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2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(35): 42154-42163, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432433

RESUMO

Currently, light-based three-dimensional (3D) printing with submicron features is mainly developed based on photosensitive polymers or inorganic-polymer composite materials. To eliminate polymer/organic additives, a strategy for direct 3D assembly and printing of metallic nanocrystals without additives is presented. Ultrafast laser with intensity in the range of 1 × 1010 to 1 × 1012 W/cm2 is used to nonequilibrium heat nanocrystals and induce ligand transformation, which triggers the spontaneous fusion and localized assembly of nanocrystals. The process is due to the operation of hot electrons as confirmed by a strong dependence of the printing rate on laser pulse duration varied in the range of electron-phonon relaxation time. Using the developed laser-induced ligand transformation (LILT) process, direct printing of 3D metallic structures at micro and submicron scales is demonstrated. Facile integration with other microscale additive manufacturing for printing 3D devices containing multiscale features is also demonstrated.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(49): 54936-54945, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216535

RESUMO

Miniaturization of energy conversion and storage devices has attracted remarkable consideration in the application of wearable electronics. Compared with film-based flexible electronics, fiber-based wearable electronics (e.g., nanogenerators and sensors made from electrospun nanofibers) are more appealing and promising for wearables. However, there are two bottlenecks, a low power output and poor sensing capability, limiting the application of piezoelectric nanofibers. Herein, we integrated zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) to a less known piezoelectric polymer, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber, forming a ZnO/PAN nanofabric, which significantly improved the pressure sensitivity and vibrational energy harvesting ability by about 2.7 times compared with those of the pristine PAN nanofiber, and the maximum output power density of ∼10.8 mW·m-2 is achieved. Noteworthily, the ZnO/PAN nanofabric showed a power output about twice of the one made of ZnO and polyvinylidene fluoride. It was revealed that the integration of ZnO NRs clearly improved the planar zigzag conformation in microstructures of the PAN nanofiber. Further, successful demonstrations of a mechanically robust pressure sensor and wearable power source confirm the potential applications in human activity monitoring and personal thermal management, respectively.

4.
ACS Nano ; 14(8): 10413-10420, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806046

RESUMO

Refractory metals and their carbides possess extraordinary chemical and temperature resilience and exceptional mechanical strength. Yet, they are notoriously difficult to employ in additive manufacturing, due to the high temperatures needed for processing. State of the art approaches to manufacture these materials generally require either a high-energy laser or electron beam as well as ventilation to protect the metal powder from combustion. Here, we present a versatile manufacturing process that utilizes tar as both a light absorber and antioxidant binder to sinter thin films of aluminum, copper, nickel, molybdenum, and tungsten powder using a low power (<2W) CO2 laser in air. Films of sintered Al/Cu/Ni metals have sheet resistances of ∼10-1 ohm/sq, while laser-sintered Mo/W-tar thin films form carbide phases. Several devices are demonstrated, including laser-sintered porous copper with a stable response to large strain (3.0) after 150 cycles, and a laserprocessed Mo/MoC(1-x) filament that reaches T ∼1000 °C in open air at 12 V. These results show that tar-mediated laser sintering represents a possible low energy, cost-effective route for engineering refractory materials and one that can easily be extended to additive manufacturing processes.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 737: 139818, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526581

RESUMO

A biomimetic Egeria-densa-like hybrid composite nanofiber membrane was fabricated to degrade organic pollutants in water, with PVDF nanofibers as stems to provide support, and ZnO nanowires as leaves to provide active sites. The Sm-doped ZnO nanowires@PVDF nanofiber membranes were characterized by FE-SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrometer. Compared with the pure ZnO nanowires@PVDF nanofiber membrane, the Sm-doped membrane showed higher photocatalytic performance. The excellent photocatalytic activity was attributed to the increased specific surface area and the decreased bandgap of ZnO nanowires after Sm doping, which inhibited the recombination rate of electrons and holes and improved the absorption of visible light. We found that the superoxide free radicals (O2-) played a critical role in photocatalytic degradation. The Sm-doped ZnO nanowires@PVDF nanofiber membrane exhibited good stability after 5 cycles of RhB degradation. We believe such Sm-doped hybrid membrane can work as an effective photocatalyst for wastewater treatment.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(11): 114301, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242717

RESUMO

An elastic cloak is a coating material that can be applied to an arbitrary inclusion to make it indistinguishable from the background medium. Cloaking against elastic disturbances, in particular, has been demonstrated using several designs and gauges. None, however, tolerate the coexistence of normal and shear stresses due to a shortage of physical realization of transformation-invariant elastic materials. Here, we overcome this limitation to design and fabricate a new class of polar materials with a distribution of body torque that exhibits asymmetric stresses. A static cloak for full two-dimensional elasticity is thus constructed based on the transformation method. The proposed cloak is made of a functionally graded multilayered lattice embedded in an isotropic continuum background. While one layer is tailored to produce a target elastic behavior, the other layers impose a set of kinematic constraints equivalent to a distribution of body torque that breaks the stress symmetry. Experimental testing under static compressive and shear loads demonstrates encouraging cloaking performance in good agreement with our theoretical prediction. The work sets a precedent in the field of transformation elasticity and should find applications in mechanical stress shielding and stealth technologies.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(37): 34416-34423, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438669

RESUMO

Nonvacuum printing of single crystals would be ideal for high-performance functional device (such as electronics) fabrication yet challenging for most materials, especially for inorganic semiconductors. Currently, the printed films are dominant in amorphous, polycrystalline, or nanoparticle films. In this article, manufacturing of single-crystal silicon micro/nano-islands is attempted. Different from traditional vapor deposition for silicon thin-film preparation, silicon nanoparticle ink was aerosol-printed followed by confined laser melting and crystallization, allowing potential fabrication of single-crystal silicon micro/nano-islands. It is also shown that as-fabricated Si islands can be transfer-printed onto polymer substrates for potential application of flexible electronics. The additive nature of this technique suggests a scalable and economical approach for high-crystallinity semiconductor printing.

8.
Adv Mater ; 30(28): e1707624, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29736971

RESUMO

Bioresorbable electronics refer to a new class of advanced electronics that can completely dissolve or disintegrate with environmentally and biologically benign byproducts in water and biofluids. They have provided a solution to the growing electronic waste problem with applications in temporary usage of electronics such as implantable devices and environmental sensors. Bioresorbable materials such as biodegradable polymers, dissolvable conductors, semiconductors, and dielectrics are extensively studied, enabling massive progress of bioresorbable electronic devices. Processing and patterning of these materials are predominantly relying on vacuum-based fabrication methods so far. However, for the purpose of commercialization, nonvacuum, low-cost, and facile manufacturing/printing approaches are the need of the hour. Bioresorbable electronic materials are generally more chemically reactive than conventional electronic materials, which require particular attention in developing the low-cost manufacturing processes in ambient environment. This review focuses on material reactivity, ink availability, printability, and process compatibility for facile manufacturing of bioresorbable electronics.


Assuntos
Implantes Absorvíveis , Eletrônica , Polímeros , Impressão , Semicondutores
9.
ACS Nano ; 12(3): 2231-2241, 2018 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29481049

RESUMO

Manipulating and tuning nanoparticles by means of optical field interactions is of key interest for nanoscience and applications in electronics and photonics. We report scalable, direct, and optically modulated writing of nanoparticle patterns (size, number, and location) of high precision using a pulsed nanosecond laser. The complex nanoparticle arrangement is modulated by the laser pulse energy and polarization with the particle size ranging from 60 to 330 nm. Furthermore, we report fast cooling-rate induced phase switching of crystalline Si nanoparticles to the amorphous state. Such phase switching has usually been observed in compound phase change materials like GeSbTe. The ensuing modification of atomic structure leads to dielectric constant switching. Based on these effects, a multiscale laser-assisted method of fabricating Mie resonator arrays is proposed. The number of Mie resonators, as well as the resonance peaks and dielectric constants of selected resonators, can be programmed. The programmable light-matter interaction serves as a mechanism to fabricate optical metasurfaces, structural color, and multidimensional optical storage devices.

10.
J Clin Transl Res ; 3(3): 311-317, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895272

RESUMO

Background: Dental anxiety is a common problem associated with poorer oral health. Managing anxiety is key to improving oral health of patients with dental anxiety. The present pilot study therefore investigated dental anxiety prevalence among patients visiting a university dental clinic. We further examined the effect of combined psychological interventions on anxiety or concern towards dental treatment procedures before treatment, after treatment, and at follow-up. Methods: In this prospective pilot study, patients seeking restorative treatment were screened for dental anxiety and dental concern about treatment using the Dental Anxiety Scale-Revised (DAS-R) and Dental Concern Assessment (DCA) questionnaires. Participants with a DAS-R score of 9 or above were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. The patients in the experimental group received two psycho-logical interventions (psychoeducation and progressive muscular relaxation) prior to dental treatment. Dur-ing treatment, patients received another psychological intervention (music distraction). No psychological interventions were given to control patients. DAS-R and DCA scores were used to assess dental anxiety and concern, respectively, before treatment, after treatment, and at follow-up. Nonparametric tests were used for intergroup and intragroup statistical analyses. Results: Out of 64 patients surveyed, 33 (51.6%) had experienced dental anxiety. Of those, 2 were exclud-ed, and 31 patients with a mean ± SD age of 41.2 ± 15.9 y completed the study. No intergroup differences in dental anxiety were found in terms of pretreatment, posttreatment, and follow-up treatment. The mean rank value of the dental anxiety score was less in the experimental group (13.53) than the control group (18.31), albeit not significant. More specifically, differences (Kruskal-Wallis %2 = 14.82, P = 0.001, effect size = 0.33) were found in the experimental group for pretreatment, posttreatment, and follow-up treatment levels of dental anxiety for extraction (P = 0.01), injection (P = 0.02), and sound/vibration of the drill (P = 0.00). No significant intragroup differences between pretreatment, posttreatment, and follow-up treatment were found in the control group. Conclusions: The combined brief psychological interventions reduced dental anxiety. Relevance for patients: The psychological interventions of the present study could be applied right before or during dental treatment to reduce the dental anxiety of patients. However, additional research involving larger groups is needed to replicate the results of this pilot study.

11.
Polymers (Basel) ; 10(6)2018 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30966606

RESUMO

Multiple jets ejection in electrospinning has been a major approach to achieving a high production rate of ultrafine fibers, also known as nanofibers. This work studies the effect of solution parameters-including dielectric constant, polarity, conductivity and surface tension-on the jet number and jet evolution in the auxiliary electrode electrospinning approach. The results show that it is easier to generate 2⁻6 jets with short stable jet length (1.7⁻6.9 mm) under low voltage (5.03⁻7.13 kV) when solutions have higher dielectric constant (32.2⁻78.6) and larger surface tension (31.8⁻41.29 mN/m). The influence of solution properties on stable jet length and the influence of applied voltage to produce multiple jets are discussed in detail. This work provides a new perspective for understanding jet evolution and mass production of nanofibers in electrospinning.

12.
Adv Mater ; 29(26)2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28436054

RESUMO

Currently, bioresorbable electronic devices are predominantly fabricated by complex and expensive vacuum-based integrated circuit (IC) processes. Here, a low-cost manufacturing approach for bioresorbable conductors on bioresorbable polymer substrates by evaporation-condensation-mediated laser printing and sintering of Zn nanoparticle is reported. Laser sintering of Zn nanoparticles has been technically difficult due to the surface oxide on nanoparticles. To circumvent the surface oxide, a novel approach is discovered to print and sinter Zn nanoparticle facilitated by evaporation-condensation in confined domains. The printing process can be performed on low-temperature substrates in ambient environment allowing easy integration on a roll-to-roll platform for economical manufacturing of bioresorbable electronics. The fabricated Zn conductors show excellent electrical conductivity (≈1.124 × 106 S m-1 ), mechanical durability, and water dissolvability. Successful demonstration of strain gauges confirms the potential application in various environmentally friendly sensors and circuits.

13.
Small ; 13(17)2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28218485

RESUMO

Bioresorbable electronics is predominantly realized by complex and time-consuming anhydrous fabrication processes. New technology explores printable methods using inks containing micro- or nano-bioresorbable particles (e.g., Zn and Mg). However, these particles have seldom been obtained in the context of bioresorbable electronics using cheap, reliable, and effective approaches with limited study on properties essential to printable electronics. Here, irregular nanocrystalline Zn with controllable sizes and optimized electrical performance is obtained through ball milling approach using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a process control agent to stabilize Zn particles and prevent cold welding. Time and PVP dependence of the ball milled particles are studied with systematic characterizations of morphology and composition of the nanoparticles. The results reveal crystallized Zn nanoparticles with a size of ≈34.834 ± 1.76 nm and low surface oxidation. The resulting Zn nanoparticles can be readily printed onto bioresorbable substrates and sintered at room temperature using a photonic sintering approach, leading to a high conductivity of 44 643 S m-1 for printable zinc nanoparticles. The techniques to obtain Zn nanoparticles through ball milling and processing them through photonic sintering may potentially lead to a mass fabrication method for bioresorbable electronics and promote its applications in healthcare, environmental protection, and consumer electronics.


Assuntos
Eletrônica/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Zinco/química , Implantes Absorvíveis , Povidona/química , Temperatura
14.
J Chem Phys ; 145(18): 184702, 2016 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27846694

RESUMO

We compute the interfacial free energy of a silicon system in contact with flat and structured walls by molecular dynamics simulation. The thermodynamics integration method, previously applied to Lennard-Jones potentials [R. Benjamin and J. Horbach, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 044707 (2012)], has been extended and implemented in Tersoff potentials with two-body and three-body interactions taken into consideration. The thermodynamic integration scheme includes two steps. In the first step, the bulk Tersoff system is reversibly transformed to a state where it interacts with a structureless flat wall, and in a second step, the flat structureless wall is reversibly transformed into an atomistic SiO2 wall. Interfacial energies for liquid silicon-wall interfaces and crystal silicon-wall interfaces have been calculated. The calculated interfacial energies have been employed to predict the nucleation mechanisms in a slab of liquid silicon confined by two walls and compared with MD simulation results.

15.
Sci Rep ; 6: 23150, 2016 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26984488

RESUMO

Lithium ion battery electrodes were manufactured using a new, completely dry powder painting process. The solvents used for conventional slurry-cast electrodes have been completely removed. Thermal activation time has been greatly reduced due to the time and resource demanding solvent evaporation process needed with slurry-cast electrode manufacturing being replaced by a hot rolling process. It has been found that thermal activation time to induce mechanical bonding of the thermoplastic polymer to the remaining active electrode particles is only a few seconds. Removing the solvent and drying process allows large-scale Li-ion battery production to be more economically viable in markets such as automotive energy storage systems. By understanding the surface energies of various powders which govern the powder mixing and binder distribution, bonding tests of the dry-deposited particles onto the current collector show that the bonding strength is greater than slurry-cast electrodes, 148.8 kPa as compared to 84.3 kPa. Electrochemical tests show that the new electrodes outperform conventional slurry processed electrodes, which is due to different binder distribution.

16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 112(6): 062502, 2014 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24580689

RESUMO

Symmetry is an important and basic topic in physics. The similarity renormalization group theory provides a novel view to study the symmetries hidden in the Dirac Hamiltonian, especially for the deformed system. Based on the similarity renormalization group theory, the contributions from the nonrelativistic term, the spin-orbit term, the dynamical term, the relativistic modification of kinetic energy, and the Darwin term are self-consistently extracted from a general Dirac Hamiltonian and, hence, we get an accurate description for their dependence on the deformation. Taking an axially deformed nucleus as an example, we find that the self-consistent description of the nonrelativistic term, spin-orbit term, and dynamical term is crucial for understanding the relativistic symmetries and their breaking in a deformed nuclear system.

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