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2.
J Urol ; 193(3): 927-34, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25261801

RESUMO

PURPOSE: After the advent of the GreenLight XPS™ (180 W) 532 nm laser, photoselective vapo-enucleation of the prostate could compete with holmium laser enucleation of the prostate as a size independent procedure. We assessed whether photoselective vapo-enucleation of the prostate-XPS is not less effective than holmium laser enucleation of prostate for improvement of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized controlled noninferiority trial comparing holmium laser enucleation of the prostate to photoselective vapo-enucleation of the prostate-XPS 180 W was conducted. I-PSS, flow rate, residual urine, prostate specific antigen and prostate volume changes as well as perioperative and late adverse events were compared. Noninferiority of I-PSS at 1 year was evaluated using a 1-sided test at 5% level of significance. The statistical significance of other comparators was assessed at the (2-sided) 5% level. RESULTS: Overall 50 and 53 patients were included in the holmium laser enucleation and photoselective vapo-enucleation of the prostate groups, respectively. Operative time, hospital stay and time to catheter removal were comparable between the groups. There was significant, comparable improvement in I-PSS and post-void residual urine volume at 1, 4 and 12 months. After 4 months prostate size reduction was significantly higher in the holmium laser enucleation of prostate group (74.3% vs 43.1%, p=0.001). At 12 months maximum urine flow rate was significantly higher in the holmium laser enucleation of prostate group (26.4 ±11.5 vs 18.4 ±7.5 ml per second, p=0.03). Re-intervention was needed in 2 and 3 cases in the holmium laser enucleation and photoselective vapo-enucleation of the prostate groups, respectively (p=1.0). Mean estimated cost per holmium laser enucleation of prostate procedure was significantly lower than per photoselective vapo-enucleation of the prostate procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to holmium laser enucleation of prostate, GreenLight XPS laser photoselective vapo-enucleation of the prostate is safe, noninferior and effective in treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.


Assuntos
Terapia a Laser , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Prostatectomia/métodos , Hiperplasia Prostática/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Urology ; 83(5): 1011-5, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24612617

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term functional outcome of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) for calculi in solitary kidneys and to determine factors leading to renal function deterioration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The computerized files of patients with solitary kidneys who underwent PNL between January 2002 and December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with follow-up <2 years were excluded. Complications, secondary procedures, and stone-free rates were recorded. Changes in the renal function were judged by comparing preoperative and postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rates. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors that may affect renal function were tested using univariate and multivariate analyses to define risk factors for deterioration of renal function on long-term follow-up. RESULTS: The study included 200 patients (133 men [66.5%] and 67 women [33.5%] with mean age 52.3 ± 11.7 years). Complications were reported in 34 patients (17%). Severe bleeding was noticed in 10 patients (5%). The overall stone-free rate was 89.5%. After a mean follow-up of 3 ± 1.4 years (range, 2-8), there was significant improvement of the estimated glomerular filtration rate from 57 to 64 mL/min (P <.001). Thirty-one patients (15.5%) showed deterioration of the renal function. Multiple punctures and postoperative bleeding were independent risk factors for renal function deterioration (odds ratio was 3.7 and 4.5, respectively). CONCLUSION: PNL for calculi in solitary kidneys provided significant improvement in renal function at long-term follow-up. Multiple punctures and severe bleeding are independent risk factors for deterioration of the kidney function.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Rim/anormalidades , Rim/fisiopatologia , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/complicações , Cálculos Renais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Can Urol Assoc J ; 8(11-12): E906-9, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25553164

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We compare percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and open surgery in the treatment of staghorn stones in children. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the electronic records of children who underwent treatment for staghorn stones between September 2000 and August 2013. They were divided between Group 1 (patients who underwent PCNL) and Group 2 (patients who underwent open surgery). We compared stone-free and complications rates, need for multiple procedures, and hospital stay. RESULTS: The study included 41 patients (35 boys and 6 girls), with mean age 7.4 ± 3.1 years (range: 2-15). Of these 41 patients, 26 had unilateral renal stone and 15 had bilateral renal stones. The total number of treated renal units was 56: 28 underwent PCNL and 28 underwent open surgery. The complication rate was comparable for both groups (32% for open surgery vs. 28.6%, p = 0.771). Multiple procedures were more needed in PCNL group (60.7% vs. 32% in open surgery, p = 0.032). The stone-free rate was 71.4% after PCNL and 78.6% after open surgery (p = 0.537). A significant difference was observed in shorter hospital stay after PCNL (5 vs. 8.8 days, p < 0.001). Our study's limitations include its retrospective design and relatively small sample size. CONCLUSIONS: For the treatment of staghorn stones in children, PCNL was comparable to open surgery in complication and stone-free rates. PCNL had the advantage of a shorter hospital stay and open surgery showed a decreased need for multiple procedures.

5.
Urology ; 81(4): 723-6, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23465152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical relevance of small, asymptomatic, noninfection residual stone fragments (≤5 mm) after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), evaluated using spiral noncontrast-enhanced computed tomography (NCCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present retrospective study included 75 patients who underwent PNL and were proved to have a single residual caliceal stone ≤5 mm as evaluated postoperatively by NCCT. All patients were free of urinary tract infections. The outcome of these residual fragments (RFs) were reassessed ≥12 months later using NCCT. RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 36.2 ± 20.1 months (range 12-96). Of the 75 evaluated patients, 25 (33.3%) passed the stones spontaneously during the follow-up period, 22 (29.35%) had stable asymptomatic RFs, 25 (33.3%) showed regrowth of the RFs, and 3 patients (4%) presented with slippage of the stones into the ureter. Asymptomatic patients with stable RFs elected to continue follow-up. For the remaining patients, 14 (18.7%) and 9 (12%) were referred to shock wave lithotripsy and PNL, respectively. The 3 patients with ureteral stones were treated with ureteroscopy. Only the RF size (>3 mm) correlated significantly with RF growth or ureteral obstruction (odds ratio 1.882, 95% confidence interval 0.919-3.854; P = .05). CONCLUSION: Small RFs (≤5 mm) after PNL, as assessed by NCCT, should be expected to require active intervention in one third of the patients at intermediate follow-up. A small, single, RF (≤3 mm), as assessed by NCCT, can be considered clinically insignificant.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral , Adulto Jovem
6.
Urology ; 79(6): 1236-41, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22465085

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine factors affecting the stone-free rate and complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) for treatment of staghorn stones. METHODS: The computerized database of patients who underwent PNL for treatment of staghorn stones between January 2003 and January 2011 was reviewed. All perioperative complications were recorded and classified according to modified Clavien classification system. The stone-free rate was evaluated with low-dose noncontrast computed tomography (CT). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to determine factors affecting stone-free and complication rates. RESULTS: The study included 241 patients (125 male and 116 female) with a mean age of 48.7 ±14.3 years. All patients underwent 251 PNL (10 patients had bilateral stones). The stone-free rate of PNL monotherapy was 56% (142 procedures). At 3 months, the stone-free rate increased to 73% (183 kidneys) after shock wave lithotripsy. Independent risk factors for residual stones were complete staghorn stone and presence of secondary calyceal stones (relative risks were 2.2 and 3.1, respectively). The complication rate was 27% (68 PNL). Independent risk factors for development of complications were performance of the procedure by urologists other than experienced endourologist and positive preoperative urine culture (relative risks were 2.2 and 2.1, respectively). CONCLUSION: Factors affecting the incidence of residual stones after PNL are complete staghorn stones and the presence of secondary calyceal stones. Complications are significantly high if PNL is not performed by an experienced endourologist or if preoperative urine culture is positive.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/epidemiologia , Cálculos Renais/urina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrostomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Nefrostomia Percutânea/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Fatores de Risco
7.
Urology ; 79(4): 771-6, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22130359

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hemostatic and drainage functions of the nephrostomy tube after percutaneous nephrolithotomy through a prospective randomized study. Additionally, the effect of nephrostomy tube placement on postoperative pain, hospital stay, and the success and complication rates was assessed. METHODS: The present study was designed to include 100 patients with upper urinary tract calculi who were prospectively randomized to tubeless (group 1) and standard (group 2) PCNL using closed envelopes. The hemoglobin and hematocrit deficits, development of hematuria and hematoma, and blood transfusion rate were compared to assess the hemostatic effect. The drainage effect was evaluated by comparing the incidence of postoperative urinary leakage, urinoma, and/or hydrothorax development. RESULTS: A total of 123 patients were assessed for eligibility, and 100 fulfilled the study requirements. The hemoglobin and hematocrit deficits were comparable. Significant hematuria and/or hematoma were recorded in 5 and 4 patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Blood transfusion was required in 5 and 6 patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively. One patient with chronic kidney disease in the tubeless group required abdominal exploration because of respiratory embarrassment and a large hematoma. Transient urinary leakage was recorded in 2 and 31 patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P < .05). No urinoma developed. Hemothorax developed in 1 patient in the tubeless group with supracostal puncture. Postoperative pain was significantly less in the tubeless group. No statistically significant difference was found in the success rate, morbidity, or hospital stay between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: The hemostatic and drainage functions of the nephrostomy tube were modest. However, the tubeless approach might be not suitable for the patients with chronic kidney disease or a supracostal approach.


Assuntos
Nefrostomia Percutânea/métodos , Cálculos Urinários/terapia , Adulto , Drenagem/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrostomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Dor Pós-Operatória , Assistência Perioperatória , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Arab J Urol ; 10(3): 324-9, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26558044

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To present the results of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for treating staghorn stones. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A database was compiled from the computerised files of patients who underwent PCNL for staghorn stones between 1999 and 2009. The study included 238 patients (128 males and 110 females) with a mean (SD) age of 48.9 (14) years, who underwent 242 PCNLs, and included staghorn stones that were present in the renal pelvis and branched into two or more major calyces. PCNL was performed or supervised by an experienced endourologist. All perioperative complications were recorded. The stone-free status was evaluated after PCNL and again after 3 months. RESULTS: Multiple tracts were needed in 35.5% of the procedures, and several sessions of PCNL were needed in 30% of patients. There were perioperative complications in 54 procedures (22%); blood transfusion was needed in 34 patients (14%). The stone-free rate for PCNL monotherapy was 56.6% (137 patients). Secondary procedures were required for 51 patients (21%), and included shock-wave lithotripsy for 49 and ureteroscopy for two. The 3-month stone-free rate was 72.7% (176 patients). Multiple tracts resulted in an insignificantly higher overall complication rate than with a single tract (P = 0.219), but the reduction in the haemoglobin level was statistically significant with multiple tracts (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: PCNL for staghorn stones must be done by an experienced endourologist in a specialised centre with all the facilities for stone management and treatment of possible complications. The patients must be informed about the range of stone-free and complication rates, and the possibility of multiple sessions or secondary procedures.

9.
Scand J Urol Nephrol ; 45(2): 97-101, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21082875

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine factors affecting the success of bilateral same-session ureteroscopy (BSU) in the treatment of ureteral calculi. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From January 2003 to December 2008, BSU was carried out in 89 patients (178 renal units). A successful outcome was considered when both ureters were free of stones without intraoperative complications. Stone-free rate was evaluated with a kidney-ureter-bladder plain X-ray or non-contrast computed tomography. Factors interfering with successful completion of BSU were tested using univariate (chi-squared test and t test) and multivariate (logistic regression) analyses. Data on unilateral ureteroscopy for the treatment of multiple ureteral calculi carried out in 105 patients during the same period were compared with BSU. RESULTS: Intraoperative complications were recorded in 11 procedures (6.2%) in the form of ureteral perforation in three and mucosal injury in eight. After BSU, 153 renal units were stone free (86%) as 17 had residual fragments, stones migrated to the kidney in six and failure was encountered in two. A successful outcome was observed in 62 patients (70%). Stone impaction, stones located in the proximal ureter and stone surface area were the significant risk factors for unsuccessful BSU (relative risks 3.6, 3.3 and 1.47, respectively). Compared with unilateral ureteroscopy, no difference were found with regard to complication rate (6.7%, p = 0.5) or stone-free rate (80%, p = 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral same-session ureteroscopy is a safe and effective procedure in the management of bilateral ureteral stones. Proximal ureteral calculi, large and impacted stones carry the highest risk of unsuccessful results.


Assuntos
Cálculos Ureterais/cirurgia , Ureteroscopia/efeitos adversos , Ureteroscopia/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Complicações Intraoperatórias , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Ureter/lesões , Adulto Jovem
10.
BJU Int ; 108(5): 750-4, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21166763

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: • To study long-term results of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) for treatment of staghorn stones. PATIENTS AND METHODS: • The records of patients who underwent PNL for staghorn stones between January 1998 and January 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. • Patients who completed follow-up for one year or more were included. Follow-up with KUB and renal ultrasonography were performed every 3-6 months. • Renal radioisotopic scan was performed for patients who had already undergone this study before doing PNL. RESULTS: • The study included 122 patients (69 male and 53 female) with mean age 47.6 ± 14.5 years (5-74). They underwent 126 PNL. • Perioperative complications were encountered in 28 procedures (22%). The mean period of follow-up was 3.5 ± 2.3 years (1-11.3). Among 71 stone-free kidneys, 18 (25%) developed stone recurrence. Of 55 kidneys with residuals at the start of follow-up, 36 (65%) showed growth of these residuals. • Preoperative and postoperative renograms were performed for 71 patients. • At the last follow-up, differential GFR was stable in 53 (74.5%), improved in 12 (17%) and deteriorated in 6 (8.5%). Among patients with deteriorated renal function, 3 had undergone embolization to control severe bleeding, one developed secondary UPJO, and one had recurrent stone obstructing the kidney. CONCLUSION: • Long-term functional results of PNL for staghorn stones are satisfactory as 91.5% of kidneys showed stable or improved GFR. Long-term follow-up is mandatory especially for patients with residual stones.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrostomia Percutânea/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Urology ; 74(2): 273-7, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19501888

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in management of the patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and associated nephrolithiasis. METHODS: A total of 19 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and upper urinary tract stones were included in the study. One patient had bilateral renal stones. Most of the stones were located in the renal pelvis and/or calices with a stone size >2 cm in the largest diameter. All patients were treated by percutaneous nephrolithotomy at 2 centers. Therefore, 20 percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures were performed. Most of the procedures were performed in 1 stage by the urology team under fluoroscopic guidance; 6 cases were done in 2 stages. The success rate and morbidity and mortality of the technique and hospital stay were recorded. RESULTS: The pelvicaliceal system was successfully approached in all cases but 1. The overall stone-free rate was 89.4%. Renal function improved in the patients who presented with azotemia and was stable in the others. No patient died. Complications occurred in 3 procedures and consisted of mild postoperative hematuria in 1, bleeding through the nephrostomy tube in 1, and low-grade fever in 1. The mean hospital stay was 3 days. CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a safe and effective method for the treatment of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and associated upper urinary tract stones.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Rim Policístico Autossômico Dominante/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Fluoroscopia , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/complicações , Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rim Policístico Autossômico Dominante/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Intervencionista
12.
BJU Int ; 104(10): 1505-9, 2009 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19426193

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe a novel modification for excision of a bladder mucosal cuff around the ipsilateral ureter during laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU) in the patients with upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2003 and 2007, 13 patients with upper urinary TCC were managed by LNU with excision of a bladder mucosal cuff. The renal pedicle was clipped early. The kidney was freed. The ureter was dissected down to the vesico-ureteric junction. The intramural part of the ureter was dissected under vision and sharply freed from the surrounding detrusor muscle of the bladder until the level of the ureteric orifice. Then the detrusor muscle was further dissected away from the underneath bladder mucosa for 1 cm around the ureteric orifice. Thus, a bladder cuff of mucosa-only could be retrieved. A purse-string suture was taken at the edge of the dissected mucosa and the cuff was excised. The intaoperative and postoperative outcome and morbidity were recorded and results of the short- and intermediate-term follow-up were evaluated. RESULTS: All the procedures were completed by laparoscopy. The mean operative time was 226 min. The mean blood loss was 233 mL. There were no major complications. The median follow-up was 31.5 months. During follow-up, one patient developed recurrence in the renal bed. There was no pelvic recurrences. Two patients developed papillary bladder tumours. CONCLUSION: The purse-string technique enabled complete LNU without opening of the pelvicalyceal system. Short- and intermediate-term follow-up showed the oncological safety of the procedure. The outcomes from more patients with a longer follow-up are required to confirm these preliminary findings.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição/cirurgia , Nefrectomia/métodos , Técnicas de Sutura , Neoplasias Ureterais/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias Ureterais/patologia , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Urol ; 181(3): 1158-62, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19152940

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We determined the factors predicting unfavorable results of semirigid ureteroscopy for ureteral calculi. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the computerized files of 841 patients who underwent a total of 908 ureteroscopic procedures for ureteral stones from January 2003 through December 2006. A semirigid 6/7.5Fr ureteroscope was used in pediatric patients and an 8/10Fr or 8.5/11.5Fr ureteroscope was used in adults. Patients with favorable results were those who became stone-free after a single ureteroscopic procedure without any complications. They were compared with patients who had unfavorable results using univariate (chi-square and t tests) and multivariate (logistic regression) statistical tests to identify risk factors for unfavorable results. RESULTS: The study included 567 males and 274 females with a mean age of 48.5 years (range 2 to 81). The complication rate was 6.7% (61 procedures). The stone-free rate after a single ureteroscopic intervention was 87% (791 procedures). Favorable results were documented in 751 procedures (82.7%). Significant factors for unfavorable results were proximal ureteral stones, ureteroscopy done by surgeons other than experienced endourologists, stone impaction and stone width (relative risk 4, 2.5, 1.8 and 1.2, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Semirigid ureteroscopy is a safe and highly effective treatment modality for ureteral stones.


Assuntos
Cálculos Ureterais/terapia , Ureteroscópios , Ureteroscopia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Urol ; 180(2): 676-80, 2008 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18554648

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the supracostal approach for percutaneous nephrolithotomy in pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 60 percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures done in 50 children (32 boys and 18 girls) between 2000 and 2007. Mean patient age was 7 +/- 4 years (range 9 months to 14 years). Noncontrast computerized tomography was the primary radiological investigation for most of the cases. The subcostal approach was used in 40 procedures, and the supracostal approach (above the 12th rib) was required in 20. We compared both approaches regarding preoperative characteristics, stone-free and complication rates, and the need for auxiliary procedures. RESULTS: The preoperative characteristics of the patients, urinary tracts and stones were comparable for both treatment groups. There were no major complications. Significant bleeding requiring blood transfusion was observed in 3 patients (5%), transient fever in 3 (5%) and urinary leakage through the nephrostomy site in 3 (5%). The distribution of complications among subcostal and supracostal approaches was comparable. Of the 60 renal units 46 (77%) were stone-free after percutaneous nephrolithotomy at discharge from the hospital. Of the remaining 14 units 9 (15%) were stone-free after shock wave lithotripsy and 5 (8%) had insignificant residual stones. Therefore, the overall stone-free rate at 3 months was 92.5%. Comparing the subcostal and supracostal approaches, there were no significant differences between hospital stays, complication rates, unplanned auxiliary procedures, and stone-free rates at discharge home and at 3-month followup. CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy for treating renal stones in children provides a high degree of safety and efficacy whether a supracostal or subcostal approach is used.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Litotripsia/métodos , Nefrostomia Percutânea/métodos , Adolescente , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Tempo de Internação , Litotripsia/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Nefrostomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Dor Pós-Operatória/fisiopatologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Probabilidade , Radiografia Intervencionista , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Gestão da Segurança , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Endourol ; 21(10): 1131-6, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17949310

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To present the combination of laparoscopy and nephroscopy for the treatment of stones in pelvic ectopic kidneys. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The series included seven male and four female patients (mean age 43 +/- 9 years). Laparoscopy-assisted percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) was performed for caliceal stones in five patients after failure of shockwave lithotripsy, while laparoscopic pyelolithotomy was performed for large or branched renal pelvic stones in six patients. RESULTS: The mean operative time was 164 +/- 30 minutes. There were neither complications nor conversions to open surgery. The stone-free rate was 91% (10 patients). One patient had a residual caliceal fragment that was treated with shockwave lithotripsy. The mean hospital stay was 3.5 +/- 0.7 days. CONCLUSION: The combination of laparoscopy and nephroscopy is feasible, safe, and effective for the treatment of stones in pelvic kidneys.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Nefrostomia Percutânea/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias , Rim/anormalidades , Cálices Renais/cirurgia , Tempo de Internação , Litotripsia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
16.
J Urol ; 178(5): 2020-4; discussion 2024, 2007 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17869300

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A prospective randomized study was performed to compare the results of laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty using transperitoneal and retroperitoneal approaches. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 patients with primary ureteropelvic junction obstruction were included in the study. The patients were prospectively randomized between transperitoneal (20 patients, group 1) and retroperitoneal (20 patients, group 2) laparoscopic Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty. All the patients were assessed preoperatively by excretory urography, diuretic isotope renography and computerized tomography angiography. The patients were followed at 3 and 6 months postoperatively, and then every 6 months. Evaluation was performed by excretory urography and diuretic renography. Both approaches were compared regarding operative time, morbidity, hospital stay, convalescence and functional outcome. The preoperative demographic data of the patients and radiological and operative findings were statistically correlated to the operative time. RESULTS: The preoperative data of both groups were comparable. All the procedures were successfully completed with laparoscopy. Mean operative times were 149 and 189 minutes for the transperitoneal approach and retroperitoneoscopy, respectively (p = 0.02). In groups 1 and 2 there were complications in 3 and 5 patients, respectively. Morbidity, hospital stay, convalescence and success rate had no significant differences between the groups. None of the patient parameters apart from the approach had a significant impact on operative time. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic dismembered Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty has a satisfactory functional outcome and low morbidity regardless of the approach. Nevertheless, with early experience retroperitoneoscopy is associated with a longer operative time.


Assuntos
Cálices Renais/cirurgia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Ureter/cirurgia , Obstrução Ureteral/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Cavidade Peritoneal/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Espaço Retroperitoneal/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Obstrução Ureteral/diagnóstico por imagem , Urografia
17.
J Urol ; 178(3 Pt 1): 916-20; discussion 920, 2007 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17632136

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite evidence that urologists can safely acquire percutaneous renal access for percutaneous nephrolithotomy, many centers still rely on interventional radiologists to obtain renal access. In this study we evaluated percutaneous access for percutaneous nephrolithotomy obtained by interventional radiologists or urologists, and compared access outcomes and complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The surgical records of 1,121 patients with 1,155 stone bearing kidneys treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy between 1999 and 2003 were reviewed. Patients were stratified according to percutaneous renal access into 509 patients with 661 access procedures performed by urologists and 612 patients with 612 access procedures performed by interventional radiologists. RESULTS: Both groups were comparable except there was a higher incidence of multiple stones in the urologist access group. Urologists had a significantly greater rate of using multiple and supracostal tracts compared to radiologists. The stone-free rates were 83.4% and 86.1% for urologist and radiologist access groups, respectively (p = 0.1). Major complications were seen in 74 patients (6.6%). Both groups had similar complication rates except for significant bleeding in the urology group (4.3%) compared with 2.1% in the radiology cohort (p = 0.02). Further multivariate analysis showed that bleeding was not related to the type of access whether performed by urologist or radiologist. CONCLUSIONS: The urologist is able to safely and effectively obtain percutaneous renal access for percutaneous nephrolithotomy as a single stage procedure. Despite more complex stones and higher access difficulty in the urology access group, access related complications and stone-free rates were comparable. We recommend percutaneous access training in urology training programs.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Radiologia Intervencionista , Urologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Litotripsia/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrostomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos
18.
J Urol ; 177(2): 576-9, 2007 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17222636

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We identified risk factors predicting severe bleeding due to percutaneous nephrolithotomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Computerized data on 2,909 patients who underwent a total of 3,878 percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures between January 1995 and December 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Data on patients who experienced severe bleeding requiring angiographic renal embolization were compared with those on other patients using univariate and multivariate analyses. We tested the characteristics of patients, kidneys and stones together with details of the operative procedure and surgeon experience. RESULTS: Severe bleeding complicated a total of 39 procedures (1%) in 25 males and 14 females with a mean age of 50.7 +/- 12.6 years. Associated morbidity included shock in 6 patients and perirenal hematoma in 4. Renal angiography revealed pseudoaneurysm in 20 patients, arteriovenous fistula in 9, the 2 lesions in 8 and arterial laceration in 2. Bleeding could be controlled with superselective embolization in 36 patients (92.3%). Followup was available on 33 patients (mean 21 +/- 15 months). Renal function was stable in all patients except 3 who had a post-embolization increase in serum creatinine, of whom all had a solitary kidney and none required renal replacement therapy. Significant risk factors for severe bleeding were upper caliceal puncture, solitary kidney, staghorn stone, multiple punctures and inexperienced surgeon. CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy should be performed by an experienced endourologist in patients at risk for severe bleeding, such as those with a solitary kidney or staghorn stones.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica , Nefrostomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/terapia , Artéria Renal , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia , Artéria Renal/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
Eur Urol ; 52(1): 199-204, 2007 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17161525

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The surgical management of renal and upper ureteral calculi presents unique challenges in obese patients. We reviewed our recent experience with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) in obese patients to determine the safety and outcome of this procedure in such group of patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The surgical records of 1121 patients treated with PNL between 2000 and 2004 were reviewed. Patients were stratified into four groups according to the World Health Organization classification of body mass index (BMI): <25 (average), 25-29.9 (overweight), 30-39.9 (obese), and >40 kg/m(2) (morbidly obese). The outcomes of PNL in these four groups were compared. RESULTS: A total of 1287 procedures were performed on 1155 renal units (1.1 procedures per renal unit). The overall stone-free rate was 85.1% and the mean hospital stay was 3.3+/-2.6 d. Major complications were seen in 72 patients (6.4%). No statistically significant differences were found in decrease in haemoglobin concentration, hospital stay, and complication rate among the four study groups. The need for auxiliary procedures and stone-free rates were comparable. CONCLUSIONS: PNL in obese and morbidly obese patients yields a stone-free rate that is comparable to that achieved in nonobese patients. The complication rate and length of hospital stay are also similar.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Cálculos Renais/terapia , Nefrostomia Percutânea/métodos , Obesidade/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/complicações , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Scand J Urol Nephrol ; 40(5): 385-90, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17060085

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine prognostic variables which influence late recurrence after initially successful percutaneous endopyelotomy for secondary ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between July 1987 and March 2002, 67 patients with secondary UPJO were treated with percutaneous endopyelotomy at our center. Long-term follow-up data were available for 50 patients with initially successful results (42 after a single treatment and eight after repeated endopyelotomy). Follow-up excretory urography and diuretic renal scans were performed for objective evaluation. Late recurrence was diagnosed if obstruction developed after > 1 year of follow-up. Univariate (Kaplan-Meier method) and multivariate (Cox regression model) analyses of pre-, peri- and postoperative factors were carried out for detection of significant variables affecting the late recurrence rate. RESULTS: The follow-up period ranged from 1.27 to 13.85 years (mean 6 +/- 4.3 years). Late recurrence of UPJO was observed in seven cases (14%): 4/42 initially successful cases (9.5%) and 3/8 cases of repeated endopyelotomy (37.5%). In univariate analysis, the significant factors were severity of stenosis at the UPJ (p = 0.04), preoperative serum creatinine (p = 0.04), repetition of endopyelotomy (p = 0.03) and development of postoperative complications (p = 0.02). In multivariate analysis, all of the above factors, with the exception of severity of stenosis at the UPJ, were independent significant factors affecting late recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: As late recurrence was observed in 14% of cases after percutaneous endopyelotomy, long-term follow-up is needed, especially in patients with elevated preoperative serum creatinine, those in whom postoperative complications developed and those in whom a first attempt at endopyelotomy failed.


Assuntos
Nefrostomia Percutânea , Obstrução Ureteral/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pelve Renal/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Stents , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Obstrução Ureteral/diagnóstico
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