of gastric intestinal metaplasia: adjusted odds ratios 1.32 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.57) and 1.27 (95% CI 1.07-1.52), respectively, for the whole cohort (Ptotal 0.007, Ptrend 0.013), 1.69 (95% CI 1.23-2.33) and 1.40 (95% CI 1.04-1.89), respectively, for Helicobacter pylori-positive patients (Ptotal 0.004, Ptrend 0.005) and 1.21 (95% CI 0.98-1.49) and 1.20 (95% CI 0.96-1.49), respectively, for Helicobacter pylori-negative patients (Ptotal 0.288, Ptrend 0.018). Upper quartiles of proton pump inhibitor dose were associated with a 5-10-fold increased risk of low-grade dysplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Among Helicobacter pylori-positive patients, proton pump inhibitor use appears to be associated with a dose-dependent increased likelihood of gastric intestinal metaplasia.

9.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; : e3408, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute metabolic complication characterized by hyperglycaemia, ketones in blood or urine, and acidosis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize features of patients hospitalized for DKA, to identify triggers for DKA and to evaluate the long-term effects of DKA on glycaemic control, complications of diabetes, re-hospitalizations, and mortality. METHODS: Historical prospectively collected data of patients hospitalized to medical wards for DKA between 2011 and 2017. Data regarding comorbidities, mortality, triggers, and re-hospitalizations for DKA were also collected. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of 160 patients (mean age 38 ± 18 years, 43% male). One fifth of the patients (34 patients, 21%) were newly diagnosed with diabetes, and DKA was their first presentation of the disease. Among the 126 patients with pre-existing diabetes, the common identified triggers for DKA were poor compliance to treatment (22%) and infectious diseases (18%). During over 7 years of follow-up, mortality rate was 9% (15 patients), and re-hospitalization for DKA rate was 31% (50 patients). Risk factors for re-hospitalization for DKA included young age (OR = 1.02, 95% CI, 1.00-1.04), pre-existing diabetes compared to DKA as the first presentation (OR = 5.4, 95% CI, 1.7-18), and poorer glycaemic control before initial hospitalization (10.5 ± 2.5% vs. 9.4 ± 2.2%; OR = 0.8, 95% CI [0.68-0.96]) and after discharge (10.3 ± 2.4% vs. 9.0 ± 1.9%; OR = 0.73, 95% CI [0.61-0.87]). Laboratory tests during the initial hospitalization, smoking, alcohol, or comorbidities did not increase the risk for re-hospitalization for DKA. CONCLUSIONS: The risk for readmission for DKA is higher for young patients with long duration of diabetes, poor compliance of insulin treatment and poorly controlled diabetes.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762128

RESUMO

AIM: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized the treatment for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), yet many patients do not benefit from Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) axis inhibitors, emphasizing the need for additional markers for better patient selection. Our aim was to evaluate the association between tumor volume and response to ICI. METHODS: This retrospective ethically-approved study included all consecutive patients with advanced NSCLC who were evaluated with a fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography scan, prior to the first administration of a single-agent ICI between 1/2016 and 6/2017. Tumor burden was calculated based on total body metabolic tumor volume and sum of all measurable lesions (SOML). RESULTS: Median SOML was 88 mm, and was inversely and significantly associated with progression-free survival (PFS) (hazard ratio [HR] 2, CI 1.28-3.37, P = .003) and overall survival (OS) (HR 2.36, CI 1.13-4.94, P = .02). SOML≤80 mm had a significantly longer PFS compared to patients with a SOML≥80 mm (median PFS 9.7 vs 3.7 months, respectively, HR for progression 2.26, CI 1.1-4.5, P = .02). Patients with a SOML≤80 also had longer median OS compared to patients with SOML≥80 (median OS 12 vs 9.8 months, respectively, HR for death 3.1, CI 1.2-8, P = .018). CONCLUSIONS: Low tumor burden was associated with higher response rates (RR), and better PFS and OS in advanced NSCLC patients treated with ICI. These results may improve the selection of patients for treatment with single-agent ICI, as opposed to the combination with chemotherapy, which might be more appropriate for patients with high tumor burden. Prospective analysis is warranted.

11.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 41(2): 239-247, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532669

RESUMO

RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the association of the entire range of trigger-day endometrial thickness (EMT) with live birth rate (LBR) after IVF and fresh embryo transfer? Although EMT is amenable to convenient non-invasive routine measurement, studies of the association between pre-trigger EMT and assisted reproductive technology outcome have yielded equivocal results. DESIGN: A cohort of IVF fresh day-3 embryo transfers in patients aged 42 years and younger in a single centre between 2009 and 2017. The LBR was calculated for all trigger-day EMT values, stratified into five groups overall and within subgroups of patient age and ovarian response. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used to compare the LBRs at different EMT measurements adjusting for various independent variables. RESULTS: A total of 5133 cycles were included. The LBRs were as follows: 11.22% (35/312) in cycles with EMT 6 mm or less, 17.98% (380/2114) in cycles with EMT 7-9 mm, 23.44% (476/2031) in cycles with EMT 10-12 mm, 25.62% (144/562) in cycles with EMT 13-15 mm and 34.21% (39/114) in cycles with EMT 16 mm or more (P < 0.001). Similar findings were observed by patient age and ovarian response. The observation was confirmed by multivariate logistic regression analysis in which the EMT was found to be a significant independent predictor of LBR even after controlling for various confounders (OR 0.935, 95% CI 0.908 to 0.962; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Pre-trigger EMT is in significant independent correlation with LBR, even after adjusting for age and ovarian response. Maximal endometrial proliferation is beneficial, and fresh embryo transfer can be carried out at high EMT values without endangering the outcome of the cycle.

12.
Cancer Med ; 9(13): 4603-4612, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decision-making regarding adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer can be guided by genomic assays such as OncotypeDX. The concordance of expected clinical decisions guided by OncotypeDX and prognostication online tools such as PREDICT is unknown. METHODS: We performed a retrospective single-center cohort study comprising all women with estrogen receptor (ER) positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) negative, node negative disease, whose tumors were sent for OncotypeDX analysis. Expected decision on adjuvant chemotherapy was evaluated using OncotypeDX and using PREDICT. The concordance between these two tools was calculated. The impact on concordance of prespecified features was assessed, including age, tumor size, intensity of ER and progesterone receptor (PR), grade, Ki67 and perineural and lymphovascular invasion. RESULTS: A total of 445 women were included. Overall concordance was 75% (K = 0.284). The concordance was significantly higher for grade 1 disease compared to grade 2-3 (93% vs 72%, P < .001), tumor ≤ 1 cm compared to >1 cm (85% vs 72%, P = .009), PR positive compared to PR negative (78% vs 58%, P < .001) and ki67 < 10% compared to ≥10% (92% vs 63%, P < .001). The intensity of ER and the presence of perineural or lymphovascular invasion had no significant impact on concordance. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to PREDICT, using OncotypeDx in node negative, ER positive disease is expected to change the clinical decision in a quarter of patients. The concordance between OncotypeDx and PREDICT is influenced by pathological features. In patients with very low risk, treatment decisions may be made based solely on clinical risk assessment.

13.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(5): 279-284, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent data regarding polymicrobial bacteremia (PMB) are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To characterize risk factors as well as clinical, microbiological, and prognostic patterns of patients with PMB in a modern hospital setting. METHODS: A single center retrospective study including all patients diagnosed with PMB during 2013 was conducted. PMB was defined as two or more organisms cultured from the blood of the same patient within 72 hours. Patients with monomicrobial infections served as controls. RESULTS: There were 135 episodes (2% of all bacteremia episodes) of true PMB among 123 patients during the study period. Recent invasive procedures (odds ratio [OR] 3.59, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.41-9.12, P = 0.006) and foreign bodies (OR 1.88, 95%CI 1.06-3.33, P = 0.04) were risk factors for PMB when compared with 79 patients with monomicrobial bacteremia. Central-line-associated infections were the most common infection source among patients with PMB (n=34, 28%). Enterobacteriaceae were the most commonly implicated pathogen (n=95, 77%). Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli were significantly more common than previously reported (n=55, 45%). Although crude 30-day mortality was higher (48% vs. 33%) in PMB patients, adjusted mortality was comparable in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: PMB rate in our cohort was considerably lower than in previous reports. Central-line-associated infections were more common than classic PMB sources. Mortality remained high. Strategies for early identification and better care for these patients should be pursued.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bacteriemia/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Radiat Oncol ; 15(1): 59, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143658

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Limiting the heart dose in left sided breast cancer radiotherapy is critical. We sought to study the effect of using CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) as an aid in reducing heart dose in breast cancer radiotherapy. METHODS: Patients with left sided breast cancer receiving adjuvant radiotherapy were enrolled on a prospective IRB (institutional review board) approved clinical trial utilizing CPAP during radiotherapy. Each patient was simulated and planned with and without CPAP and the best dosimetric results determined the patient's treatment. Data on the differences in lung and heart volume and position as well as boost cavity position with and without CPAP were analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty-four women from 10/16 to 10/18 were enrolled. Seven patients were not treated on study; only two of these were due to treatment issues. Median age was 54 years. 70% had breast only radiation and 30% were treated to breast\CW (chest wall) and regional nodes. The median lung volume with CPAP was 60% larger than without CPAP. (1637 vs. 996 cc) p < 0.001. The median heart volume decreased 12% with CPAP. (338 vs. 382 cc) In regards to the DVH, CPAP decreased mean heart dose from 3.02 to 1.6Gy (p = .0075) and V20 of the lungs from 17.1 to 13.8 with CPAP but this was not significant. CONCLUSION: CPAP assisted radiotherapy was tolerable and produced superior treatment plans in left sided breast cancer. This method is worthy of further investigation as a method to normal tissue sparing treatment of left sided breast cancer patients.

15.
Lung Cancer ; 143: 40-46, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203769

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Little is known regarding the ICPi efficacy in LCNEC. We explored the efficacy and safety of ICPi in LCNEC and assessed its impact on OS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-seven consecutive patients with advanced LCNEC were selected from the Davidoff Cancer Center database. These were divided into groups A1 (patients treated with ICPi, n-23) and A2 (patients not treated with ICPi, n-14). Additionally, group A1* was introduced (patients treated with ICPi as a monotherapy, n-21). Another cohort of advanced non-LCNEC lung cancer patients treated with nivolumab at five Israeli cancer centers was chosen as a comparator (group B, n-270). ORR, PFS with ICPi in group A1* were assessed (RECIST 1.1), OS with ICPi was compared between groups A1* and B. OS since advanced disease diagnosis (OSDx) was compared between groups A1 and A2. RESULTS: In group A1*, ORR and median PFS with ICPi were 33 %, and 4.2 months (95 % CI, 2.4-8.1), respectively. With median follow-up since start of ICPi of 6.2 months [IQR 2.2-12.1] and 4.9 months [IQR 2.3-8.9] in groups A1* and B, respectively, 52 % and 64 % of patients died in groups A1* and B, respectively. Median OS with ICPi comprised 11.8 months (95 % CI, 3.7-NR) and 6.9 months (95 % CI, 5.5-8.1) in groups A1* and B, respectively (p-0.23). Median OSDx was 14.5 months (95 % CI, 10.1-38.9) and 10.3 months (95 % CI, 2.6-NR), in groups A1 and A2, respectively (p-0.54). CONCLUSION: In advanced LCNEC, ICPi outcomes are comparable to the outcomes observed in advanced NSCLC. Future research is needed to clarify the impact of ICPi on OS, and to correlate its benefit with tumor mutational landscape.

16.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-5, 2020 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089031

RESUMO

Background: Pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) are associated with a higher prevalence of perinatal complications than pregnancies conceived spontaneously, even after correction of confounding factors. Little is known about the prevalence of complications of the third stage of labor in IVF pregnancies.Objective: To compare the prevalence and types of complications of the third stage of labor following vaginal delivery of singleton infants born to matched groups of women who conceived through IVF or spontaneously.Study design: A retrospective case-control study design was used. The electronic delivery files of a tertiary medical center were reviewed for all women with a singleton IVF pregnancy who gave birth by vaginal delivery from August 2011 to March 2014. The women were matched 1:2 for age, gravidity, parity, and week of delivery to women with a singleton spontaneously conceived pregnancy who gave birth by vaginal delivery during the same period at the same hospital. The impact of mode of conception on the length and complications of the third stage of labor was evaluated.Results: The study group consisted of 242 women with IVF pregnancies (cases), and 484 matched controls with spontaneously conceived pregnancies (controls). The length of the third stage was similar in the cases and controls (14.23 ± 8.89 and 13.69 ± 9.19 min, respectively). IVF pregnancy was associated with a significantly higher rate of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) (5.79 versus 1.45%, p = .001), manual removal of retained placenta (11.98 versus 7.02%, p = .025), and blood transfusion (2.07 versus 0.41%, p = .032). On multivariate analysis, pregnancy conceived by IVF was an independent risk factor for an adverse outcome of the third stage of labor (OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.53-5.33).Conclusion: After correction for confounders, IVF conception proved to be a significant independent risk factor for PPH, manual removal of the placenta, and blood transfusion in the third stage of labor. Therefore, the management of women who give birth vaginally following IVF pregnancy should be designed to anticipate complications in the third stage even in the absence of other risk factors.

17.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(1): 22-26, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) exclusion in favor of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) staging and surveillance in the management of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is controversial yet accepted by some centers. The use of MRI suggests performing stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment for limited brain metastases. Data regarding SRS efficacy in this setting is limited. OBJECTIVES: To assess intracranial objective response rate (iORR), progression-free survival (iPFS), intracranial failure patterns, overall survival (OS) and time-to-whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT)/death, whichever occurred first (TTWD) with SRS in SCLC. METHODS: The study comprised 10 consecutive SCLC patients with brain metastases treated with SRS and followed-up at Davidoff Cancer center between Aug 2012 and March 2019. Brain MRI images were reviewed by a neuro-radiology specialist. RESULTS: iORR was 57% as assessed by response assessment in neuro-oncology brain metastases. Intracranial progression developed in 8 patients. Median iPFS was 4.0 months (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.7-7.2). In-site, off-site and combined pattern of intracranial failure was seen in 0, 5, and 3 patients, respectively; median number of new brain lesions following SRS was 4 (range, 1-12). SRS was performed 10 additional times in 6 patients (median number of lesions irradiated per round was 1, range 1-5). WBRT was administered in 3 patients. Median TTWD was 20.9 months (95% CI, 1.9-26.8). Median OS since SRS administration was 23.2 months (95% CI, 4.2-not reached). CONCLUSIONS: MRI surveillance with multiple rounds of SRS may serve a reasonable alternative to PCI or therapeutic WBRT in SCLC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Radiocirurgia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Dig Dis ; 38(5): 408-414, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910424

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Suppression of gastric acid secretion with proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) is an integral part of the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. Esomeprazole has been shown to be superior to other PPIs when used in the context of triple therapy; however, comparative data for PPI efficacy in quadruple therapy are lacking. Current guidelines recommend H. pylori eradication with quadruple therapy in areas with high clarithromycin resistance. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether esomeprazole is more effective than other PPIs in the context of quadruple therapy for H. pylori eradication. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 25- to 60-year-old subjects with a positive 13C-urea breath test and no prior laboratory or endoscopic test for H. pylori infection. Pharmacy dispensation data were retrieved. RESULTS: A total of 7,896 subjects including 2,856 (36.2%) males, aged 40.4 ± 10.6 years, were identified. Of those, 78.1% received omeprazole, 20.1% received lansoprazole, 1.5% received esomeprazole, and 0.34% received pantoprazole together with antibiotics for H. pylori eradication. Esomeprazole was associated with a greater proportion of successful eradication (85.0 vs. 77.5%, esomeprazole vs. omeprazole, OR 1.64; 95% CI 0.99-2.72; p = 0.05). A nonsignificant trend favored esomeprazole over omeprazole among subjects receiving quadruple therapy (90.0 vs. 82.0%, respectively, OR 1.98; 95% CI 0.68-5.72; p = 0.16). Independent predictors of treatment success included older age and quadruple therapy. CONCLUSION: Esomeprazole is more beneficial than other PPIs for H. pylori eradication. Studies with larger subgroups are necessary to confirm our findings among subjects receiving quadruple therapy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Testes Respiratórios , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/farmacologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Dig Dis Sci ; 65(10): 3040-3051, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In adults, post-liver transplantation anemia (PLTA) is common, but its characteristics and long-term influence on major outcomes have yet to be elucidated. AIM: We aimed to assess prevalence, characteristics, predictors, and outcomes of PLTA at 6 months (early PLTA) and at 2 years (late PLTA). METHODS: A single-center retrospective cohort study using prospectively collected data from liver transplantations in adults during January 2007-December 2015. PLTA impact on various long-term outcomes was assessed, including mortality, composites of mortality or graft failure, cardiovascular outcomes, and malignancy occurrences. RESULTS: Hundred and fifty liver transplanted individuals were included. There was a 79% prevalence of anemia pre-transplantation, whereas early and late PLTA were evident in 58% and 40% of patients, respectively. Pre-transplantation anemia was associated with development of early PLTA which was associated with late PLTA. In a multivariate analysis, early PLTA was significantly associated with mortality or graft failure at a follow-up of 3 years (odds ratio 3.838, 95% CI 1.114-13.226). Late PLTA was not significantly associated with worse long-term outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Early and late PLTA are prevalent among liver transplanted patients. Early PLTA is associated with long-term mortality or graft failure.

20.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 54(4): 333-337, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305279

RESUMO

GOALS: The goal of this study was to examine the impact of prior treatment with a nitroimidazole antibiotic on the success of Helicobacter pylori treatment. BACKGROUND: Prior nitroimidazole exposure may increase the likelihood of nitroimidazole-resistant H. pylori. Current H. pylori treatment guidelines recommend that, in the absence of susceptibility testing, patients with prior nitroimidazole exposure should not be treated with a nitroimidazole antibiotic. Data to support this recommendation are lacking. STUDY: We searched the Clalit Health Services database to identify subjects 25 to 60 years old who underwent a first-ever C-urea breath test between 2010 and 2015. Patients who underwent a previous H. pylori stool antigen test or gastroscopy were excluded. Pharmacy dispensation data were retrieved. RESULTS: A total of 1386 subjects (34.8% male individuals, age 40.7±10.7 y) received a nitroimidazole-containing regimen including 282 (20.4%) with prior nitroimidazole exposure. Successful eradication was achieved in 58.9% and 73.8% of subjects with and without prior nitroimidazole exposure, respectively (odds ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.67; P<0.0001). Nitroimidazole exposure adversely impacted the success of triple therapy with nitroimidazole, proton pump inhibitor, and amoxicillin or clarithromycin (39.4% vs. 63.4% and 54.4% vs. 73.6%, P<0.01, respectively), but not quadruple therapy. Following multivariate analysis, nitroimidazole exposure was significantly associated with eradication failure (odds ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.43-2.50; P<0.0001). A greater time elapsed from nitroimidazole exposure, and a lower cumulative nitroimidazole dose were observed in subjects with successful eradication (P<0.0001 for both). CONCLUSION: Nitroimidazole exposure may adversely impact the success of nitroimidazole-based triple therapy, but not quadruple therapy. Clinicians should conduct a thorough patient drug history before administering empiric treatment for H. pylori infection.

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