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1.
Radiology ; : 190173, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385753

RESUMO

Advances in characterization of molecular and genomic abnormalities specific to lung cancer have made precision therapy the current standard of care for lung cancer treatment. This article will provide a cutting-edge review of imaging of lung cancer in the current era of precision medicine. The focus of the article includes (a) an update on the recent advances in precision therapy for non-small cell lung cancer and their implications on imaging; (b) molecular and genomic biomarkers and pitfalls of image interpretations for lung cancer precision therapy; and (c) review of the current approaches and future directions of precision imaging for lung cancer, emphasizing emerging observations in longitudinal tumor kinetics, radiomics, and molecular and functional imaging. The article is designed to help radiologists to remain up to date in the rapidly evolving world of lung cancer therapy and serve as key members of multidisciplinary teams caring for these patients.

2.
Lab Invest ; 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409885

RESUMO

Programmed death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the key FDA-approved predictive marker to identify responders to anti-PD1 axis drugs. Multiple PD-L1 IHC assays with various antibodies and cut points have been used in clinical trials across tumor types. Comparative performance characteristics of these assays have been extensively studied qualitatively but not quantitatively. Here we evaluate the use of a standardized PD-L1 Index tissue microarray (TMA) to objectively determine agreement between antibody assays for PD-L1 applying quantitative digital image analysis. Using a specially constructed Index TMA containing a panel of ten isogenic cell lines in triplicate, we tested identical but independently grown batches of isogenic cells to prove Index TMAs can be produced in large quantities and hence serve as a standardization tool. Then the Index TMAs were evaluated using quantitative immunofluorescence (QIF) to validate the TMA itself and also to compare antibodies including E1L3N, SP142 and SP263. Next, an inter-laboratory and inter-assay comparison of 5 PD-L1 chromogenic IHC assays (US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved and lab developed test (LDT)) were performed at 12 sites around the USA. As previously reported, the SP142 FDA assay failed to detect low levels of PD-L1 in cell lines distinguished by the other four assays. The assays for 22C3 FDA, 28-8-FDA, SP263 FDA, and E1L3N LDT were highly similar across sites and all laboratories showed a high consistency over time for all assays using this Index TMA. In conclusion, we were able to objectively quantify PD-L1 expression on a standardized Index TMA using digital image analysis and we confirmed previous subjective assessments of these assays, but now in a multi-institutional setting. We envision commercial use of this Index TMA or similar smaller version as a useful standardization mechanism to compare results between institutions and to identify abnormalities while running routine clinical samples.

3.
Lung Cancer ; 134: 96-99, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320002

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Plasma genotyping represents an opportunity for convenient detection of clinically actionable mutations in advanced cancer patients, such has been well-documented in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Oncogenic gene fusions are complex variants that may be more challenging to detect by next-generation sequencing (NGS) of plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA). Rigorous evaluation of plasma NGS assays in the detection of fusions is needed to maximize clinical utility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Additional plasma was collected from patients with advanced NSCLC and ALK, ROS1, or RET gene fusions in tissue who had undergone clinical plasma NGS using Guardant360™(G360, Guardant Health). We then sequenced extracted cfDNA with a plasma NGS kit focused on known driver mutations in NSCLC (ctDx-Lung, Resolution Bioscience) with cloud-based bioinformatic analysis and blinded variant calling. RESULTS: Of 16 patients assayed known to harbor anALK, ROS1, or RET in tumor, G360 detected fusions in 7 cases, ctDx-Lung detected fusions in 13 cases, and 3 cases were detected by neither. Of the 7 fusions detected by both assays, G360 reported lower mutant allelic fractions (AF). In cases missed by G360, tumor derived TP53 mutations were often detected confirming presence of tumor DNA. Raw sequencing data showed that inverted or out-of-frame variants were overrepresented in cases detected using ctDx-Lung but not by G360. CONCLUSION: Focusing on complex, clinically actionable mutations using tumor as a reference standard allows for evaluation of technical differences in plasma NGS assays that may impact clinical performance. Noting the heterogeneity of fusion sequences observed in NSCLC, we hypothesize that differences in hybrid capture techniques and bioinformatic calling may be sources of variations in sensitivity among these assays.

4.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355851

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Diagnosis of metastatic basal cell carcinoma (BCC) remains challenging, in part due to its rarity. With the advent of molecularly targeted therapies, recognition of this entity is more important than ever. METHODS: We identified 11 cases of metastatic BCC over a 13-year period. We analyzed these tumors in conjunction with their respective primary tumors by histomorphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic analyses. RESULTS: We identified three morphologic patterns of metastasis in BCC. The most common (seven cases) was characterized by completely typical features of BCC. Two cases showed marked squamous differentiation within BCC. The final two cases showed exclusively features of a poorly differentiated carcinoma. One of these was definitively classified by molecular analysis, as both the primary and metastatic tumors harbored the same inactivating PTCH1 mutation. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates multiple distinct morphologic patterns in metastatic BCC and highlights the utility of ancillary molecular testing for accurate diagnosis.

5.
Lung Cancer ; 133: 96-102, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200835

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although dramatic responses to MET inhibitors have been reported in patients with MET exon 14 (METex14) mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the impact of these treatments on overall survival in this population is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective analysis of patients with METex14 NSCLC to determine if treatment with MET inhibitors impacts median overall survival (mOS). Event-time distributions were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. Multivariable Cox models were fitted to estimate hazard ratios. RESULTS: We identified 148 patients with METex14 NSCLC; the median age was 72; 57% were women and 39% were never smokers. Of the 34 metastatic patients who never received a MET inhibitor, the mOS was 8.1 months; those in this group with concurrent MET amplification had a trend toward worse survival compared to cancers without MET amplification (5.2 months vs 10.5 months, P = 0.06). Of the 27 metastatic patients who received at least one MET inhibitor the mOS was 24.6 months. A model adjusting for receipt of a MET inhibitor as first- or second-line therapy as a time-dependent covariate demonstrated that treatment with a MET inhibitor was associated with a significant prolongation in survival (HR 0.11, 95% CI 0.01-0.92, P = 0.04) compared to patients who did not receive any MET inhibitor. Among 22 patients treated with crizotinib, the median progression-free survival was 7.4 months. DISCUSSION: For patients with METex14 NSCLC, treatment with a MET inhibitor is associated with an improvement in overall survival.

6.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(22): 1927-1934, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206316

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Baseline use of corticosteroids is associated with poor outcomes in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with programmed cell death-1 axis inhibition. To approach the question of causation versus correlation for this association, we examined outcomes in patients treated with immunotherapy depending on whether corticosteroids were administered for cancer-related palliative reasons or cancer-unrelated indications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical outcomes in patients with NSCLC treated with immunotherapy who received ≥ 10 mg prednisone were compared with outcomes in patients who received 0 to < 10 mg of prednisone. RESULTS: Of 650 patients, the 93 patients (14.3%) who received ≥ 10 mg of prednisone at the time of immunotherapy initiation had shorter median progression-free survival (mPFS) and median overall survival (mOS) times than patients who received 0 to < 10 mg of prednisone (mPFS, 2.0 v 3.4 months, respectively; P = .01; mOS, 4.9 v 11.2 months, respectively; P < .001). When analyzed by reason for corticosteroid administration, mPFS and mOS were significantly shorter only among patients who received ≥ 10 mg prednisone for palliative indications compared with patients who received ≥ 10 mg prednisone for cancer-unrelated reasons and with patients receiving 0 to < 10 mg of prednisone (mPFS, 1.4 v 4.6 v 3.4 months, respectively; log-rank P < .001 across the three groups; mOS, 2.2 v 10.7 v 11.2 months, respectively; log-rank P < .001 across the three groups). There was no significant difference in mPFS or mOS in patients receiving ≥ 10 mg of prednisone for cancer-unrelated indications compared with patients receiving 0 to < 10 mg of prednisone. CONCLUSION: Although patients with NSCLC treated with ≥ 10 mg of prednisone at the time of immunotherapy initiation have worse outcomes than patients who received 0 to < 10 mg of prednisone, this difference seems to be driven by a poor-prognosis subgroup of patients who receive corticosteroids for palliative indications.

7.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(9): 1666-1671, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228623

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: MNNG HOS Transforming gene (MET) amplification and MET exon 14 (METex14) alterations in lung cancers affect sensitivity to MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase (MET [also known by the alias hepatocyte growth factor receptor]) inhibitors. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), next-generation sequencing (NGS), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) have been used to evaluate MET dependency. Here, we have determined the association of MET IHC with METex14 mutations and MET amplification. METHODS: We collected data on a tri-institutional cohort from the Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium. All patients had metastatic lung adenocarcinomas and no prior targeted therapies. MET IHC positivity was defined by an H-score of 200 or higher using SP44 antibody. MET amplification was defined by copy number fold change of 1.8x or more with use of NGS or a MET-to-centromere of chromosome 7 ratio greater than 2.2 with use of FISH. RESULTS: We tested tissue from 181 patients for MET IHC, MET amplification, and METex14 mutations. Overall, 71 of 181 patients (39%) were MET IHC-positive, three of 181 (2%) were MET-amplified, and two of 181 (1%) harbored METex14 mutations. Of the MET-amplified cases, two were FISH positive with MET-to-centromere of chromosome 7 ratios of 3.1 and 3.3, one case was NGS positive with a fold change of 4.4x, and one of the three cases was MET IHC-positive. Of the 71 IHC-positive cases, one (1%) was MET-amplified and two (3%) were METex14-mutated. Of the MET IHC-negative cases, two of 110 (2%) were MET-amplified. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, nearly all MET IHC-positive cases were negative for MET amplification or METex14 mutations. MET IHC can also miss patients with MET amplification. The limited number of MET-amplified cases in this cohort makes it challenging to demonstrate an association between MET IHC and MET amplification. Nevertheless, IHC appears to be an inefficient screen for these genomic changes. MET amplification or METex14 mutations can best be detected by FISH and a multiplex NGS panel.

8.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 152(1): 97-108, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: ERBB2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [HER2]) amplification/overexpression in colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) may predict response to HER2 inhibitors. We correlated ERBB2 amplification by next-generation sequencing (NGS) with HER2 overexpression by immunohistochemistry. METHODS: NGS was performed on specimens containing 20% or more tumor. HER2 immunohistochemistry (clone SP3) was scored semiquantitatively by H-score. ERBB2 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to examine copy alterations in one HER2-heterogeneous tumor. RESULTS: ERBB2 amplification was detected in 2% of 1,300 CRCs analyzed by NGS. HER2 immunohistochemistry was examined in 15 cases with ERBB2 amplification (six or more copies), 10 with low gain (three to five copies), and 77 copy neutral. ERBB2 amplification and HER2 immunohistochemistry showed perfect concordance at an H-score of 105 or more. FISH confirmed homogeneous ERBB2 amplification in a tumor showing HER2 protein expression heterogeneity. ERBB2 amplification anticorrelated with RAS/RAF mutations (P = .0001). No ERBB2-amplified cases showed mismatch repair deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: NGS-detected ERBB2 amplification highly correlates with HER2 overexpression in CRC, but immunohistochemistry is required to capture protein-level heterogeneity.

9.
Histopathology ; 2019 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054158

RESUMO

AIMS: SMAD4 (DPC4) is a tumour suppressor gene that is dysregulated in various tumour types, particularly pancreaticobiliary and gastrointestinal carcinomas. Corresponding loss of protein expression has been reported in approximately 50% of pancreatic and 25% of colonic adenocarcinomas. In the evaluation of carcinoma of unknown primary site, immunohistochemical loss of SMAD4 expression is often used to suggest pancreaticobiliary origin, but there are limited data on the spectrum of SMAD4 expression in carcinomas of other sites. This study evaluates the frequency of SMAD4 loss in a large cohort of carcinomas from diverse anatomical sites. METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry for SMAD4 was performed on tissue microarrays or whole tissue sections of 1210 carcinomas from various organs: gastrointestinal tract, liver, pancreas/biliary tract, lung, breast, thyroid, kidney, ovary and uterus. Expression was considered lost when there was complete absence of staining in tumour cell nuclei, in the presence of intact staining in non-neoplastic cells. SMAD4 loss was seen in 58% of pancreatic adenocarcinomas, 27% of appendiceal adenocarcinomas, 19% of colorectal adenocarcinomas, 16% of cholangiocarcinomas, 10% of lung adenocarcinomas and <5% of oesophageal, breast, gastric and mucinous ovarian adenocarcinomas. All papillary thyroid, hepatocellular, non-mucinous ovarian, endometrial and renal cell carcinomas showed intact SMAD4 nuclear expression. CONCLUSION: In addition to pancreaticobiliary, appendiceal and colonic tumours, SMAD4 loss is also seen in a small subset of other carcinomas, specifically breast, lung, oesophageal and gastric adenocarcinomas, all of which are typically CK7-positive, similar to pancreaticobiliary carcinoma. Awareness of SMAD4 loss in these other carcinoma types is helpful in the evaluation of carcinomas of unknown or uncertain primary site.

10.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 41: 43-50, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132651

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Invasive micropapillary adenocarcinoma (MPC) is an aggressive variant of lung adenocarcinoma, frequently manifesting with advanced stage lymph node metastasis and decreased survival. OBJECTIVE: Identification of this morphology is important, as it is strongly correlated with poor prognosis regardless of the amount of MPC component. To date, no study has investigated the morphological criteria used to objectively diagnose it. DESIGN: Herein, we selected 30 cases of potential MPC of lung, and distributed 2 digital images per case among 15 pulmonary pathology experts. Reviewers were requested to diagnostically interpret, assign the percentage of MPC component, and record the morphological features they identified. The noted features included: columnar cells, elongated slender cell nests, extensive stromal retraction, lumen formation with internal epithelial tufting, epithelial signet ring-like forms, intracytoplasmic vacuolization, multiple nests in the same alveolar space, back-to-back lacunar spaces, epithelial nest anastomosis, marked pleomorphism, peripherally oriented nuclei, randomly distributed nuclei, small/medium/large tumor nest size, fibrovascular cores, and spread through air-spaces (STAS). RESULTS: Cluster analysis revealed three subgroups with the following diagnoses: "MPC", "combined papillary and MPC", and "others". The subgroups correlated with the reported median percentage of MPC. Intracytoplasmic vacuolization, epithelial nest anastomosis/confluence, multiple nests in the same alveolar space, and small/medium tumor nest size were the most common criteria identified in the cases diagnosed as MPC. Peripherally oriented nuclei and epithelial signet ring-like forms were frequently identified in both the "MPC" and "combined papillary and MPC" groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides objective diagnostic criteria to diagnose MPC of lung.

11.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(8): 799-811, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069578

RESUMO

An important premise of epidemiology is that individuals with the same disease share similar underlying etiologies and clinical outcomes. In the past few decades, our knowledge of disease pathogenesis has improved, and disease classification systems have evolved to the point where no complex disease processes are considered homogenous. As a result, pathology and epidemiology have been integrated into the single, unified field of molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE). Advancing integrative molecular and population-level health sciences and addressing the unique research challenges specific to the field of MPE necessitates assembling experts in diverse fields, including epidemiology, pathology, biostatistics, computational biology, bioinformatics, genomics, immunology, and nutritional and environmental sciences. Integrating these seemingly divergent fields can lead to a greater understanding of pathogenic processes. The International MPE Meeting Series fosters discussion that addresses the specific research questions and challenges in this emerging field. The purpose of the meeting series is to: discuss novel methods to integrate pathology and epidemiology; discuss studies that provide pathogenic insights into population impact; and educate next-generation scientists. Herein, we share the proceedings of the Fourth International MPE Meeting, held in Boston, MA, USA, on 30 May-1 June, 2018. Major themes of this meeting included 'integrated genetic and molecular pathologic epidemiology', 'immunology-MPE', and 'novel disease phenotyping'. The key priority areas for future research identified by meeting attendees included integration of tumor immunology and cancer disparities into epidemiologic studies, further collaboration between computational and population-level scientists to gain new insight on exposure-disease associations, and future pooling projects of studies with comparable data.

12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(7): 1246-1251, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No consensus guideline has been established for microsatellite instability testing in upper gastrointestinal tract cancers. This study aims to determine whether targeted cancer next-generation sequencing can accurately detect microsatellite instability in upper gastrointestinal tract cancers and screen for patients with Lynch syndrome. METHODS: In a cohort of 645 upper gastrointestinal tract cancers, targeted next-generation sequencing assessed microsatellite instability by identifying characteristic insertion and deletion mutations. Sequencing classification was compared with mismatch repair protein IHC. Cancers with microsatellite instability by sequencing were analyzed using a testing protocol to identify patients with Lynch syndrome. RESULTS: Sequencing identified microsatellite instability in 3.6% (23/645) of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers, including 28% (8/29) of small intestinal and 9% (9/97) of gastric carcinomas. In 20 cancers classified as having microsatellite instability, 19 demonstrated loss of expression of MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, or MSH6, and one cancer was indeterminate by IHC. In contrast, 52 control cancers demonstrated retained expression of all mismatch repair proteins. Using targeted sequencing as the initial screening test, 1.1% (7/645) of patients were identified to have pathogenic germline variants confirming a diagnosis of Lynch syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Targeted cancer next-generation sequencing is an accurate first-line test to detect microsatellite instability in upper gastrointestinal tract cancers. IMPACT: This study provides a proof of concept for the use of targeted next-generation sequencing to detect microsatellite instability and screen for Lynch syndrome.

13.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 127(5): 285-296, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Artificial genomic reference standards in a cytocentrifuge/cytospin format with well-annotated genomic data are useful for validating next-generation sequencing (NGS) on routine cytopreparations. Here, reference standards were optimized to be stained by different laboratories before DNA extraction and to contain a lower number of cells (2 × 105 ). This was done to better reflect the clinical challenge of working with insufficient cytological material. METHODS: A total of 17 worldwide laboratories analyzed customized reference standard slides (slides A-D). Each laboratory applied its standard workflow. The sample slides were engineered to harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) c.2235_2249del15 p.E746_A750delELREA, EGFR c.2369C>T p.T790M, Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) c.38G>A p.G13D, and B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) c.1798_1799GT>AA p.V600K mutations at various allele frequencies (AFs). RESULTS: EGFR and KRAS mutation detection showed excellent interlaboratory reproducibility, especially on slides A and B (10% and 5% AFs). On slide C (1% AF), either the EGFR mutation or the KRAS mutation was undetected by 10 of the 17 laboratories (58.82%). A reassessment of the raw data in a second-look analysis highlighted the mutations (n = 10) that had been missed in the first-look analysis. BRAF c.1798_1799GT>AA p.V600K showed a lower concordance rate for mutation detection and AF quantification. CONCLUSIONS: The data show that the detection of low-abundance mutations is still clinically challenging and may require a visual inspection of sequencing reads to detect. Genomic reference standards in a cytocentrifuge/cytospin format are a valid tool for regular quality assessment of laboratories performing molecular studies on cytology with low-AF mutations.

14.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 87, 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinically-available biomarkers to identify the fraction of patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) who respond to immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are lacking. High nonsynonymous tumor mutational burden (TMB), as assessed by whole exome sequencing, correlates with improved clinical outcomes for patients with SCLC treated with ICIs. Whether TMB as assessed by targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) is associated with improved efficacy of ICIs in patients with SCLC is currently unknown. Here we determined whether TMB by targeted NGS is associated with efficacy of ICIs in patients with SCLC. METHODS: We collected clinicopathologic data from patients with relapsed or refractory SCLC which underwent targeted NGS with TMB assessment by the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute OncoPanel platform. The relationship between TMB and clinical outcomes after treatment with ICIs was investigated. RESULTS: Among the 52 patients treated with ICIs, we found no significant difference in the objective response rate (ORR) between patients with a TMB above the 50th percentile ("TMB high") and those with a TMB at or below the 50th percentile ("TMB low"). The median progression-free survival (mPFS) and median overall survival (mOS) were significantly longer in patients with a high TMB compared to those with a low TMB (mPFS: 3.3 versus 1.2 months, HR: 0.37 [95% CI: 0.20-0.69], P < 0.01; mOS: 10.4 versus 2.5 months, HR: 0.38 [95% CI: 0.19-0.77], P < 0.01). The one-year PFS and OS rates improved with increasing mutational load when TMB was divided into tertiles. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that targeted NGS, a readily available clinical diagnostic test, can be used to identify patients with SCLC who are most likely to benefit from treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors.

15.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(5): 876-889, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735816

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mutations in the KRAS gene are the most common driver oncogenes present in lung adenocarcinomas. We analyzed the largest multi-institutional database available containing patients with metastatic KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinomas. METHODS: The Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium (LCMC) is a multi-institutional collaboration to study the genomic characteristics of lung adenocarcinomas, treat them with genomically directed therapeutic approaches, and assess their outcomes. Since its inception in 2009, the LCMC has enrolled more than 1900 patients and has performed pretreatment, multiplexed, molecular characterization along with collecting clinical data. We evaluated the characteristics of patients with KRAS mutation in the LCMC and the association with overall survival. RESULTS: Data from 1655 patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinomas were analyzed. Four hundred fifty (27%) patients had a KRAS mutation, 58% were female, 93% were smokers, and there was a median age of 65 years. Main KRAS subtypes were: G12C 39%; and G12D and G12V at 18% each. Among patients with KRAS mutation, G12D had a higher proportion of never-smokers (22%, p < 0.001). Patients with KRAS-mutant tumors had a trend toward shorter median survival compared to all others in the series (1.96 versus 2.22; P = 0.08) and lower 2-year survival rate (49% [95% confidence interval: 44%-54%] and 55% [95% confidence interval: 52%-58%], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In the LCMC study, 27% of lung adenocarcinomas patients harbored a KRAS mutation and up to one-third of them had another oncogenic driver. Patients with both KRAS and STK11 mutations had a significantly inferior clinical outcome.

16.
Mod Pathol ; 32(7): 977-987, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765880

RESUMO

Due to the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy in tumors with deficient mismatch repair, there has been a surge in demand for mismatch repair deficiency testing in various tumor types. Mismatch repair deficiency is not known to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of sarcomas, and the utility of testing these tumor types is not established. This study aimed to determine the frequency, pattern, and clinicopathologic correlates of mismatch repair deficiency in sarcomas. Three hundred and four sarcomas were profiled using a genomic platform that employs massively parallel sequencing to interrogate 447 cancer-associated genes. Mismatch repair status was evaluated by determining the number of small insertion/deletion events occurring in homopolymer regions per megabase of exonic sequence data across all genes.  Molecular characteristics of mismatch repair-deficient sarcomas were compared to mismatch repair-deficient carcinomas (n = 70) also identified using the sequencing panel. Seven sarcomas (2.3%) were classified as mismatch repair-deficient: four unclassified sarcomas, and one each of pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma, epithelioid leiomyosarcoma and malignant PEComa. One patient had an established diagnosis of Lynch syndrome. In the remaining patients, the mismatch repair gene mutation was confirmed or suspected to be somatic. Mismatch repair immunohistochemistry confirmed the mismatch repair-deficiency status of all cases with alterations in the tested proteins. As expected, mismatch repair-deficient sarcomas showed a significantly elevated tumor mutation burden relative to mismatch repair-proficient sarcomas (median 16 versus 4.6, p < 0.001). However, in comparison to mismatch repair-deficient carcinomas, mismatch repair-deficient sarcomas showed a lower tumor mutation burden (median 28 versus 16, p = 0.006) and a significantly greater degree of chromosomal instability. Among mismatch repair-deficient sarcomas, PD-L1 was variably expressed on tumor-associated macrophages but not on tumor cells. Three patients received pembrolizumab: two progressed and one has stable disease with five months follow-up. Mismatch repair deficiency in histologically classifiable sarcomas is rare (1%) and is more common in unclassified sarcomas (10%). Additional study is required to determine the predictive role of mismatch repair-deficiency in sarcomas for immunotherapy.

17.
Hum Pathol ; 86: 93-101, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658062

RESUMO

The prevalence of incidental nonneoplastic lung disease in patients undergoing resection for mass lesions is unknown. We determined the prevalence and characteristics of parenchymal findings in patients with lung nodules, aiming to increase awareness of findings that could potentially impact patient management. A total of 397 patients with benign or malignant mass lesions with available presurgical chest computed tomography scans resected between January 2001 and July 2015 were included. Retrospective histologic assessment of parenchymal abnormalities in at least 1 section of grossly normal lung was performed for each case by 2 pulmonary pathologists and correlated with original pathology reports, clinical history, and radiologic findings. A total of 233 women and 164 men underwent resections for carcinomas (78%) or benign nodules (22%). One hundred one (25%) patients showed parenchymal abnormalities, including 14 patients with multiple findings. The most common abnormal findings were fibrotic interstitial changes (10%), including usual interstitial pneumonia (1%), followed by granulomatous processes (8%). Other findings included aspiration (4%), intravascular thrombi (2%), Langerhans cell histiocytosis (1.5%), constrictive bronchiolitis (1%), atypical lymphoid infiltrates (1%), and amyloidosis (0.5%). Abnormalities were more likely to have been documented in the original pathology report by pulmonary pathologists (68%) than by general pathologists (15%) (P < .0001). Cases with histologic parenchymal abnormalities were more likely to show radiologic interstitial lung abnormalities than those without (16% versus 5%; P = .001). Evaluation of background lung parenchyma may yield valuable and unanticipated information in patients undergoing surgical resections for lung masses that may correlate with radiographic interstitial lung abnormalities and influence clinical management.

18.
Mod Pathol ; 32(6): 830-843, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626916

RESUMO

Recent studies have demonstrated recurrent activating mutations involving the classical MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways in a large proportion of histiocytic neoplasms, such as Langerhans cell histiocytosis. However, very little is known about the molecular genetics of histiocytic sarcoma, a rare aggressive malignant neoplasm that shows pathologic characteristics of mature macrophages. Here we report the genomic characteristics of a large cohort of histiocytic sarcomas (n = 28) using a targeted next-generation sequencing approach to identify driver alterations. We identified recurrent mutations involving the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway (MAP2K1, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PTPN11, NF1, CBL) in a majority (57%) of histiocytic sarcoma cases and report a clinical response to a MEK inhibitor (Cobimetinib) in a patient with a NF1-mutated histiocytic sarcoma. A smaller subset of cases (21%) also showed mutations resulting in activation of the PI3K signaling pathway (PTEN, MTOR, PIK3R1, PIK3CA). In addition, the tumor-suppressor gene CDKN2A was the most frequently altered gene (46%). Further, a subset of histiocytic sarcoma cases shows striking molecular genetic similarities to B cell lymphomas, supporting a clonal relationship between B cell neoplasms and a subset of histiocytic sarcomas. These findings support a cooperative role for MAPK, PI3K, and cyclin-CDK4/6-INK4 signaling in the pathogenesis of histiocytic sarcoma and provide a rational basis for targeting these pathways.

19.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(3): 377-407, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572031

RESUMO

Since the 2015 WHO classification was introduced into clinical practice, immunohistochemistry (IHC) has figured prominently in lung cancer diagnosis. In addition to distinction of small cell versus non-small cell carcinoma, patients' treatment of choice is directly linked to histologic subtypes of non-small cell carcinoma, which pertains to IHC results, particularly for poorly differentiated tumors. The use of IHC has improved diagnostic accuracy in the classification of lung carcinoma, but the interpretation of IHC results remains challenging in some instances. Also, pathologists must be aware of many interpretation pitfalls, and the use of IHC should be efficient to spare the tissue for molecular testing. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Pathology Committee received questions on practical application and interpretation of IHC in lung cancer diagnosis. After discussions in several International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Pathology Committee meetings, the issues and caveats were summarized in terms of 11 key questions covering common and important diagnostic situations in a daily clinical practice with some relevant challenging queries. The questions cover topics such as the best IHC markers for distinguishing NSCLC subtypes, differences in thyroid transcription factor 1 clones, and the utility of IHC in diagnosing uncommon subtypes of lung cancer and distinguishing primary from metastatic tumors. This article provides answers and explanations for the key questions about the use of IHC in diagnosis of lung carcinoma, representing viewpoints of experts in thoracic pathology that should assist the community in the appropriate use of IHC in diagnostic pathology.

20.
Cancer Discov ; 2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297358

RESUMO

KRAS-driven lung cancers frequently inactivate TP53 and/or STK11/LKB1, defining tumor subclasses with emerging clinical relevance. Specifically, KRAS-LKB1 (KL) mutant lung cancers are particularly aggressive, lack PD-L1, and respond poorly to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). The mechanistic basis for this impaired immunogenicity, despite the overall high mutational load of KRAS mutant lung cancers, remains obscure. Here we report that LKB1 loss results in marked silencing of STING expression and insensitivity to cytoplasmic double strand DNA (dsDNA) sensing. This effect is mediated at least in part by hyperactivation of DNMT1 and EZH2 activity related to elevated S-adenylmethionine (SAM) levels, and reinforced by DNMT1 upregulation. Ectopic expression of STING in KL cells engages IRF3 and STAT1 signaling downstream of TBK1 and impairs cellular fitness, due to the pathologic accumulation of cytoplasmic mitochondrial dsDNA associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, silencing of STING avoids these negative consequences of LKB1 inactivation, while facilitating immune escape.

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