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1.
Clin Chem ; 65(12): 1532-1542, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical utility of procalcitonin in the diagnosis and management of pneumonia remains controversial. METHODS: We assessed the clinical utility of procalcitonin in 2 prospective studies: first, a multicenter diagnostic study in patients presenting to the emergency department with acute dyspnea to directly compare the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin with that of interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the diagnosis of pneumonia; second, a randomized management study of procalcitonin guidance in patients with acute heart failure and suspected pneumonia. Diagnostic accuracy for pneumonia as centrally adjudicated by 2 independent experts was quantified with the area under the ROC curve (AUC). RESULTS: Among 690 patients in the diagnostic study, 178 (25.8%) had an adjudicated final diagnosis of pneumonia. Procalcitonin, interleukin 6, and CRP were significantly higher in patients with pneumonia than in those without. When compared to procalcitonin (AUC = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.71-0.78), interleukin 6 (AUC = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.77-0.83) and CRP (AUC = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.79-0.85) had significantly higher diagnostic accuracy (P = 0.010 and P < 0.001, respectively). The management study was stopped early owing to the unexpectedly low AUC of procalcitonin in the diagnostic study. Among 45 randomized patients, the number of days on antibiotic therapy and the length of hospital stay were similar (both P = 0.39) in patients randomized to the procalcitonin-guided group (n = 25) and usual-care group (n = 20). CONCLUSIONS: In patients presenting with dyspnea, diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin for pneumonia is only moderate and lower than that of interleukin 6 and CRP. The clinical utility of procalcitonin was lower than expected. SUMMARY: Pneumonia has diverse and often unspecific symptoms. As the role of biomarkers in the diagnosis of pneumonia remains controversial, it is often difficult to distinguish pneumonia from other illnesses causing shortness of breath. The current study prospectively enrolled unselected patients presenting with acute dyspnea and directly compared the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin, interleukin 6, and CRP for the diagnosis of pneumonia. In this setting, diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin for pneumonia was lower as compared to interleukin 6 and CRP. The clinical utility of procalcitonin was lower than expected. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT01831115.

2.
Heart ; 105(18): 1423-1431, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018955

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Assess the relative incidence and compare characteristics and outcome of unstable angina (UA) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). DESIGN: Two independent prospective multicentre diagnostic studies (Advantageous Predictors of Acute Coronary Syndromes Evaluation [APACE] and High-Sensitivity Troponin in the Evaluation of Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome [High-STEACS]) enrolling patients with acute chest discomfort presenting to the emergency department. Central adjudication of the final diagnosis was done by two independent cardiologists using all clinical information including serial measurements of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn). All-cause death and future non-fatal MI were assessed at 30 days and 1 year. RESULTS: 8992 patients were enrolled at 11 centres. UA was adjudicated in 8.9%(95% CI 8.0 to 9.7) and 2.8% (95% CI 2.3 to 3.3) patients in APACE and High-STEACS, respectively, and NSTEMI in 15.1% (95% CI 14.0 to 16.2) and 13.4% (95% CI 12.4 to 14.3). Coronary artery disease was pre-existing in 73% and 76% of patients with UA. At 30 days, all-cause mortality in UA was substantially lower as compared with NSTEMI (0.5% vs 3.7%, p=0.002 in APACE, 0.7% vs 7.4%, p=0.004 in High-STEACS). Similarly, at 1 year in UA all-cause mortality was 3.3% (95% CI 1.2 to 5.3) vs 10.4% (95% CI 7.9 to 12.9) in APACE, and 5.1% (95% CI 0.7 to 9.5) vs 22.9% (95% CI 19.3 to 26.4) in High-STEACS, and similar to non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP). In contrast, future non-fatal MI in APACE was comparable in UA and NSTEMI (11.2%, 95% CI 7.8 to 14.6 and 7.9%, 95% CI 5.7 to 10.2), and higher than in NCCP (0.6%, 95% CI 0.2 to 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: The relative incidence and mortality of UA is substantially lower than that of NSTEMI, while the rate of future non-fatal MI is similar.

4.
Ann Intern Med ; 170(4): 248-256, 2019 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690646

RESUMO

Background: The MEESSI-AHF (Multiple Estimation of risk based on the Emergency department Spanish Score In patients with AHF) score was developed to predict 30-day mortality in patients presenting with acute heart failure (AHF) to emergency departments (EDs) in Spain. Whether it performs well in other countries is unknown. Objective: To externally validate the MEESSI-AHF score in another country. Design: Prospective cohort study. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01831115). Setting: Multicenter recruitment of dyspneic patients presenting to the ED. Participants: The external validation cohort included 1572 patients with AHF. Measurements: Calculation of the MEESSI-AHF score using an established model containing 12 independent risk factors. Results: Among 1572 patients with adjudicated AHF, 1247 had complete data that allowed calculation of the MEESSI-AHF score. Of these, 102 (8.2%) died within 30 days. The score predicted 30-day mortality with excellent discrimination (c-statistic, 0.80). Assessment of cumulative mortality showed a steep gradient in 30-day mortality over 6 predefined risk groups (0 patients in the lowest-risk group vs. 35 [28.5%] in the highest-risk group). Risk was overestimated in the high-risk groups, resulting in a Hosmer-Lemeshow P value of 0.022. However, after adjustment of the intercept, the model showed good concordance between predicted risks and observed outcomes (P = 0.23). Findings were confirmed in sensitivity analyses that used multiple imputation for missing values in the overall cohort of 1572 patients. Limitations: External validation was done using a reduced model. Findings are specific to patients with AHF who present to the ED and are clinically stable enough to provide informed consent. Performance in patients with terminal kidney failure who are receiving long-term dialysis cannot be commented on. Conclusion: External validation of the MEESSI-AHF risk score showed excellent discrimination. Recalibration may be needed when the score is introduced to new populations. Primary Funding Source: The European Union, the Swiss National Science Foundation, the Swiss Heart Foundation, the Cardiovascular Research Foundation Basel, the University of Basel, and University Hospital Basel.

6.
Int J Cardiol ; 269: 114-121, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various scores have been derived for the assessment of syncope patients in the emergency department (ED) but stay inconsistently validated. We aim to compare their performance to the one of a common, easy-to-use CHADS2 score. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled patients ≥ 40 years old presenting with syncope to the ED in a multicenter study. Early clinical judgment (ECJ) of the treating ED-physician regarding the probability of cardiac syncope was quantified. Two independent physicians adjudicated the final diagnosis after 1-year follow-up. Major cardiovascular events (MACE) and death were recorded during 2 years of follow-up. Nine scores were compared by their area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC) for death, MACE or the diagnosis of cardiac syncope. RESULTS: 1490 patients were available for score validation. The CHADS2-score presented a higher or equally high accuracy for death in the long- and short-term follow-up than other syncope-specific risk scores. This score also performed well for the prediction of MACE in the long- and short-term evaluation and stratified patients with accuracy comparative to OESIL, one of the best performing syncope-specific risk score. All scores performed poorly for diagnosing cardiac syncope when compared to the ECJ. CONCLUSIONS: The CHADS2-score performed comparably to more complicated syncope-specific risk scores in the prediction of death and MACE in ED syncope patients. While better tools incorporating biochemical and electrocardiographic markers are needed, this study suggests that the CHADS2-score is currently a good option to stratify risk in syncope patients in the ED. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01548352.

7.
Circulation ; 138(10): 989-999, 2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combining 2 signals of cardiomyocyte injury, cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and T (cTnT), might overcome some individual pathophysiological and analytical limitations and thereby increase diagnostic accuracy for acute myocardial infarction with a single blood draw. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of combinations of high-sensitivity (hs) cTnI and hs-cTnT for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: The diagnostic performance of combining hs-cTnI (Architect, Abbott) and hs-cTnT (Elecsys, Roche) concentrations (sum, product, ratio, and a combination algorithm) obtained at the time of presentation was evaluated in a large multicenter diagnostic study of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. The optimal rule-out and rule-in thresholds were externally validated in a second large multicenter diagnostic study. The proportion of patients eligible for early rule-out was compared with the European Society of Cardiology 0/1 and 0/3 hour algorithms. RESULTS: Combining hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations did not consistently increase overall diagnostic accuracy as compared with the individual isoforms. However, the combination improved the proportion of patients meeting criteria for very early rule-out. With the European Society of Cardiology 2015 guideline recommended algorithms and cut-offs, the proportion meeting rule-out criteria after the baseline blood sampling was limited (6% to 24%) and assay dependent. Application of optimized cut-off values using the sum (9 ng/L) and product (18 ng2/L2) of hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations led to an increase in the proportion ruled-out after a single blood draw to 34% to 41% in the original (sum: negative predictive value [NPV] 100% [95% confidence interval (CI), 99.5% to 100%]; product: NPV 100% [95% CI, 99.5% to 100%]) and in the validation cohort (sum: NPV 99.6% [95% CI, 99.0-99.9%]; product: NPV 99.4% [95% CI, 98.8-99.8%]). The use of a combination algorithm (hs-cTnI <4 ng/L and hs-cTnT <9 ng/L) showed comparable results for rule-out (40% to 43% ruled out; NPV original cohort 99.9% [95% CI, 99.2-100%]; NPV validation cohort 99.5% [95% CI, 98.9-99.8%]) and rule-in (positive predictive value [PPV] original cohort 74.4% [95% Cl, 69.6-78.8%]; PPV validation cohort 84.0% [95% Cl, 79.7-87.6%]). CONCLUSIONS: New strategies combining hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations may significantly increase the number of patients eligible for very early and safe rule-out, but do not seem helpful for the rule-in of acute myocardial infarction. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL (APACE): https://www.clinicaltrial.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00470587. URL (ADAPT): www.anzctr.org.au . Unique identifier: ACTRN12611001069943.

8.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 107(9): 824-835, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29667014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial scar is associated with adverse cardiac outcomes. The Selvester QRS-score was developed to estimate myocardial scar from the 12-lead ECG, but its manual calculation is difficult. An automatically computed QRS-score would allow identification of patients with myocardial scar and an increased risk of mortality. OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of the automatically computed QRS-score. METHODS: The diagnostic value of the QRS-score computed automatically from a standard digital 12-lead was prospectively assessed in 2742 patients with suspected myocardial ischemia referred for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). The prognostic value of the QRS-score was then prospectively tested in 1151 consecutive patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with suspected acute heart failure (AHF). RESULTS: Overall, the QRS-score was significantly higher in patients with more extensive myocardial scar: the median QRS-score was 3 (IQR 2-5), 4 (IQR 2-6), and 7 (IQR 4-10) for patients with 0, 5-20 and > 20% myocardial scar as quantified by MPI (p < 0.001 for all pairwise comparisons). A QRS-score ≥ 9 (n = 284, 10%) predicted a large scar defined as > 20% of the LV with a specificity of 91% (95% CI 90-92%). Regarding clinical outcomes in patients presenting to the ED with symptoms suggestive of AHF, mortality after 1 year was 28% in patients with a QRS-score ≥ 3 as opposed to 20% in patients with a QRS-score < 3 (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The QRS-score can be computed automatically from the 12-lead ECG for simple, non-invasive and inexpensive detection and quantification of myocardial scar and for the prediction of mortality. TRIAL-REGISTRATION: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Identifier, NCT01838148 and NCT01831115.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Cicatriz/patologia , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/métodos , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Miocárdio/patologia , Idoso , Cicatriz/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/complicações , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Suíça/epidemiologia
10.
Circulation ; 137(5): 436-451, 2018 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29101287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The European Society of Cardiology recommends a 0/1-hour algorithm for rapid rule-out and rule-in of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) concentrations irrespective of renal function. Because patients with renal dysfunction (RD) frequently present with increased hs-cTn concentrations even in the absence of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, concern has been raised regarding the performance of the 0/1-hour algorithm in RD. METHODS: In a prospective multicenter diagnostic study enrolling unselected patients presenting with suspected non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction to the emergency department, we assessed the diagnostic performance of the European Society of Cardiology 0/1-hour algorithm using hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI in patients with RD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and compared it to patients with normal renal function. The final diagnosis was centrally adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists using all available information, including cardiac imaging. Safety was quantified as sensitivity in the rule-out zone, accuracy as the specificity in the rule-in zone, and efficacy as the proportion of the overall cohort assigned to either rule-out or rule-in based on the 0- and 1-hour sample. RESULTS: Among 3254 patients, RD was present in 487 patients (15%). The prevalence of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction was substantially higher in patients with RD compared with patients with normal renal function (31% versus 13%, P<0.001). Using hs-cTnT, patients with RD had comparable sensitivity of rule-out (100.0% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 97.6-100.0] versus 99.2% [95% CI, 97.6-99.8]; P=0.559), lower specificity of rule-in (88.7% [95% CI, 84.8-91.9] versus 96.5% [95% CI, 95.7-97.2]; P<0.001), and lower overall efficacy (51% versus 81%, P<0.001), mainly driven by a much lower percentage of patients eligible for rule-out (18% versus 68%, P<0.001) compared with patients with normal renal function. Using hs-cTnI, patients with RD had comparable sensitivity of rule-out (98.6% [95% CI, 95.0-99.8] versus 98.5% [95% CI, 96.5-99.5]; P=1.0), lower specificity of rule-in (84.4% [95% CI, 79.9-88.3] versus 91.7% [95% CI, 90.5-92.9]; P<0.001), and lower overall efficacy (54% versus 76%, P<0.001; proportion ruled out, 18% versus 58%, P<0.001) compared with patients with normal renal function. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with RD, the safety of the European Society of Cardiology 0/1-hour algorithm is high, but specificity of rule-in and overall efficacy are decreased. Modifications of the rule-in and rule-out thresholds did not improve the safety or overall efficacy of the 0/1-hour algorithm. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00470587.

11.
Circulation ; 136(16): 1495-1508, 2017 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28972002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyC) is a cardiac-restricted protein that is more abundant than cardiac troponins (cTn) and is released more rapidly after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We evaluated cMyC as an adjunct or alternative to cTn in the early diagnosis of AMI. METHODS: Unselected patients (N=1954) presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of AMI, concentrations of cMyC, and high-sensitivity (hs) and standard-sensitivity cTn were measured at presentation. The final diagnosis of AMI was independently adjudicated using all available clinical and biochemical information without knowledge of cMyC. The prognostic end point was long-term mortality. RESULTS: Final diagnosis was AMI in 340 patients (17%). Concentrations of cMyC at presentation were significantly higher in those with versus without AMI (median, 237 ng/L versus 13 ng/L, P<0.001). Discriminatory power for AMI, as quantified by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC), was comparable for cMyC (AUC, 0.924), hs-cTnT (AUC, 0.927), and hs-cTnI (AUC, 0.922) and superior to cTnI measured by a contemporary sensitivity assay (AUC, 0.909). The combination of cMyC with hs-cTnT or standard-sensitivity cTnI (but not hs-cTnI) led to an increase in AUC to 0.931 (P<0.0001) and 0.926 (P=0.003), respectively. Use of cMyC more accurately classified patients with a single blood test into rule-out or rule-in categories: Net Reclassification Improvement +0.149 versus hs-cTnT, +0.235 versus hs-cTnI (P<0.001). In early presenters (chest pain <3 h), the improvement in rule-in/rule-out classification with cMyC was larger compared with hs-cTnT (Net Reclassification Improvement +0.256) and hs-cTnI (Net Reclassification Improvement +0.308; both P<0.001). Comparing the C statistics, cMyC was superior to hs-cTnI and standard sensitivity cTnI (P<0.05 for both) and similar to hs-cTnT at predicting death at 3 years. CONCLUSIONS: cMyC at presentation provides discriminatory power comparable to hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI in the diagnosis of AMI and may perform favorably in patients presenting early after symptom onset. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00470587.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diagnóstico Precoce , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Triagem , Regulação para Cima
12.
Clin Biochem ; 50(18): 1007-1013, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28756070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The accurate early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) is an unmet clinical need. Cystatin C might improve the early detection of AKI. METHODS: 207 patients presenting to the emergency department with AHF were enrolled. Cystatin C was measured in plasma in a blinded fashion at presentation and serially thereafter. The potential of Cystatin C levels to predict AKI was assessed as the primary endpoint. Long-term mortality was assessed as a secondary endpoint. RESULTS: At presentation, creatinine (140µmol/L [91-203] vs. 97µmol/L [76-132], p<0.01) and Cystatin C (2.00mg/L [1.30-3.08] vs. 1.45mg/L [1.00-1.90], p<0.01) levels were significantly higher in AKI compared to Non-AKI patients. The diagnostic accuracy for AKI quantified by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was mediocre and comparable for both markers (creatinine 0.68; 95%CI 0.58-78 vs. Cystatin C 0.67; 95%CI 0.58-0.76). Serial measurements of Cystatin C did not further increase the prognostic accuracy for AKI. Cystatin C levels were significantly higher in decedents than in survivors (1.90mg/L [1.30-2.70] vs. 1.30mg/L [1.0-1.6], p<0.001). The combination of Cystatin C and BNP levels significantly improved the prediction of mortality provided by either parameter alone. In multivariable regression analysis Cystatin C remained independently associated with mortality (HR 1.41; 95%CI 1.02-1.95). CONCLUSION: Plasma Cystatin C levels do not adequately predict AKI in patients with AHF. However, in multivariable regression analysis Cystatin C predicted mortality after the adjustment for baseline renal function, AKI, BNP levels and heart failure risk factors.


Assuntos
Cistatina C/análise , Cistatina C/metabolismo , Doença Aguda , Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Proteínas da Fase Aguda/análise , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Cistatina C/sangue , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC
13.
Circulation ; 135(17): 1597-1611, 2017 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28283497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Four strategies for very early rule-out of acute myocardial infarction using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) have been identified. It remains unclear which strategy is most attractive for clinical application. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled unselected patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of acute myocardial infarction. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists. Hs-cTnI levels were measured at presentation and after 1 hour in a blinded fashion. We directly compared all 4 hs-cTnI-based rule-out strategies: limit of detection (LOD, hs-cTnI<2 ng/L), single cutoff (hs-cTnI<5 ng/L), 1-hour algorithm (hs-cTnI<5 ng/L and 1-hour change<2 ng/L), and the 0/1-hour algorithm recommended in the European Society of Cardiology guideline combining LOD and 1-hour algorithm. RESULTS: Among 2828 enrolled patients, acute myocardial infarction was the final diagnosis in 451 (16%) patients. The LOD approach ruled out 453 patients (16%) with a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 99.2%-100%), the single cutoff 1516 patients (54%) with a sensitivity of 97.1% (95% CI, 95.1%-98.3%), the 1-hour algorithm 1459 patients (52%) with a sensitivity of 98.4% (95% CI, 96.8%-99.2%), and the 0/1-hour algorithm 1463 patients (52%) with a sensitivity of 98.4% (95% CI, 96.8%-99.2%). Predefined subgroup analysis in early presenters (≤2 hours) revealed significantly lower sensitivity (94.2%, interaction P=0.03) of the single cutoff, but not the other strategies. Two-year survival was 100% with LOD and 98.1% with the other strategies (P<0.01 for LOD versus each of the other strategies). CONCLUSIONS: All 4 rule-out strategies balance effectiveness and safety equally well. The single cutoff should not be applied in early presenters, whereas the 3 other strategies seem to perform well in this challenging subgroup. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00470587.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Eletrocardiografia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima
14.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 106(6): 457-467, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28150185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with mild elevations of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) is a challenge. It is unclear whether copeptin, a marker of endogenous stress, or 1h-hs-cTn changes are better suited to address this important unmet clinical need. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of AMI to the emergency department (ED). Two independent cardiologists adjudicated the final diagnosis. Mild hs-cTn elevations were defined as 26.2 ng/L (99th percentile) to 75 ng/L for hs-cTnI, and 14 ng/L (99th percentile) to 50 ng/L (biological-equivalent to 75 ng/L for hs-cTnI) for hs-cTnT. RESULTS: Among 1356 patients, 80 (6%) had mild hs-cTnI elevations at presentation. Within this group, AMI was the final diagnosis in 39 patients (49%). The diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of AMI as quantified by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.51 (95% CI 0.39-0.64) for hs-cTnI at presentation, 0.58 (95% CI 0.45-0.71) for copeptin at presentation, and 0.78 (95% CI 0.68-0.88) for 1h-hs-cTnI changes, which was significantly higher as compared to copeptin (p = 0.02) or hs-cTnI alone (p < 0.001). The additional use of 1h-hs-cTnI changes, but not of copeptin, improved diagnostic accuracy of hs-cTnI at presentation (AUC 0.80, 95% CI 0.70-0.90; p = 0.002 for comparison). Similar findings regarding copeptin and 1h-hs-cTnT/I changes were obtained for mild hs-cTnT elevations. CONCLUSIONS: About 6-22% of patients presenting with suggestive AMI to the ED have mild hs-cTnT/I elevations at presentation. In contrast to copeptin, the addition of 1h-hs-cTn changes substantially improves the early diagnosis of AMI.


Assuntos
Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diagnóstico Precoce , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC
15.
Am J Cardiol ; 119(7): 959-966, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28215415

RESUMO

We aimed to assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of ST-segment deviation in aVR, a lead often ignored in clinical practice, during exercise testing and to compare it to the most widely used criterion of ST-segment depression in V5. We enrolled 1,596 patients with suspected myocardial ischemia referred for nuclear perfusion imaging undergoing bicycle stress testing. ST-segment amplitudes in leads aVR and V5 were automatically measured. The presence of inducible myocardial ischemia was the diagnostic end point and adjudicated based on nuclear perfusion imaging and coronary angiography. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during 2 years of follow-up including death, acute myocardial infarction, and coronary revascularization were the prognostic end point. Exercise-induced myocardial ischemia was detected in 470 patients (29%). Median ST amplitudes for leads aVR and V5 differed significantly among patients with and without ischemia (p <0.01). The diagnostic accuracy of ST changes for myocardial ischemia as quantified by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was highest 2 minutes into recovery and similar in aVR and V5 (0.62, 95% confidence interval CI 0.60 to 0.65 vs 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.63, p = 0.08 for comparison). In multivariate analysis, ST changes in lead aVR, but not lead V5, contributed independent diagnostic information on top of clinical parameters and manual electrocardiographic interpretation. Within 2 years of follow-up, MACE occurred in 33% of patients with ST elevations in aVR and in 16% without (p <0.001). In conclusion, ST elevation in lead aVR during exercise testing indicates inducible myocardial ischemia independently of ST depressions in lead V5 and clinical factors and also predicts MACE during follow-up.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Angiografia Coronária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Prognóstico , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Tecnécio Tc 99m Sestamibi , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único
16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 6(12)2017 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29426039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The early detection of cardiac syncope is challenging. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of 4 novel prohormones, quantifying different neurohumoral pathways, possibly involved in the pathophysiological features of cardiac syncope: midregional-pro-A-type natriuretic peptide (MRproANP), C-terminal proendothelin 1, copeptin, and midregional-proadrenomedullin. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively enrolled unselected patients presenting with syncope to the emergency department (ED) in a diagnostic multicenter study. ED probability of cardiac syncope was quantified by the treating ED physician using a visual analogue scale. Prohormones were measured in a blinded manner. Two independent cardiologists adjudicated the final diagnosis on the basis of all clinical information, including 1-year follow-up. Among 689 patients, cardiac syncope was the adjudicated final diagnosis in 125 (18%). Plasma concentrations of MRproANP, C-terminal proendothelin 1, copeptin, and midregional-proadrenomedullin were all significantly higher in patients with cardiac syncope compared with patients with other causes (P<0.001). The diagnostic accuracies for cardiac syncope, as quantified by the area under the curve, were 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-0.84), 0.69 (95% CI, 0.64-0.74), 0.58 (95% CI, 0.52-0.63), and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.63-0.73), respectively. In conjunction with the ED probability (0.86; 95% CI, 0.82-0.90), MRproANP, but not the other prohormone, improved the area under the curve to 0.90 (95% CI, 0.87-0.93), which was significantly higher than for the ED probability alone (P=0.003). An algorithm to rule out cardiac syncope combining an MRproANP level of <77 pmol/L and an ED probability of <20% had a sensitivity and a negative predictive value of 99%. CONCLUSIONS: The use of MRproANP significantly improves the early detection of cardiac syncope among unselected patients presenting to the ED with syncope. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01548352.

17.
Circ Res ; 119(12): 1339-1346, 2016 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27799252

RESUMO

RATIONALE: In contrast to cardiomyocyte necrosis, which can be quantified by cardiac troponin, functional cardiomyocyte impairment, including mitochondrial dysfunction, has escaped clinical recognition in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy for AMI and prognostic prediction of in-hospital mortality of cytochrome c. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively assessed cytochrome c serum levels at hospital presentation in 2 cohorts: a diagnostic cohort of patients presenting with suspected AMI and a prognostic cohort of definite AMI patients. Diagnostic accuracy for AMI was the primary diagnostic end point, and prognostic prediction of in-hospital mortality was the primary prognostic end point. Serum cytochrome c had no diagnostic utility for AMI (area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve 0.51; 95% confidence intervals 0.44-0.58; P=0.76). Among 753 AMI patients in the prognostic cohort, cytochrome c was detectable in 280 (37%) patients. These patients had higher in-hospital mortality than patients with nondetectable cytochrome c (6% versus 1%; P<0.001). This result was mainly driven by the high mortality rate observed in ST-segment-elevation AMI patients with detectable cytochrome c, as compared with those with nondetectable cytochrome c (11% versus 1%; P<0.001). At multivariable analysis, cytochrome c remained a significant independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 3.0; 95% confidence interval 1.9-5.7; P<0.001), even after adjustment for major clinical confounders (odds ratio 4.01; 95% confidence interval 1.20-13.38; P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Cytochrome c serum concentrations do not have diagnostic but substantial prognostic utility in AMI.


Assuntos
Citocromos c/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Admissão do Paciente/tendências , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
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