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1.
Urology ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To present long-term outcome of Yang-Monti ileal ureter, with a focus on patients with mild/moderate loss of kidney function and solitary kidney. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between March 2001 and December 2019, Yang-Monti ileal ureter was performed on 36 patients with ureteric defects and median age 46.5 years. Of these, 4, 14, 15 and 3 patients had stage 1, stage 2, stage 3a and stage 4a chronic kidney disease, respectively; 6 had solitary kidney. Patients were regularly followed for complications, morphological, and functional outcome. RESULTS: Ureteric stricture etiology was iatrogenic (16), Bilharzial (7), tuberculous (4), retroperitoneal fibrosis (5), malignancy (3), and gunshot injury (1). The median (range) ureteric defect length was 11 (8-16) cm. Four grade 1/2 postoperative Clavien-Dindo complications were noted. Median follow-up was 68 months (range 12-215). Intestinal obstruction developed in 1 patient and urinary tract infection in 10. At last follow-up, serum creatinine, split renographic clearance, and estimated glomerular filtration rate showed significant improvement compared to preoperative values, in the whole series, in cases with chronic kidney disease (stages 2, 3a and 3b) and solitary kidney. Four cases with chronic kidney disease (stage 3) showed deterioration of the kidney function parameters. Magnetic resonance urography showed improvement of hydronephrosis in most patients. No metabolic complications were noted. CONCLUSION: Yang-Monti Ileal ureter is durable and effective in improving kidney function with few complications. It can be safely used in cases of mild/moderate kidney function loss and solitary kidney. A threshold eGFR <40 mL/min/1.73 m2 is considered relative contraindication.

2.
Arab J Urol ; 18(3): 155-162, 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029425

RESUMO

Objective: To summarise the currently available literature and analyse available results of the outcome of intraoperative frozen-section analysis (FSA) on upper urinary tract recurrence (UUTR) after radical cystectomy (RC). Materials and methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed according to the Cochrane Reviews guidelines and in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist. Articles discussing ureteric FSA with RC were identified. Results: The literature search yielded 21 studies, on which the present analysis was done. The studies were published between 1997 and 2019. There were 10 010 patients with an age range between 51 and 95 years. Involvement of the ureteric margins was noted in 2-9% at RC. The sensitivity and specificity of FSA were ~75% and 99%, respectively. Adverse pathology on FSA and on permanent section, prostatic urothelial carcinoma involving the stroma but not prostatic duct, and ureteric involvement on permanent section were all more likely to develop UUTR. Neither evidence of ureteric involvement nor ureteric margin status on permanent section were significant predictors of overall survival. Conclusion: Routine FSA is mandatory for a tumour-free uretero-enteric anastomosis and is predictive of UUTR. To lower the UUTR, FSA is not necessary if the ureters are resected at the level where they cross the common iliac vessels. FSA is indicated whenever the surgeon encounters findings suspicious of malignancy, e.g. ureteric obstruction, periureteric fibrosis, diffuse carcinoma in situ, induration or frank tumour infiltration of the distal ureter is discovered unexpectedly during surgery, and prostatic urethral involvement. Abbreviations: CIS: carcinoma in situ; FSA: frozen-section analysis; HR: hazard ratio; PRISMA: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses; RC: radical cystectomy; (UT)UC: (upper tract) urothelial carcinoma; UUT(R): upper urinary tract (recurrence).

3.
Heliyon ; 6(10): e05192, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083625

RESUMO

Objectives: Pomegranate juice (PJ) is rich in important compounds with anti-cancer activities. This study aims to investigate the preventive effect of pomegranate juice (PJ) against bladder cancer (BC). Methods: Eighty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly classified into 4 equal groups: (1) Normal controls; (2) PJ group: supplied by PJ for 12 weeks; (3) Cancer-induced group: intake 0.05% v/v N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (BBN) for 8 weeks; (4) Cancer-prevented group: BBN + PJ. After 12 weeks, all rats were sacrificed and their urinary bladder tissues were subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical (p53) examinations, expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and the tumor protein p53 (TP53) and analysis of oxidative stress markers. Results: The development of BC was: 0/20 (0%) in normal, PJ and cancer-prevented groups and 20/20 (100%) in cancer-induced group. Significant neoplastic lesions were observed in cancer-induced group. Mild preneoplastic alterations were noticed in 25% (5/20) of cancer-prevented group. p53 immunostaining were significantly elevated in the cancer-induced group, which was decreased in the cancer-prevented group. The relative expressions of IL-6, TNF-α, HIF-1 and TP53 were significantly lower in the cancer-prevented group compared to the cancer-treated group. Correction in the oxidative stress markers were also observed in the cancer-prevented group. Conclusion: PJ possesses a promising inhibitory effect on BC development, probably due to its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

4.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 39(8): 2447-2454, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960981

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the effect of intravesical instillation of botulinum neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A) combined with low energy shock wave (LESW) for treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) in a rat model and to investigate its effect on the associated inflammatory and oxidative stress process. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty rats were subdivided into four equal groups: normal control group, OAB group, LESW group, and BoNT-A plus LESW group. Cystometrogram (CMG) changes and histopathological changes in the bladder mucosa were assessed in the different groups. Oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde [MDA] and superoxide dismutase [SOD]) and proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrotic factor-α [TNF-α] and interleukin-6 [IL-6]) were compared among groups. RESULTS: BoNT-A plus LESW group showed statistically significant lower amplitude (p = .001) and lower frequency of detrusor contractions (p = .01) compared to LESW, which showed no statistically significant difference in comparison to the OAB group. Also, the combined group significantly reduced submucosal edema and inflammatory cell infiltrate scores compared to all groups (p < .05). LESW was associated with 42% reduction of MDA expression while, LESW plus BoNT-A decreased it by 68% (p < .001). Also, LESW and LESW plus BoNT-A increased SOD expression by 43% and 75%, respectively (p < .001). LESW plus BoNT-A was associated with statistically significant lower expression of TNF-α and IL-6 expression by 37% and 66% in comparison to LESW group (p = .001). CONCLUSION: Intravesical instillation of BoNT-A plus LESW is an effective method for increasing the urothelial permeability to BoNT-A and enhancing its therapeutic effect against OAB in rat model through the expression of a substantial anti-inflammatory and antioxidative stress effect.

6.
Life Sci ; 258: 118242, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784056

RESUMO

AIMS: As the spermatogenesis process is targeted by cisplatin (Cis) that changes testicular morphology, alters sperm quality, and hence causes male infertility. This study investigated the possible therapeutic effects of l-carnitine (LC) on Cis impaired spermatogenesis's establishment during the prepubertal phase. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-six prepubertal Sprague Dawley male rats were divided into four groups. CONTROL GROUP: rats were injected with 0.9% saline solution intraperitoneally (i.p.). LC group: animals were injected for eight weeks, with 250 mg/kg/wk. LC (i.p.). Cis group: animals were injected with a single dose of 5 mg/kg Cis (i.p.). LC + Cis group: animals were pre-injected with LC 250 mg/kg 2 h before Cis injection. The rats were sacrificed at 37, 60, and 90 days old, and their testes were taken for biochemical, molecular, and histopathological studies. The motility, viability, morphology, and DNA fragmentation of sperm in adult rats were also measured. KEY FINDINGS: Group treated with LC and Cis showed an increase in antioxidant and hormonal activity compared to the Cis treated group in the pre and post-pubertal period. Moreover, there was an increase in sperm survival, motility, and DNA integrity. Furthermore, LC showed an increase in the anti-apoptotic and chromatin remodeling genes and a decrease in the pro-inflammatory genes. SIGNIFICANCE: LC could enhance the spermatogenesis process after exposure to Cis during the prepubertal phase by restoring the balance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant activity, improving hormonal activity, sperm quality and DNA integrity, promoting protamination and blood-testis barrier integrity, and maintaining the testicular architecture.


Assuntos
Carnitina/farmacologia , Cisplatino/toxicidade , Infertilidade Masculina/prevenção & controle , Infertilidade Masculina/fisiopatologia , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Carnitina/uso terapêutico , Infertilidade Masculina/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Espermática/fisiologia , Espermatogênese/fisiologia
7.
BJU Int ; 2020 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654305

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the efficacy of low-energy shock wave therapy (LESW) on enhancing intravesical epirubicin (EPI) delivery in a rat model of bladder cancer (BCa). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 female Fischer rats were randomly allocated into five groups: control; BCa; LESW; EPI; and EPI plus LESW. After BCa induction by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine, EPI (0.6 mg/0.3 mL of EPI diluted in 0.3 mL saline) or saline (0.6 mL) was administered and retained in the bladders for 1 h with or without LESW treatment (300 pulses at 0.12 mJ/mm2 ). This was repeated weekly for 6 weeks. Survival was then calculated, rats were weighed and their bladders were harvested for bladder/body ratio estimation, histopathological examination, p53 immunostaining, miR-210, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 relative gene expression and fluorescence spectrophotometric drug quantification. Heart and blood samples were also collected for assessment of the safety profile and toxicity. RESULTS: The EPI plus LESW group had significantly lower mortality rates, loss of body weight and bladder/body ratio. Histopathological results in terms of grossly visible bladder lesions, mucosal thickness, dysplasia formation and tumour invasion were significantly better in the combined treatment group. The EPI plus LESW group also had statistically significant lower expression levels of p53 , miR-210, HIF-1α, TNF-α and IL-6. LESW increased urothelial concentration of EPI by 5.7-fold (P < 0.001). No laboratory variable exceeded the reference ranges in any of the groups. There was an improvement of the indicators of EPI-induced cardiomyopathy in terms of congestion, hyalinization and microvesicular steatosis of cardiomyocytes (P = 0.068, 0.003 and 0.046, respectively) in the EPI plus LESW group. CONCLUSIONS: The combined use of intravesical EPI and LESW results in less BCa invasion and less dysplasia formation, as LESW increases urothelial permeability of EPI and enhances its delivery into tumour tissues, without subsequent toxicity.

8.
BJU Int ; 126(6): 715-721, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648662

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan on the recoverability of renal function after de-obstruction in patients with anuria and oliguria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial in anuric or oliguric patients with calcular obstruction of solitary kidney. Patients with an anomalous kidney or those with an American Society of Anesthesiology score of >3 were excluded. After relief of obstruction, patients were allocated to receive either losartan potassium 25 mg or placebo for 3 months. Serum creatinine (sCr) and renographic glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were measured at nadir and after 3 months. Changes in sCr and renographic GFR were calculated by subtracting the values at nadir from those at 3 months. Improvement, stabilization or deterioration of sCr and renographic GFR were defined as percentage increase or decrease from nadir ≥10%, while changes <10% were considered as stabilization. RESULTS: A total of 76 patients completed 3 months of follow-up. Demographics and peri-operative data were comparable in the two groups. The median (range) sCr change was -1.05 (-1.8, 0.4) and -0.5 (-1.3, 0.1) mg/dL in the losartan and placebo, groups, respectively (P = 0.07). In the losartan group, renographic GFR had improved in 26 (59.1%) and deteriorated in six (13.6%) patients, while, in the placebo group, it had improved in eight (25%) and deteriorated in 10 patients (31.3%; P = 0.01). Losartan also enhanced renographic GFR improvement vs placebo by a median (range) of 6.9 (-9, 44) vs 1.4 (-10, 32) mL/min (P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with anuria and oliguria, losartan treatment contributes to renal function recoverability after relief of calcular obstruction of the solitary kidney.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543080

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate safety and efficacy of trigone-involved Botox injections in comparison with trigone-sparing injections in refractory idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and three patients randomly received a 100-IU intradetrusal injection of Botox either sparing the trigone (52 patients) or involving the trigone (51 patients). Patients were prospectively evaluated at 1, 3, and 6 months. Efficacy was evaluated by 3-day voiding diaries, OAB symptom score (OABSS), and pressure flow study. Any complications were recorded. An ascending cystogram was done at 3 months for detection of vesicoureteral reflux. Urinary tract infection (UTI) was estimated on urine culture basis. Primary outcome was the difference of total OABSS at 3 months. RESULTS: The mean age ± SD was 34.3 ± 10 years (range 18-59 years). There was a reduction of episodes of all components of OAB in both groups in comparison with baseline by the end of the study but without significant difference between both groups. The trigonal-sparing group had less score of frequency compared with the trigonal-involved group throughout the study period (P < .05). There was no difference in OABSS at 3 months (1.5 ± 0.4 vs 1.6 ± 0.3, P .875). Two patients in the trigonal-involved group out of 51 (3.9%) were in need of clean intermittent catheterization because of voiding difficulty and a postvoid residual > 200 mL. There was a higher rate of UTI in the trigonal-involved group ranging from 5.6% up to 11.7% at each follow-up visit. No patient had reflux. CONCLUSION: Trigone injections are not superior to trigone-sparing injections. On the contrary, the incidence of UTI and voiding difficulty were higher. The concept of reflux induced by trigonal injection has not been proven.

10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(24): 30460-30467, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468374

RESUMO

Toxic metals and trace elements (TMTE) are linked to the development of several human cancers. Many reports have documented the association between some TMTE and renal cell carcinoma. In this work, we assessed the presence (qualitative) and evaluated the concentration (quantitative) of 22 TMTE in three groups of kidney tissue samples: renal cell carcinoma (RCC), adjacent non-cancerous, and control kidney tissues from cadavers. A total of 75 paired specimens of RCC and adjacent non-cancerous tissues were harvested immediately after radical nephrectomy and preserved in 10% diluted formalin solution. Twelve specimens, age- and sex-matched from the normal kidney tissue of the cadavers, who died from non-cancerous reasons, were collected and served as control. All tissue specimens were subjected to evaluation of TMTE concentration (22 elements in each specimen) by using the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) technique. The tumor, histopathology, stage, and grade were correlated with the concentration and types of TMTE. The results showed that the histological types of RCC were as follows: clear cell type in 35 (21.5%), chromophobe 22 (13.5%), papillary 7 (4.5%), oncocytoma 5 (3.1%), and unclassified 6 (3.7%). ICP-OES revealed that tumorous (RCC) tissues had a higher concentration of 9 TMTE (Ca, Cd, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, and Sr) compared with both the adjacent non-cancerous and control tissue. The adjacent non-cancerous kidney tissues showed the highest concentration of Fe, K, and Na. The control of kidney tissues from cadavers had the highest level of Cu, Zn, Mo, and B compared with the cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Female patients had higher concentrations of Zn and Cu in the non-cancerous tissues of their kidneys. Younger patients had a higher concentration of B in the adjacent non-cancerous, and higher Cu in the cancerous tissues. Cadmium concentration was highest in the chromophobe cell type of RCC compared with other subtypes. There was no correlation between the TMTE concentration and the pathological stage of RCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Oligoelementos , Feminino , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados , Humanos , Rim
11.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 52(9): 1691-1699, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358673

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of urinary hyaluronic acid (HA) as a diagnostic marker in urothelial carcinoma (UCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and adenocarcinoma (ADC) of urinary bladder and compare it with urine cytology. METHODS: HA was estimated in 170 subjects divided into three groups. Group I: UCC 88 patients, 28 with SCC and 12 with ADC; group II: 34 patients with benign bladder tumors; and group III: 10 healthy bladders. HA was estimated in urine and then readjusted to creatinine (HA/Cr) and protein (HA/Pr) in urine. Urine cytology was evaluated. RESULTS: The mean ± SD level HA was higher in UCC (589 ± 72), SCC (637 ± 45), and ADC (526 ± 30) as compared with benign (476 ± 92) and normal (277 ± 44) groups regardless the grade of tumor (p < 0.0001). A cutoff value of 490 ng/ml was calculated to detect malignancy with sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 66%. PPV, NPV, and ACC were 88.6%, 94.1%, and 90%, respectively. Urine cytology showed sensitivity of, specificity, PPV, NPV, and ACC of 52.6%, 90%, 90.45, 50%, and 65.5%, respectively. HA/Pr and HA/Cr, cutoff values for detection of malignancy were 84.9 and 9.6 but with less predictive values. Histopathological type was the only independent factor affecting level of HA on multivariate analysis, (p = 0.012, Exp (B) 14.98, 95% CI 1.8-121). CONCLUSION: Combination of urinary HA and urine cytology provides reliable marker of bladder cancer.

12.
Arab J Urol ; 18(1): 1-8, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32082627

RESUMO

Objective: To address the question of whether antibiotic therapy can obviate the need for prostate biopsy (PBx) in patients presenting with high prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Methods: With the increase in unnecessary PBx in men with high PSA levels, a systematic review was performed according to the Cochrane Reviews guidelines and in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist. Results: The literature search yielded 42 studies, of which 11 were excluded due to irrelevance of data. Most of the studies were retrospective, nine studies were randomised controlled trials, and there were seven prospective non-randomised trials. The age range of the patients was 51-95 years. Antibiotics, predominantly ofloxacin or ciprofloxacin, combined with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) or not, were prescribed for 2-8 weeks. All studies focussed on PSA levels ranging from ≤ 4 to ≥ 10 ng/mL. Furthermore, antibiotic therapy normalised PSA levels by a wide variety of percentages (16-59%), and the PSA level decrease also varied widely and ranged from 17% to 80%. For patients who had unchanged or decreased PSA, carcinoma was found in 40-52% and 7.7-20.3%, respectively. No cancer was detected if the PSA level decreased to < 4 ng/mL. Conclusion: Antibiotic therapy is clinically beneficial in patients with high PSA levels. PSA reduction or normalisation after medical therapy, either antibiotic and/or NSAID, for ≥ 2 weeks can avoid unnecessary PBx. Antibiotic therapy is more beneficial when the PSA level is < 20 ng/mL. Abbreviations: EPS: expressed prostatic secretion; PBx: prostate biopsy; (%f)(f/t)(t)PSA, (percentage free) (free/total) (total) serum PSA; PSAD: PSA density; RCT: randomised controlled trial; VB3: voided bladder urine 3.

13.
Arab J Urol ; 18(1): 54-58, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32082635

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the long-term (18 months) effectiveness, safety, and factors that may predict the success of low-intensity shockwave lithotripsy (Li-SWT) in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) who fail to respond to oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i). Patients and Methods: This prospective study included 52 patients with ED of vascular origin who failed to respond to oral PDE5i. The International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function domain (IIEF-EF) and Erection Hardness Score (EHS) questionnaires were used to evaluate EF. Patients under went two Li-SWT treatment sessions per week for 3 weeks, followed by a 3-week treatment-free period, and the cycle was repeated until each patient received 12 treatment sessions. Patients were followed-up after Li-SWT at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Results: At the 18-month follow-up, 33 patients (63.5%) were able to achieve an erection sufficient for penetration with or without PDE5i (22 were maintained on oral PDE5i). The remaining 19 patients (36.5%) had a poor response to Li-SWT and oral PDE5i. The initial response showed some decline in 50% of the initial responders. Younger men (aged <45 years), short ED duration (<2 years), and moderate ED severity responded better to Li-SWT. There were no adverse side-effects. Conclusion: In the present study, Li-SWT was a safe and effective treatment in 63.5% of men with ED who failed to respond to oral PDE5i. Factors such as age (<45 years), ED duration (<2 years), and ED severity can predict treatment outcome in such patients. Abbreviations: CDU: colour Doppler ultrasonography; ED: erectile dysfunction; EDV: end-diastolic velocity; EF: erectile function; EHS: Erection Hardness Score; FU: follow-up; IIEF-EF: International Index of Erectile Function-EF domain; Li-SWT: low-intensity shockwave lithotripsy; PDE5i: phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors; PGE1: prostaglandin E1; PSV: peak systolic velocity; RI: resistive index; VOD: veno-occlusive dysfunction.

14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(13): 15835-15841, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32095963

RESUMO

To evaluate Cu and Zn levels in bladder cancer (BC) patients and their relationship with expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Plasma levels of Cu and Zn were determined in 66 transitional bladder cell carcinoma patients (BC group) and 60 matched controls. The concentration of Cu and Zn as well as the expressions of both VEGF and HIF-1 were also estimated in cancerous and non-cancerous bladder tissues in the BC group. The results showed that plasma Cu and Cu/Zn ratio were significantly higher in BC group when compared with the control group. In contrast, the plasma Zn in BC group was significantly lower than in the controls. Comparing levels of Cu and Zn in cancerous and non-cancerous bladder tissues among the BC group indicated a significantly higher Cu levels in the cancerous tissues, while Zn levels was significantly lower. There were higher expressions of both VEGF and HIF-1 in the cancerous samples. Moreover, the Cu concentration in cancerous tissues was significantly correlated with expressions of VEGF and HIF-1. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the increase in plasma Cu/Zn ratio and plasma Cu and the decrease in plasma Zn may be risk factors for development of bladder cancer. We concluded that alteration of plasma and bladder tissue levels of both Cu and Zn is correlated with pathogenesis of bladder cancer. The increase in Cu level in cancerous tissues of BC group has an important role in angiogenesis in bladder cancer cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Cobre , Humanos , Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Zinco
15.
Urol Oncol ; 38(4): 278-285, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983531

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of gene expression of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as noninvasive prognostic markers in patients with high risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified all patients with TIG3 urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) at our institution since 2016.The study included 100 patients with T1G3 UBC and 50 healthy volunteers. CTCs were isolated from blood using immunomagnetic separation and gene expression was performed using 10 bladder cancer associated genes, namely; KRAS, EPCAM, CD133, CD44, mTOR, SURVIVIN, AKT, PI3K, VEGF, and TP53. Gene expression of CTCs was correlated to time to first recurrence and time to progression using Kaplan-Meier curves. RESULTS: There was strong negative correlation between CTCs-positive patients and time to first recurrence and time to progression. Significant differences in expression levels of specific genes were observed that can predict recurrence and progression of T1G3 UBC. CONCLUSION: CTCs appear to be noninvasive methods of predicting disease recurrence and progression in patients with high- risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer; therefore, studying their molecular profiling may improve prediction of recurrence and progression. Further studies are invited for more in-depth investigation to consolidate our initial results.

16.
World J Urol ; 38(1): 207-212, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944968

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of oral dissolution therapy (ODT), shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), and combined SWL and ODT for medium-sized radiolucent renal stone (RLS). METHODS: A randomized controlled trial for patients with medium-sized RLS, 1-2.5 cm, ≤ 500 Hounsfield unit (HU). The ODT patients were counseled for oral potassiumsodium-hydrogen citrate (Uralyt-U®). The 2nd group underwent SWL and the last group had combined SWL and ODT. The primary outcome, stone-free rate (SFR) at 3 months, was assessed by non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT). We defined complete response (success) if no residual fragment were detected by NCCT; partial response (failure) if there was a decrease in stone size, but presence of residual stones; no response if there was no change or increase in stone size (failure). RESULTS: 150 patients completed follow-up. The SFR at 1st month and 3rd month were, respectively; 16% and 50% in the ODT group, 10% and 46% in the SWL group, and 35% and 72% patients in combined group with (p = 0.03 and 0.003, respectively. The overall SFR for all groups was 66%. Combined treatment and initial response in first month follow-up were independent factors predicting SFR. In addition, combined treatment significantly decreased the overall stone volume (p = 0.03) and the need for additional stone management procedures after 3 months (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Combined ODT and SWL treatment constitutes the most rapid and effective therapeutic approach for medium-sized RLS, decreasing overall stone volume as well as the number of SWL sessions needed in comparison to SWL therapy, alone.


Assuntos
Tratamento por Ondas de Choque Extracorpóreas/métodos , Cálculos Renais/terapia , Litotripsia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
17.
BJU Int ; 125(1): 144-152, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621175

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the non-inferiority of bipolar transurethral vaporization of the prostate (TUVP) compared to GreenLight laser (GL) photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) for reduction of benign prostatic hyperplasia-related lower urinary tract symptoms in a randomized trial. METHODS: Eligible patients with prostate volumes of 30-80 mL were randomly allocated to GL-PVP (n = 58) or bipolar TUVP (n = 61). Non-inferiority of symptom score (International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS]) at 24 months was evaluated. All peri-operative variables were recorded and compared. Urinary (IPSS, maximum urinary flow rate and post-void residual urine volume) and sexual (International Index of Erectile Function-15) outcome measures were evaluated at 1, 4, 12 and 24 months. Need for retreatment and complications, change in PSA level and health resources-related costs of both procedures were recorded and compared. RESULTS: Baseline and peri-operative variables were similar in the two groups. At 1, 4, 12 and 24 months, 117, 116, 99 and 96 patients, respectively, were evaluable. Regarding urinary outcome measures, there was no significant difference between the groups. The mean ± sd IPSS at 1 and 2 years was 7.1 ± 3 and 7.9 ± 2.9 (P = 0.8), respectively, after GL-PVP and 6.3 ± 3.1 and 7.2 ± 2.8, respectively, after bipolar TUVP (P = 0.31). At 24 months, the mean difference in IPSS was 0.7 (95% confidence interval -0.6 to 2.3; P = 0.6). The median (range) postoperative PSA reduction was 64.7 (25-99)% and 65.9 (50-99)% (P = 0.006) after GL-PVP, and 32.1 (28.6-89.7)% and 39.3 (68.8-90.5)% (P = 0.005) after bipolar TUVP, at 1 and 2 years, respectively. After 2 years, retreatment for recurrent bladder outlet obstruction was reported in eight (13.8%) and 10 (16.4%) patients in the GL-PVP and bipolar TUVP groups, respectively (P = 0.8). The mean estimated cost per bipolar TUVP procedure was significantly lower than per GL-PVP procedure after 24 months (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In terms of symptom control, bipolar TUVP was not inferior to GL-PVP at 2 years. Durability of the outcome needs to be tracked. The greater cost of GL-PVP compared with bipolar TUVP is an important concern.


Assuntos
Terapia a Laser , Prostatectomia/métodos , Hiperplasia Prostática/cirurgia , Obstrução do Colo da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hiperplasia Prostática/complicações , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Ressecção Transuretral da Próstata , Resultado do Tratamento , Obstrução do Colo da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia
18.
Heliyon ; 5(12): e02986, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886428

RESUMO

Formation of bacterial biofilm on indwelling urinary catheters usually causes catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) that represent high percent of nosocomial infections worldwide. Therefore, coating urinary catheter with antibacterial and antifouling coating using facile technique is in great demand. In this study, commercial urinary catheter was coated with a layer of the self-polymerized polydopamine which acts as active platform for the in situ formation of silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) on catheter surface. The formed coating was intensively characterized using spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The coated catheter has the potential to release silver ion in a sustained manner with a concentration of about 2-4 µg ml-1. Disk diffusion test and colony forming unites assay verified the significant bactericidal potential of the AgNPs coated catheter against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria as a consequence of silver ion release. In contrast to commercial catheter, the AgNPs coated catheter prevented the adherence of bacterial cells and biofilm formation on their surfaces. Interestingly, scanning electron microscope investigations showed that AgNPs coated catheter possess greater antifouling potential against gram-positive bacteria than against gram-negative bacteria. Overall, the remarkable antibacterial and antifouling potential of the coated catheter supported the use of such facile approach for coating of different medical devices for the prevention of nosocomial infections.

19.
Arab J Urol ; 17(3): 216-220, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489238

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) instillation in the bladder under the effect of low-energy shockwaves (LESWs) for the treatment of refractory idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB). Patients and methods: A preliminary clinical study was conducted, including 15 patients with refractory OAB, between September 2016 and July 2017. Intravesical instillation of 100 IU of BoNT-A was done followed by LESWs (3000 shocks over 10 min) exposure to the supra-pubic area. Patients were followed-up by urine analysis, urine culture, post-void residual urine volume (PVR), and Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS) at 1, 2 and 3 months. Results: There were statistically significant improvements in all OABSS domains and the total score after 1 and 2 months of treatment (P < 0.05). Whereas, only the nocturia domain remained significantly improved after 3 months (P = 0.02). There was no significant increase in PVR throughout the study period (P > 0.05) and none of the patients required clean intermittent catheterisation. Two, two and three patients developed urinary tract infections after 1, 2 and 3 months, respectively. Conclusion: Intravesical instillation of BoNT-A and LESWs is safe and effective method for the treatment of refractory OAB with a durable response for 2 months. Abbreviations: BoNT-A: botulinum toxin A; CIC: clean intermittent catheterisation; DO: detrusor overactivity; LESWs: low-energy shockwaves; OAB: overactive bladder; OABSS: Overactive Bladder Symptom Score; Qmax: maximum urinary flow rate; QoL: quality of life; UUI: urgency urinary incontinence.

20.
Arab J Urol ; 17(2): 150-159, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285928

RESUMO

Objectives: To design a new canine model to assess the renoprotective effect of local sildenafil administration, as the renoprotective effect of systemic sildenafil administration in renal ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in animal models has been shown but its local effects have not been established to date. Materials and methods: In all, 120 dogs were assigned to five groups: sham, oral control (OC) group (right nephrectomy + left renal ischaemia for 60 min), oral sildenafil (OS) group (oral sildenafil 1 mg/kg, 60 min before ischaemia), local control (LC) group (local renal perfusion with saline and heparin for 5 min) and local sildenafil (LS) group (perfusion with sildenafil 0.5 mg/kg). Renal functions, histopathological changes, expression of caspase-3, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), inflammatory cytokines (intracellular adhesion molecule 1, tumour necrosis factor α and interleukin 1ß) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in renal tissues were assessed in all groups at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days. Results: There were significant improvements in renal functions and cortical and medullary damage scores in the sildenafil-treated groups compared to their control groups (P < 0.05). Also, the LS group showed significantly better improvement of renal functions and cortical and medullary damage scores than the OS group (P < 0.05). Moreover, sildenafil significantly decreased the expression of caspase-3 and inflammatory cytokines and increased the expression of Nrf2 and eNOS in renal tissue, which were statistically significant in the LS group. Conclusion: LS has a greater renoprotective effect against renal IR injury than systemic administration via anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic pathways. Abbreviations: BUN: blood urea nitrogen; Ct: cycle threshold; eNOS: endothelial nitric oxide synthase; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; H&E: haematoxylin and eosin; IL-1ß: interleukin 1ß; NO: nitric oxide; Nrf2: nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2; OC: oral control; OS: oral sildenafil; LC: local control; LS: local sildenafil.

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