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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629467

RESUMO

Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm (BPDCN) is an aggressive hematological malignancy; however, some patients achieve durable remission with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). We report on all 17 patients with BPDCN who underwent allo-HCT at our center between 2000 and 2020. The median age was 39 (18-67) years. All (n = 16, 94%), except one patient, had systemic disease involving bone marrow and/or other organs. Ten patients (59%) were in first complete remission (CR1) at allo-HCT. The donor source was matched related or unrelated in ten (59%) and alternate donor in seven (41%) patients. Five (31%) patients developed acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), all grade I-II. The cumulative incidence (CI) of chronic GVHD at five-year was 34%. The CI of non-relapse mortality at one-year was 29%. Progression-free survival (PFS) rates at two-year and five-year were 49% (95% CI = 22-71%) and 39% (95% CI = 14-64%), respectively. The two-year and five-year overall survival (OS) rates were 65% (95% CI = 38-82%) and 40% (95% CI = 12-68%), respectively. The five-year rate for both PFS and OS was 80% in CR1 patients versus 0% in patients not in CR1. In conclusion, allo-HCT provides long-lasting remissions in BPDCN patients, particularly when performed in CR1.

2.
Blood ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521108

RESUMO

We hypothesized that combining adoptively transferred autologous T cells with a cancer vaccine strategy would enhance therapeutic efficacy by adding anti-myeloma idiotype-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (Id-KLH) vaccine to vaccine-specific co-stimulated T cells. In this randomized, phase II trial, eligible patients received either the control (KLH only) or Id-KLH vaccine, an auto-transplant, vaccine-specific co-stimulated T-cells expanded ex-vivo, and two booster doses of the assigned vaccine. In 36 patients (20 in KLH, 16 in Id-KLH) enrolled, no dose-limiting toxicity was seen in either arm. At last evaluation, 6 (30%) and 8 (50%) had achieved complete remission in KLH-only and Id-KLH, respectively (p=0.22) and no difference in 3-year progression-free survival was observed (59% and 56%, respectively; p=0.32). In a 594 Nanostring nCounter gene panel analyzed for immune reconstitution (IR), compared with KLH-only patients, there was a greater change in IR genes in T-cells in Id-KLH patients relative to baseline. Specifically, upregulation of genes associated with activation, induction of effector function, and generation of memory CD8+ T cells after Id-KLH, but not after KLH control vaccination, was observed. Similarly, responding patients across both arms were associated with upregulation of genes associated with T-cell activation. At baseline, all patients had greater expression of CD8+ T-cell exhaustion markers. These changes were associated with functional Id-specific immune responses in a subset of Id-KLH patients analyzed. In conclusion, in this combination immunotherapy approach, we observed a significantly more robust IR in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the Id-KLH arm, supporting further investigation of vaccine and adoptive immunotherapy strategies.

3.
Blood Adv ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592759

RESUMO

Graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) is one of the leading causes of non-relapse mortality (NRM) following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT). Post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) has shown promise in managing GVHD. However, cyclophosphamide has known cardiac toxicities and few studies have evaluated the cardiac toxicities that arise following PTCy. Here, we completed a retrospective analysis of matched alloHCT patients at our institution who received PTCy or non-PTCy-based GVHD prophylaxis, with the goal of determining the incidence of cardiac toxicities up to 100 days after alloHCT. We included 585 patients in our analysis and found that 38 patients (6.5%) experienced cardiac toxicities after alloHCT. The toxicities observed included arrhythmias (n=21), heart failure (n=14), pericardial effusions (n=10), and myocardial infarction or ischemia (n=7). Patients who received PTCy had a 7.4% incidence of cardiac toxicities, while non-PTCy patients had an incidence of 5.8% (p=0.4). We found that age > 55 years (p=0.02), history of hypertension (p=0.01), arrhythmia (p=0.003), diabetes (p=0.04), and cardiac comorbidities (p<0.001) were significant predictors of cardiac toxicity, while none of the preparative and GVHD prophylaxis regimens used were predictive of cardiac toxicity. From these findings, we proposed the use of a Cardiac Risk Stratification Score to quantify the risk of cardiac toxicity following alloHCT and found that a higher score correlated with cardiac toxicity incidence. Furthermore, the development of cardiac toxicity was associated with worse 1-yr overall survival (OS) and NRM while the use of PTCy was associated with improvements in 1-year OS and NRM rates.

4.
Blood Adv ; 5(17): 3407-3417, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495313

RESUMO

Recent compelling evidence showed that innate immune effector cells could recognize allogeneic grafts and prime an adaptive immune response. Signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) is an immunoglobulin superfamily receptor that is expressed on myeloid cells; the interaction between SIRPα and its ubiquitously expressed ligand CD47 elicits an inhibitory signal that suppresses macrophage phagocytic function. Additional studies showed that donor-recipient mismatch in SIRPα variants might activate monocytic allorecognition, possibly as the result of non-self SIRPα-CD47 interaction. However, the frequency of SIRPα variation and its role in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains unexplored. We studied 350 patients with acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome who underwent HLA-matched related HSCT and found that SIRPα allelic mismatches were present in 39% of transplantation pairs. SIRPα variant mismatch was associated with a significantly higher rate of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD; hazard ratio [HR], 1.5; P = .03), especially de novo chronic GVHD (HR, 2.0; P = .01), after adjusting for other predictors. Those with mismatched SIRPα had a lower relapse rate (HR, 0.6; P = .05) and significantly longer relapse-free survival (RFS; HR, 0.6; P = .04). Notably, the effect of SIRPα variant mismatch on relapse protection was most pronounced early after HSCT and in patients who were not in remission at HSCT (cumulative incidence, 73% vs 54%; HR, 0.5; P = .01). These findings show that SIRPα variant mismatch is associated with HSCT outcomes, possibly owing to innate allorecognition. SIRPα variant matching could provide valuable information for donor selection and risk stratification in HSCT.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunidade Inata
5.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537419

RESUMO

In the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic era, the number of haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantations (HCTs) with peripheral blood (PB) grafts increased significantly compared with HCTs with bone marrow (BM) grafts, which may be associated with adverse outcomes. We compared outcomes of HCT in BM graft and PB graft recipients age ≥18 years with hematologic malignancies who underwent T cell- replete haploidentical HCT and received graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil. Among the 264 patients, 180 (68%) received a BM graft and 84 (32%) received a PB graft. The median patient age was 50 years in both groups. The majority (n = 199; 75%) received reduced-intensity conditioning. The rate of acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome was higher in the BM graft recipients compared with the PB graft recipients (85% [n = 152] versus 55% [n = 46]; P < .01). The median times to neutrophil and platelet engraftment and the incidence of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) were comparable in the 2 groups. Among the patients with grade II-IV aGVHD, the rate of steroid-refractory aGVHD was 9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5% to 18%) in the BM group versus 32% (95% CI, 19% to 54%) in the PB group (hazard ratio [HR], 3.7, 95% CI, 1.5 to 9.3; P = .006). At 1 year post-HCT, the rate of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was 8% (95% CI, 4% to 13%) in the BM group versus 22% (95% CI, 14% to 36%) in the PB group (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.4-6.6; P = .005), and the rate of systemic therapy-requiring cGVHD was 2.5% (95% CI, 1% to 7%) versus 14% (95% CI, 7% to 27%), respectively (HR, 5.6; 95% CI, 1.7 to 18; P = .004). The PB group had a significantly higher risk of bacterial and viral infections, with no appreciable advantage in the duration of hospitalization, immune reconstitution, relapse, nonrelapse mortality, or survival. Our data suggest a benefit of the use of BM grafts over PB grafts for haplo-HCT.

6.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-11, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450587

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Delta-24-RGD is an oncolytic adenovirus that is capable of replicating in and killing human glioma cells. Although intratumoral delivery of Delta-24-RGD can be effective, systemic delivery would improve its clinical application. Bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (BM-hMSCs) obtained from healthy donors have been investigated as virus carriers. However, it is unclear whether BM-hMSCs can be derived from glioma patients previously treated with marrow-toxic chemotherapy or whether such BM-hMSCs can deliver oncolytic viruses effectively. Herein, the authors undertook a prospective clinical trial to determine the feasibility of obtaining BM-hMSCs from patients with recurrent malignant glioma who were previously exposed to marrow-toxic chemotherapy. METHODS: The authors enrolled 5 consecutive patients who had been treated with radiation therapy and chemotherapy. BM aspirates were obtained from the iliac crest and were cultured to obtain BM-hMSCs. RESULTS: The patient-derived BM-hMSCs (PD-BM-hMSCs) had a morphology similar to that of healthy donor-derived BM-hMSCs (HD-BM-hMSCs). Flow cytometry revealed that all 5 cell lines expressed canonical MSC surface markers. Importantly, these cultures could be made to differentiate into osteocytes, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. In all cases, the PD-BM-hMSCs homed to intracranial glioma xenografts in mice after intracarotid delivery as effectively as HD-BM-hMSCs. The PD-BM-hMSCs loaded with Delta-24-RGD (PD-BM-MSC-D24) effectively eradicated human gliomas in vitro. In in vivo studies, intravascular administration of PD-BM-MSC-D24 increased the survival of mice harboring U87MG gliomas. CONCLUSIONS: The authors conclude that BM-hMSCs can be acquired from patients previously treated with marrow-toxic chemotherapy and that these PD-BM-hMSCs are effective carriers for oncolytic viruses.

7.
Haematologica ; 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435482

RESUMO

HLA-DPB1 mismatches between donor and recipient are commonly seen in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from an unrelated donor. HLA-DPB1 mismatch, conventionally determined by the similarity of the T-cell epitope (TCE), is associated with an increased risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) and a decreased risk of disease relapse. We investigated the clinical impact of HLA-DPB1 molecular mismatch quantified by mismatched eplets (ME) and Predicted Indirectly Recognizable HLA Epitopes score (PS) in a cohort of 1,514 patients receiving HSCT from unrelated donors matched at HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1/3/4/5, and -DQB1 loci. HLA-DPB1 alloimmunity in the GVH direction determined by high GVH ME/PS was associated with a reduced risk of relapse (HR 0.83, P= .05 for ME) and increased risk of grade 2-4 aGVHD (HR 1.44, P< .001 for ME), whereas high HVG ME/PS was only associated with an increased risk of grade 2-4 aGVHD (HR 1.26, P= .004 for ME). Notably, in the permissive mismatch subgroup classified by TCE grouping, high HVG ME/PS was associated with an increased risk of relapse (HR 1.36, P= .026 for ME) and grade 2-4 aGVHD (HR 1.43, P= .003 for PS-II). Decision curve analysis showed GVH ME outperformed other models and provided the best clinical net benefit for the modification of aGVHD prophylaxis regimen in patients with high risk of developing clinically significant aGVHD. In conclusion, molecular assessment of HLA-DPB1 mismatch enables separate prediction of HVG or GVH alloresponse quantitatively and allows further refinement of HLA-DPB1 permissiveness as defined by conventional TCE grouping.

8.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329753

RESUMO

Compared to reduced-intensity conditioning regimen, myeloablative conditioning (MAC) for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) reduces relapse but is avoided in older patients because of higher non-relapse mortality (NRM). To meet the need for a myeloablative regimen for older patients, we developed a novel fludarabine and busulfan MAC regimen. We fractionated the dose of busulfan and gave it for 6 days over a 2-week period and demonstrated the feasibility and safety of this approach. However, the disease-specific efficacy of this regimen is not known. The purpose of this study was to estimate the efficacy of fractionated busulfan regimen by estimating diseases specific survival outcomes. The conditioning regimen consisted of busulfan and fludarabine. On days -13 and -12 before HCT, patients received 80 mg/m2 busulfan intravenously (IV) daily in an outpatient clinic. Additional chemotherapy was administered during inpatient treatment from day -6 through day -3, including fludarabine 40 mg/m2 and busulfan IV once daily. The dosing of busulfan was determined from pharmacokinetic analyses to achieve for the course a target area under the curve of 20,000 ± 12% µmol/min, which is close to the average exposure of myeloablative dose of busulfan. One hundred fifty patients with high-risk hematological malignancies up to 75 years were enrolled in this prospective phase II study. The objective was to evaluate NRM, relapse, survival, the rates of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and long-term complications. The median age of the patient population was 61 years (interquartile range, 55-67). The most common diagnoses were acute myeloid leukemia (AML; N = 59 [39.3%]), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; n = 29 [19.3%]), and myelofibrosis (MF; N = 22 [14.7%]). Most had an unrelated donor (n = 93 [62%]) and received peripheral blood graft (n = 110 [73.3%]). Over half had an HCT-specific comorbidity index of ≥3 (n = 79 [52.7%]). The median follow-up among survivors was 43.4 months (interquartile range, 38.9-50.4). In patients with AML in complete remission, MDS, and myelofibrosis, 3-year overall survival was 66.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.2-88.5%), 43.6% (95% CI, 28.6-66.4%), and 59.1% (95% CI, 41.7-83.7%) respectively. The cumulative incidence of NRM was 22% (15.3%-28.7%), extensive chronic GVHD was 27% (95% CI, 20-34%), bronchiolitis obliterans was 4.7% (95% CI, 1.3-8.1%), and secondary malignancy was 8.7% (95% CI, 4.1-13.2%) at 3 years. Lengthening the duration of busulfan (fractionation) permits safe delivery of myeloablative conditioning in older patients, leading to prolonged survival. © 2021 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

9.
Cytotherapy ; 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AIMS: Umbilical cord blood is an established source of stem cells in patients with hematologic malignancies who do not have HLA-compatible matched related or unrelated donors. The success of an umbilical cord blood transplant depends on the dose of total nucleated and CD34+ cells infused. Therefore, collecting, banking and listing high-quality cord blood units with high total nucleated and CD34+ cell dose are essential. METHODS: Here the authors describe their cord blood bank's novel collection technique, which involves both in utero and ex utero collection of a single cord blood unit. The authors also evaluated maternal, neonatal and collection parameters that may impact the cell dose. RESULTS: Maternal gestational age and race, and neonatal weight and sex correlated with the total nucleated cell dose. CONCLUSIONS: The optimized collection of umbilical cord blood is critical for its use as a source of stem cells for transplantation.

10.
Cell Rep ; 36(3): 109432, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270918

RESUMO

Adoptive cell therapy with virus-specific T cells has been used successfully to treat life-threatening viral infections, supporting application of this approach to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We expand severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) T cells from the peripheral blood of COVID-19-recovered donors and non-exposed controls using different culture conditions. We observe that the choice of cytokines modulates the expansion, phenotype, and hierarchy of antigenic recognition by SARS-CoV-2 T cells. Culture with interleukin (IL)-2/4/7, but not under other cytokine-driven conditions, results in more than 1,000-fold expansion in SARS-CoV-2 T cells with a retained phenotype, function, and hierarchy of antigenic recognition compared with baseline (pre-expansion) samples. Expanded cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are directed against structural SARS-CoV-2 proteins, including the receptor-binding domain of Spike. SARS-CoV-2 T cells cannot be expanded efficiently from the peripheral blood of non-exposed controls. Because corticosteroids are used for management of severe COVID-19, we propose an efficient strategy to inactivate the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) in SARS-CoV-2 CTLs using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing.

11.
Leukemia ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312462

RESUMO

In this phase I/II clinical trial, we investigated the safety and efficacy of high doses of mb-IL21 ex vivo expanded donor-derived NK cells to decrease relapse in 25 patients with myeloid malignancies receiving haploidentical stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). Three doses of donor NK cells (1 × 105-1 × 108 cells/kg/dose) were administered on days -2, +7, and +28. Results were compared with an independent contemporaneously treated case-matched cohort of 160 patients from the CIBMTR database.After a median follow-up of 24 months, the 2-year relapse rate was 4% vs. 38% (p = 0.014), and disease-free survival (DFS) was 66% vs. 44% (p = 0.1) in the cases and controls, respectively. Only one relapse occurred in the study group, in a patient with the high level of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSA) presented before transplantation. The 2-year relapse and DFS in patients without DSA was 0% vs. 40% and 72% vs. 44%, respectively with HR for DFS in controls of 2.64 (p = 0.029). NK cells in recipient blood were increased at day +30 in a dose-dependent manner compared with historical controls, and had a proliferating, mature, highly cytotoxic, NKG2C+/KIR+ phenotype.Administration of donor-derived expanded NK cells after haploidentical transplantation was safe, associated with NK cell-dominant immune reconstitution early post-transplant, preserved T-cell reconstitution, and improved relapse and DFS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01904136 ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01904136 ).

12.
Blood Adv ; 5(14): 2799-2806, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264268

RESUMO

The Endothelial Activation and Stress Index (EASIX) score, defined as [(creatinine × lactate dehydrogenase [LDH])/platelets], is a marker of endothelial activation that has been validated in the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant setting. Endothelial activation is one of the mechanisms driving immune-mediated toxicities in patients treated with chimeric antigen receptor-T (CAR-T)-cell therapy. This study's objective was to evaluate the association between EASIX and other laboratory parameters collected before lymphodepletion and the subsequent onset of cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS) those patients. Toxicity data were collected prospectively on 171 patients treated with axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) for large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL). CRS grades 2 to 4 were diagnosed in 81 (47%) patients and ICANS grades 2 to 4 in 84 (49%). EASIX combined with ferritin (EASIX-F) identified 3 risk groups with CRS grades 2 to 4 cumulative incidence of 74% (hazards ratio [HR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-11; P < .001), 49% (HR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.02-5; P = .04), and 23% (reference), respectively. EASIX combined with CRP and ferritin (EASIX-FC) identified 3 risk groups with an ICANS grade 2 to 4 cumulative incidence of 74% (HR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.9-6.9; P < .001), 51% (HR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-3.9; P = .025), and 29% (reference). Our results indicate that common laboratory parameters before lymphodepletion correlate with CAR-T-related toxicities and can help support clinical decisions, such as preemptive toxicity management, hospitalization length, and proper setting for CAR-T administration.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Ferritinas , Humanos
13.
Cancer ; 127(19): 3541-3551, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venetoclax (VEN) in combination with a hypomethylating agent (HMA) has become the standard of care for patients aged >75 years and for those not eligible for intensive chemotherapy who have newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The benefit of VEN-based therapy in patients who have newly diagnosed AML with mutations in the TP53 gene (TP53mut ) over standard therapy is undefined. METHODS: In this single-institutional, retrospective analysis, the authors assessed the clinical outcomes of 238 patients with newly diagnosed TP53mut AML and compared the clinical characteristics, response to different therapies, and outcomes of those who received VEN-based (n = 58) and non-VEN-based (n = 180) regimens. RESULTS: Patients who received VEN-based regimens were older (aged >65 years: 81% vs 65%; P = .02) and had higher response rates (complete remission, 43% vs 32%; P = .06) than those who received non-VEN-based regimens. Compared with patients who received non-VEN-based regimens, no difference in overall survival (median, 6.6 vs 5.7 months; P = .4) or relapse-free survival (median, 4.7 vs 3.5 months; P = .43) was observed in those who received VEN-based regimens, regardless of age or intensity of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of VEN to standard treatment regimens did not improve outcomes in younger or older patients who had TP53mut AML. These data highlight the need for novel therapies beyond VEN to improve the outcome of patients with TP53mut AML.

14.
J Clin Invest ; 131(14)2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138753

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most aggressive brain cancer, recurs because glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) are resistant to all standard therapies. We showed that GSCs, but not normal astrocytes, are sensitive to lysis by healthy allogeneic natural killer (NK) cells in vitro. Mass cytometry and single-cell RNA sequencing of primary tumor samples revealed that GBM tumor-infiltrating NK cells acquired an altered phenotype associated with impaired lytic function relative to matched peripheral blood NK cells from patients with GBM or healthy donors. We attributed this immune evasion tactic to direct cell-to-cell contact between GSCs and NK cells via αv integrin-mediated TGF-ß activation. Treatment of GSC-engrafted mice with allogeneic NK cells in combination with inhibitors of integrin or TGF-ß signaling or with TGFBR2 gene-edited allogeneic NK cells prevented GSC-induced NK cell dysfunction and tumor growth. These findings reveal an important mechanism of NK cell immune evasion by GSCs and suggest the αv integrin/TGF-ß axis as a potentially useful therapeutic target in GBM.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma/imunologia , Integrinas/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/imunologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/imunologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/patologia , Glioblastoma/terapia , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Integrinas/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Transplante de Neoplasias , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II/genética , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II/imunologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética
15.
Leukemia ; 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135465

RESUMO

Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) is associated with older age and an increased risk of myeloid malignancies and cardiovascular complications. We analyzed donor DNA samples in patients with AML/MDS who underwent first allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) to investigate the association between donor CH and transplant outcomes. We performed targeted deep sequencing of 300 genes on donor blood samples and identified CH with the minimum variant allele frequency of 2%. Among 363 donors, 65 (18%) had CH. The most frequently mutated genes were DNMT3A (31 of 65; 48%), TET2 (16 of 65; 25%), PPM1D (5 of 65, 8%), and ASXL1 (7 of 65; 11%). Transplant outcomes: time to neutrophil and platelet recovery, relapse incidence, transplant-related mortality and progression-free survival, were comparable by donor CH. However, risk of grade II-IV and III-IV acute graft versus host disease (aGvHD) at 6 months after transplant was higher with donor CH vs. without donor CH (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.4, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.6-3.6, p < 0.001 and HR = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.6-8.9, p = 0.003). In this homogenous population of AML/MDS patients, donor CH was associated with increased risk of grade II-IV and III-IV aGvHD. Further studies to investigate the mechanisms of increased aGvHD and therapeutic interventions to improve aGvHD in the context of donor CH are warranted.

16.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(13): 3744-3756, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986022

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Natural killer (NK)-cell recognition and function against NK-resistant cancers remain substantial barriers to the broad application of NK-cell immunotherapy. Potential solutions include bispecific engagers that target NK-cell activity via an NK-activating receptor when simultaneously targeting a tumor-specific antigen, as well as enhancing functionality using IL12/15/18 cytokine pre-activation. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We assessed single-cell NK-cell responses stimulated by the tetravalent bispecific antibody AFM13 that binds CD30 on leukemia/lymphoma targets and CD16A on various types of NK cells using mass cytometry and cytotoxicity assays. The combination of AFM13 and IL12/15/18 pre-activation of blood and cord blood-derived NK cells was investigated in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: We found heterogeneity within AFM13-directed conventional blood NK cell (cNK) responses, as well as consistent AFM13-directed polyfunctional activation of mature NK cells across donors. NK-cell source also impacted the AFM13 response, with cNK cells from healthy donors exhibiting superior responses to those from patients with Hodgkin lymphoma. IL12/15/18-induced memory-like NK cells from peripheral blood exhibited enhanced killing of CD30+ lymphoma targets directed by AFM13, compared with cNK cells. Cord-blood NK cells preactivated with IL12/15/18 and ex vivo expanded with K562-based feeders also exhibited enhanced killing with AFM13 stimulation via upregulation of signaling pathways related to NK-cell effector function. AFM13-NK complex cells exhibited enhanced responses to CD30+ lymphomas in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: We identify AFM13 as a promising combination with cytokine-activated adult blood or cord-blood NK cells to treat CD30+ hematologic malignancies, warranting clinical trials with these novel combinations.

17.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(5): 404.e1-404.e5, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965178

RESUMO

The cell of origin (COO) classification into germinal center B cell (GCB) and non-GCB types has been shown to predict survival outcomes in newly diagnosed diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In the relapsed/refractory (R/R) setting, there is building evidence that COO does not predict prognosis after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT). The present analysis aimed to compare survival outcomes based on COO classification in R/R DLBCL patients who underwent auto-SCT. This retrospective study included adult patients with R/R DLBCL who underwent auto-SCT at MD Anderson Cancer Center between January 2007 and December 2016. The Hans algorithm using CD10, BCL6, and MUM1 markers was used to classify patients by COO. A total of 122 patients with DLBCL (71 GCB, 51 non-GCB) were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences in patient characteristics between the 2 groups, except for older median age in the GCB cohort (64 years versus 58 years; P < .004). The median overall survival (OS) time was 68.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.3 to not reached) months for the total population, 68.5 (95% CI, 44.8 to not reached) for GCB, and not reached for non-GCB. The 3-year OS rate was 0.659 (95% CI, 0.575 to 0.755) for the total population, 0.653 (95% CI, 0.547 to 0.779) for GCB, and 0.666 (95% CI, 0.537 to 0.824) for non-GCB. When adjusted for age and other factors of interest, no statistically significant associations for OS or progression-free survival were observed between the 2 cohorts. Our results confirm that COO loses its prognostic potential in patients with R/R DLBCL who receive high-dose chemotherapy followed by auto-SCT and both GCB and non-GCB types of DLBCL derive similar benefit from auto-SCT. Younger age, female sex, and pretransplantation disease status were associated with better OS.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B , Adulto , Feminino , Centro Germinativo , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Autólogo
18.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(5)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) has demonstrated robust efficacy in metastatic melanoma patients. Tumor antigen-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) are believed to optimally activate antigen-specific T lymphocytes. We hypothesized that the combined transfer of TIL, containing a melanoma antigen recognized by T cells 1 (MART-1) specific population, with MART-1-pulsed DC will result in enhanced proliferation and prolonged survival of transferred MART-1 specific T cells in vivo ultimately leading to improved clinical responses. DESIGN: We tested the combination of TIL and DC in a phase II clinical trial of patients with advanced stage IV melanoma. HLA-A0201 patients whose early TIL cultures demonstrated reactivity to MART-1 peptide were randomly assigned to receive TIL alone or TIL +DC pulsed with MART-1 peptide. The primary endpoint was to evaluate the persistence of MART-1 TIL in the two arms. Secondary endpoints were to evaluate clinical response and survival. RESULTS: Ten patients were given TIL alone while eight patients received TIL+DC vaccine. Infused MART-1 reactive CD8+ TIL were tracked in the blood over time by flow cytometry and results show good persistence in both arms, with no difference in the persistence of MART-1 between the two arms. The objective response rate was 30% (3/10) in the TIL arm and 50% (4/8) in the TIL+DC arm. All treatments were well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of TIL +DC showed no difference in the persistence of MART-1 TIL compared with TIL therapy alone. Although more patients showed a clinical response to TIL+DC therapy, this study was not powered to resolve differences between groups. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00338377.

19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 631353, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34017325

RESUMO

Acute graft-vs.-host (GVHD) disease remains a common complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation with very poor outcomes once the disease becomes steroid refractory. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of GVHD, but so far this strategy has had equivocal clinical efficacy. Therapies using MSCs require optimization taking advantage of the plasticity of these cells in response to different microenvironments. In this study, we aimed to optimize cord blood tissue derived MSCs (CBti MSCs) by priming them using a regimen of inflammatory cytokines. This approach led to their metabolic reprogramming with enhancement of their glycolytic capacity. Metabolically reprogrammed CBti MSCs displayed a boosted immunosuppressive potential, with superior immunomodulatory and homing properties, even after cryopreservation and thawing. Mechanistically, primed CBti MSCs significantly interfered with glycolytic switching and mTOR signaling in T cells, suppressing T cell proliferation and ensuing polarizing toward T regulatory cells. Based on these data, we generated a Good Manufacturing Process (GMP) Laboratory protocol for the production and cryopreservation of primed CBti MSCs for clinical use. Following thawing, these cryopreserved GMP-compliant primed CBti MSCs significantly improved outcomes in a xenogenic mouse model of GVHD. Our data support the concept that metabolic profiling of MSCs can be used as a surrogate for their suppressive potential in conjunction with conventional functional methods to support their therapeutic use in GVHD or other autoimmune disorders.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Reprogramação Celular/métodos , Reprogramação Celular/fisiologia , Sangue Fetal/citologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Animais , Reprogramação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprogramação Celular/imunologia , Citocinas/farmacologia , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Controle de Qualidade
20.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-8, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942701

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the prognostic value of baseline disease distribution for patients with the secondary central nervous system (CNS) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with chemotherapy and radiation (RT). 44 patients with secondary CNS DLBCL were reviewed. Twenty patients had leptomeningeal disease (LMD), and 24 had localized/targetable disease (LTD). Of 8 patients who received stem cell transplantation (SCT) after RT, 6 had LTD with a complete or partial response after RT. Median time to CNS relapse after RT was 10.1 months; 3/24 patients with LTD and 5/15 with LMD had CNS relapse. The median overall survival (OS) was 8 and 20 months for patients with LMD and LTD, respectively (p = 0.20). On multivariable analysis, LTD, receipt of SCT, and response after RT were associated with better OS and CNS-disease-free survival. Patients with localized secondary CNS DLBCL may benefit from RT serving as a bridge to SCT.

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