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1.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232048, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315356

RESUMO

Hypertension occurs at a higher rate in African Americans than in European Americans. Based on the assumption that causal variants are more frequently found on DNA segments inherited from the ancestral population with higher disease risk, we employed admixture mapping to identify genetic loci with excess local African ancestry associated with blood pressure. Chromosomal regions 1q21.2-21.3, 4p15.1, 19q12 and 20p13 were significantly associated with diastolic blood pressure (ß = 5.28, -7.94, -6.82 and 5.89, P-value = 6.39E-04, 2.07E-04, 6.56E-05 and 5.04E-04, respectively); 1q21.2-21.3 and 19q12 were also significantly associated with mean arterial pressure (ß = 5.86 and -6.40, P-value = 5.32E-04 and 6.37E-04, respectively). We further selected SNPs that had large allele frequency differences within these regions and tested their association with blood pressure. SNP rs4815428 was significantly associated with diastolic blood pressure after Bonferroni correction (ß = -2.42, P-value = 9.57E-04), and it partially explained the admixture mapping signal at 20p13. SNPs rs771205 (ß = -1.99, P-value = 3.37E-03), rs3126067, rs2184953 and rs58001094 (the latter three exhibit strong linkage disequilibrium, ß = -2.3, P-value = 1.4E-03) were identified to be significantly associated with mean arterial pressure, and together they fully explained the admixture signal at 1q21.2-21.3. Although no SNP at 4p15.1 showed large ancestral allele frequency differences in our dataset, we detected association at low-frequency African-specific variants that mapped predominantly to the gene PCDH7, which is most highly expressed in aorta. Our results suggest that these regions may harbor genetic variants that contribute to the different prevalence of hypertension.

2.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations of HBB give rise to two prevalent haemoglobin disorders-sickle cell disease (SCD) and ß-thalassaemia. While SCD is caused by a single base substitution, nearly 300 mutations that downregulate expression of HBB have been described. The vast majority of ß-thalassaemia alleles are point mutations or small insertion/deletions within the HBB gene; deletions causing ß-thalassaemia are very rare. We have identified three individuals with haemoglobin Sß0-thalassaemia in which the ß0-thalassaemia mutation is caused by a large deletion. OBJECTIVE: To use whole genome sequence data to determine whether these deletions arose from a single origin. METHODS: We used two approaches to confirm unrelatedness: pairwise comparison of SNPs and identity by descent analysis. Eagle, V.2.4, was used to generate phased haplotypes for the 683 individuals. The Neighbor-Net method implemented in SplitsTree V.4.13.1 was used to construct the network of haplotypes. RESULTS: All three deletions involved 1393 bp, encompassing the ß-promoter, exons 1 and 2, and part of intron 2, with identical breakpoints. The cases were confirmed to be unrelated. Haplotypes based on 29 SNPs in the HBB cluster showed that the three individuals harboured different ßS haplotypes. In contrast, the haplotype harbouring the 1393 bp deletion was the same in all three individuals. CONCLUSION: We suggest that all the reported cases of the 1393 bp HBB deletion, including the three cases here, are likely to be of the same ancestral origin.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(1): 552-562, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871193

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a clinically heterogeneous autoimmune disease characterized by mutually exclusive autoantibodies directed against distinct nuclear antigens. We examined HLA associations in SSc and its autoantibody subsets in a large, newly recruited African American (AA) cohort and among European Americans (EA). In the AA population, the African ancestry-predominant HLA-DRB1*08:04 and HLA-DRB1*11:02 alleles were associated with overall SSc risk, and the HLA-DRB1*08:04 allele was strongly associated with the severe antifibrillarin (AFA) antibody subset of SSc (odds ratio = 7.4). These African ancestry-predominant alleles may help explain the increased frequency and severity of SSc among the AA population. In the EA population, the HLA-DPB1*13:01 and HLA-DRB1*07:01 alleles were more strongly associated with antitopoisomerase (ATA) and anticentromere antibody-positive subsets of SSc, respectively, than with overall SSc risk, emphasizing the importance of HLA in defining autoantibody subtypes. The association of the HLA-DPB1*13:01 allele with the ATA+ subset of SSc in both AA and EA patients demonstrated a transancestry effect. A direct correlation between SSc prevalence and HLA-DPB1*13:01 allele frequency in multiple populations was observed (r = 0.98, P = 3 × 10-6). Conditional analysis in the autoantibody subsets of SSc revealed several associated amino acid residues, mostly in the peptide-binding groove of the class II HLA molecules. Using HLA α/ß allelic heterodimers, we bioinformatically predicted immunodominant peptides of topoisomerase 1, fibrillarin, and centromere protein A and discovered that they are homologous to viral protein sequences from the Mimiviridae and Phycodnaviridae families. Taken together, these data suggest a possible link between HLA alleles, autoantibodies, and environmental triggers in the pathogenesis of SSc.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Autoantígenos/genética , Antígenos HLA/genética , Mimetismo Molecular/imunologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Afro-Americanos/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Antígenos Virais/genética , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Biologia Computacional , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mimiviridae/imunologia , Phycodnaviridae/imunologia , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína/genética , Medição de Risco , Escleroderma Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/imunologia , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
4.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(3): 506-514, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841133

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Serum uric acid is the end-product of purine metabolism and at high levels is a risk factor for several human diseases including gout and cardiovascular disease. Heritability estimates range from 0.32 to 0.63. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide an unbiased approach to identify loci influencing serum uric acid. Here, we performed the first GWAS for serum uric acid in continental Africans, with replication in African Americans. METHODS: Africans (n = 4126) and African Americans (n = 5007) were genotyped on high-density GWAS arrays. Efficient mixed model association, a variance component approach, was used to perform association testing for a total of ~ 18 million autosomal genotyped and imputed variants. CAVIARBF was used to fine map significant regions. RESULTS: We identified two genome-wide significant loci: 4p16.1 (SLC2A9) and 11q13.1 (SLC22A12). At SLC2A9, the most strongly associated SNP was rs7683856 (P = 1.60 × 10-44). Conditional analysis revealed a second signal indexed by rs6838021 (P = 5.75 × 10-17). Gene expression and regulatory motif data prioritized a single-candidate causal variant for each signal. At SLC22A12, the most strongly associated SNP was rs147647315 (P = 6.65 × 10-25). Conditional analysis and functional annotation prioritized the missense variant rs147647315 (R (Arg) > H (His)) as the sole causal variant. Functional annotation of these three signals implicated processes in skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue and the kidneys, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This first GWAS of serum uric acid in continental Africans identified three associations at two loci, SLC2A9 and SLC22A12. The combination of weak linkage disequilibrium in Africans and functional annotation led to the identification of candidate causal SNPs for all three signals. Each candidate causal variant implicated a different cell type. Collectively, the three associations accounted for 4.3% of the variance of serum uric acid.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18085, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792241

RESUMO

Age-related cognitive decline (ACD) is the gradual process of decreasing of cognitive function over age. Most genetic risk factors for ACD have been identified in European populations and there are no reports in admixed Latin American individuals. We performed admixture mapping, genome-wide association analysis (GWAS), and fine-mapping to examine genetic factors associated with 15-year cognitive trajectory in 1,407 Brazilian older adults, comprising 14,956 Mini-Mental State Examination measures. Participants were enrolled as part of the Bambuí-Epigen Cohort Study of Aging. Our admixture mapping analysis identified a genomic region (3p24.2) in which increased Native American ancestry was significantly associated with faster ACD. Fine-mapping of this region identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs142380904 (ß = -0.044, SE = 0.01, p = 7.5 × 10-5) associated with ACD. In addition, our GWAS identified 24 associated SNPs, most in genes previously reported to influence cognitive function. The top six associated SNPs accounted for 18.5% of the ACD variance in our data. Furthermore, our longitudinal study replicated previous GWAS hits for cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. Our 15-year longitudinal study identified both ancestry-specific and cosmopolitan genetic variants associated with ACD in Brazilians, highlighting the need for more trans-ancestry genomic studies, especially in underrepresented ethnic groups.

6.
EClinicalMedicine ; 16: 30-41, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832618

RESUMO

Background: Context-specific evidence of the spectrum of type 2 diabetes (T2D) burden is essential for setting priorities and designing interventions to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. However, there are currently limited data on the burden of T2D complications and comorbidity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Methods: T2D complications and comorbidities were assessed in 2,784 participants with diabetes enrolled from tertiary health centres and contextualised in 3,209 individuals without diabetes in Nigeria, Ghana and Kenya. T2D complications and comorbidities evaluated included cardiometabolic, ocular, neurological and renal characteristics. Findings: The most common complications/comorbidities among the T2D participants were hypertension (71%; 95% CI 69-73), hyperlipidaemia (34%; 95% CI 32-36), and obesity (27%; 95% CI 25-29). Additionally, the prevalence of cataracts was 32% (95% CI 30-35), diabetic retinopathy 15% (95% CI 13-17), impaired renal function 13% (95% CI 12-15), and erectile dysfunction (in men) 35% (95% CI 32-38). T2D population-attributable fraction for these comorbidities ranged between 6 and 64%. Interpretation: The burden of diabetes complications and comorbidity is substantial in SSA highlighting the urgent need for innovative public health strategies that prioritise promotion of healthy lifestyles for prevention and early detection of T2D. Also needed are strategies to strengthen health care system capacities to provide treatment and care for diabetes complications.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3195, 2019 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324766

RESUMO

Genome analysis of diverse human populations has contributed to the identification of novel genomic loci for diseases of major clinical and public health impact. Here, we report a genome-wide analysis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in sub-Saharan Africans, an understudied ancestral group. We analyze ~18 million autosomal SNPs in 5,231 individuals from Nigeria, Ghana and Kenya. We identify a previously-unreported genome-wide significant locus: ZRANB3 (Zinc Finger RANBP2-Type Containing 3, lead SNP p = 2.831 × 10-9). Knockdown or genomic knockout of the zebrafish ortholog results in reduction in pancreatic ß-cell number which we demonstrate to be due to increased apoptosis in islets. siRNA transfection of murine Zranb3 in MIN6 ß-cells results in impaired insulin secretion in response to high glucose, implicating Zranb3 in ß-cell functional response to high glucose conditions. We also show transferability in our study of 32 established T2D loci. Our findings advance understanding of the genetics of T2D in non-European ancestry populations.


Assuntos
DNA Helicases/genética , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , África do Norte , Animais , Apoptose , Sequência de Bases , Glicemia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Edição de Genes , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Genótipo , Gana , Glucose/metabolismo , Homozigoto , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Nigéria , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma , Peixe-Zebra
8.
Ann Hum Genet ; 83(6): 405-417, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206606

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are used to investigate genetic variants contributing to complex traits. Despite discovering many loci, a large proportion of "missing" heritability remains unexplained. Gene-gene interactions may help explain some of this gap. Traditionally, gene-gene interactions have been evaluated using parametric statistical methods such as linear and logistic regression, with multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) used to address sparseness of data in high dimensions. We propose a method for the analysis of gene-gene interactions across independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in two genes. Typical methods for this problem use statistics based on an asymptotic chi-squared mixture distribution, which is not easy to use. Here, we propose a Kullback-Leibler-type statistic, which follows an asymptotic, positive, normal distribution under the null hypothesis of no relationship between SNPs in the two genes, and normally distributed under the alternative hypothesis. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by simulation studies, which show promising results. The method is also used to analyze real data and identifies gene-gene interactions among RAB3A, MADD, and PTPRN on type 2 diabetes (T2D) status.

9.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 167(4): 804-812, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30259956

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Sahel is a semi-arid zone stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Red Sea in the east and from the Sahara in the north to the Sudanian Savanna in the south. Here, we investigated the genetic history of the spread of Northern African ancestry common among Berbers, the Y DNA haplogroup R1b-V88, and Chadic languages throughout the Sahel, with a focus on Chad. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We integrated and analyzed genotype data from 751 individuals from Chad, Burkina Faso, Mali, South Sudan, and Sudan in the context of a global reference panel of 5,966 individuals. RESULTS: We found that genetic diversity in Chad was broadly divided by a north-south axis. The core ancestry of Southern Chadians was Central African, most closely related to Pygmies. Southern Chadians then experienced four waves of gene flow over the last 3,000 years from West-Central Africans, Eastern Africans, West-Central Africans again, and then Arabians. In contrast, Northern Chadians did not share Central African ancestry and were not influenced by the first wave of West-Central Africans but were influenced by Northern African ancestry. DISCUSSION: We found that Y DNA haplogroup R1b entered the Chadian gene pool during Baggarization. Baggara Arabs spoke Arabic, not Chadic, implying that people carrying R1b-V88 were not responsible for the spread of Chadic languages, which may have spread approximately 3,700 years ago. We found no evidence for migration of Near Eastern farmers or any ancient episodes involving Eurasian backflow.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Árabes/genética , África ao Sul do Saara , Antropologia Física , Chade/epidemiologia , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Fluxo Gênico/genética , Genética Populacional , Haplótipos , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
10.
Front Genet ; 9: 268, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30079081

RESUMO

Supervised clustering or projection analysis is a staple technique in population genetic analysis. The utility of this technique depends critically on the reference panel. The most commonly used reference panel in the analysis of ancient DNA to date is based on the Human Origins array. We previously described a larger reference panel that captures more ancestries on the global level. Here, I reanalyzed DNA data from 279 ancient Eurasians using our reference panel. I found substantially more ancestral heterogeneity than has been reported. Reanalysis provides evidence against a resurgence of Western hunter-gatherer ancestry in the Middle to Late Neolithic and evidence for a common ancestor of farmers characterized by Western Asian ancestry, a transition of the spread of agriculture from demic to cultural diffusion, at least two migrations between the Pontic-Caspian steppes and Bronze Age Europe, and a sub-Saharan African component in Natufians that localizes to present-day southern Ethiopia.

11.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 70(10): 1654-1660, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29732714

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Whole-exome sequencing (WES) studies in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients of European American (EA) ancestry have identified variants in the ATP8B4 gene and enrichment of variants in genes in the extracellular matrix (ECM)-related pathway that increase SSc susceptibility. This study was undertaken to evaluate the association of the ATP8B4 gene and the ECM-related pathway with SSc in a cohort of African American (AA) patients. METHODS: SSc patients of AA ancestry were enrolled from 23 academic centers across the US under the Genome Research in African American Scleroderma Patients consortium. Unrelated AA individuals without serologic evidence of autoimmunity who were enrolled in the Howard University Family Study were used as unaffected controls. Functional variants in genes reported in the 2 WES studies in EA patients with SSc were selected for gene association testing using the optimized sequence kernel association test (SKAT-O) and pathway analysis by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis in 379 patients and 411 controls. RESULTS: Principal components analysis demonstrated that the patients and controls had similar ancestral backgrounds, with roughly equal proportions of mean European admixture. Using SKAT-O, we examined the association of individual genes that were previously reported in EA patients and none remained significant, including ATP8B4 (P = 0.98). However, we confirmed the previously reported association of the ECM-related pathway with enrichment of variants within the COL13A1, COL18A1, COL22A1, COL4A3, COL4A4, COL5A2, PROK1, and SERPINE1 genes (corrected P = 1.95 × 10-4 ). CONCLUSION: In the largest genetic study in AA patients with SSc to date, our findings corroborate the role of functional variants that aggregate in a fibrotic pathway and increase SSc susceptibility.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/etnologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
12.
Genome Biol Evol ; 10(3): 875-882, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29608727

RESUMO

The Hadza and Sandawe populations in present-day Tanzania speak languages containing click sounds and therefore thought to be distantly related to southern African Khoisan languages. We analyzed genome-wide genotype data for individuals sampled from the Hadza and Sandawe populations in the context of a global data set of 3,528 individuals from 163 ethno-linguistic groups. We found that Hadza and Sandawe individuals share ancestry distinct from and most closely related to Omotic ancestry; share Khoisan ancestry with populations such as ≠Khomani, Karretjie, and Ju/'hoansi in southern Africa; share Niger-Congo ancestry with populations such as Yoruba from Nigeria and Luhya from Kenya, consistent with migration associated with the Bantu Expansion; and share Cushitic ancestry with Somali, multiple Ethiopian populations, the Maasai population in Kenya, and the Nama population in Namibia. We detected evidence for low levels of Arabian, Nilo-Saharan, and Pygmy ancestries in a minority of individuals. Our results indicate that west Eurasian ancestry in eastern Africa is more precisely the Arabian parent of Cushitic ancestry. Relative to the Out-of-Africa migrations, Hadza ancestry emerged early whereas Sandawe ancestry emerged late.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Genética Populacional , Genoma Humano/genética , DNA Antigo , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Tanzânia
13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(4): 547-556, 2018 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29526279

RESUMO

Five classical designations of sickle haplotypes are made on the basis of the presence or absence of restriction sites and are named after the ethno-linguistic groups or geographic regions from which the individuals with sickle cell anemia originated. Each haplotype is thought to represent an independent occurrence of the sickle mutation rs334 (c.20A>T [p.Glu7Val] in HBB). We investigated the origins of the sickle mutation by using whole-genome-sequence data. We identified 156 carriers from the 1000 Genomes Project, the African Genome Variation Project, and Qatar. We classified haplotypes by using 27 polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium with rs334. Network analysis revealed a common haplotype that differed from the ancestral haplotype only by the derived sickle mutation at rs334 and correlated collectively with the Central African Republic (CAR), Cameroon, and Arabian/Indian haplotypes. Other haplotypes were derived from this haplotype and fell into two clusters, one composed of Senegal haplotypes and the other composed of Benin and Senegal haplotypes. The near-exclusive presence of the original sickle haplotype in the CAR, Kenya, Uganda, and South Africa is consistent with this haplotype predating the Bantu expansions. Modeling of balancing selection indicated that the heterozygote advantage was 15.2%, an equilibrium frequency of 12.0% was reached after 87 generations, and the selective environment predated the mutation. The posterior distribution of the ancestral recombination graph yielded a sickle mutation age of 259 generations, corresponding to 7,300 years ago during the Holocene Wet Phase. These results clarify the origin of the sickle allele and improve and simplify the classification of sickle haplotypes.


Assuntos
Alelos , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Sequência de Bases , Biologia Computacional , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Mapeamento por Restrição , Seleção Genética , Fatores de Tempo
14.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0194400, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29596498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benign ethnic neutropenia (BEN) is a hematologic condition associated with people of African ancestry and specific Middle Eastern ethnic groups. Prior genetic association studies in large population showed that rs2814778 in Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) gene, specifically DARC null red cell phenotype, was associated with BEN. However, the mechanism of this red cell phenotype leading to low white cell count remained elusive. METHODS: We conducted an extreme phenotype design genome-wide association study (GWAS), analyzed ~16 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 1,178 African-Americans individuals from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study and replicated from 819 African-American participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Conditional analyses on rs2814778 were performed to identify additional association signals on chromosome 1q22. In a separate cohort of healthy individuals with and without BEN, whole genome gene expression from peripheral blood neutrophils were analyzed for DARC. RESULTS: We confirmed that rs2814778 in DARC was associated with BEN (p = 4.09×10-53). Conditioning on rs2814778 abolished other significant chromosome 1 associations. Inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, 6, and 10) in participants in the Howard University Family Study (HUFS) and Multi-Ethnic Study in Atherosclerosis (MESA) showed similar levels in individuals homozygous for the rs2814778 allele compared to others, indicating cytokine sink hypothesis played a minor role in leukocyte homeostasis. Gene expression in neutrophils of individuals with and without BEN was also similar except for low DARC expression in BEN, suggesting normal function. BEN neutrophils had slightly activated profiles in leukocyte migration and hematopoietic stem cell mobilization pathways (expression fold change <2). CONCLUSIONS: These results in humans support the notion of DARC null erythroid progenitors preferentially differentiating to myeloid cells, leading to activated DARC null neutrophils egressing from circulation to the spleen, and causing relative neutropenia. Collectively, these human data sufficiently explained the mechanism DARC null red cell phenotype causing BEN and further provided a biologic basis that BEN is clinically benign.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Citocinas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neutropenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Duffy/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Neutropenia/etnologia , Neutropenia/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética
15.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(R2): R225-R236, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28977439

RESUMO

A deeper appreciation of the complex architecture of African genomes is critical to the global effort to understand human history, biology and differential distribution of disease by geography and ancestry. Here, we report on how the growing engagement of African populations in genome science is providing new insights into the forces that shaped human genomes before and after the Out-of-Africa migrations. As a result of this human evolutionary history, African ancestry populations have the greatest genomic diversity in the world, and this diversity has important ramifications for genomic research. In the case of pharmacogenomics, for instance, variants of consequence are not limited to those identified in other populations, and diversity within African ancestry populations precludes summarizing risk across different African ethnic groups. Exposure of Africans to fatal pathogens, such as Plasmodium falciparum, Lassa Virus and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, has resulted in elevated frequencies of alleles conferring survival advantages for infectious diseases, but that are maladaptive in modern-day environments. Illustrating with cardiometabolic traits, we show that while genomic research in African ancestry populations is still in early stages, there are already many examples of novel and African ancestry-specific disease loci that have been discovered. Furthermore, the shorter haplotypes in African genomes have facilitated fine-mapping of loci discovered in other human ancestry populations. Given the insights already gained from the interrogation of African genomes, it is imperative to continue and increase our efforts to describe genomic risk in and across African ancestry populations.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Alelos , Evolução Biológica , Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica/métodos , Haplótipos/genética , Saúde , Humanos , Farmacogenética/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(2): 167-176, 2017 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28777929

RESUMO

With CRISPR/Cas9 and other genome-editing technologies, successful somatic and germline genome editing are becoming feasible. To respond, an American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) workgroup developed this position statement, which was approved by the ASHG Board in March 2017. The workgroup included representatives from the UK Association of Genetic Nurses and Counsellors, Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors, International Genetic Epidemiology Society, and US National Society of Genetic Counselors. These groups, as well as the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Asia Pacific Society of Human Genetics, British Society for Genetic Medicine, Human Genetics Society of Australasia, Professional Society of Genetic Counselors in Asia, and Southern African Society for Human Genetics, endorsed the final statement. The statement includes the following positions. (1) At this time, given the nature and number of unanswered scientific, ethical, and policy questions, it is inappropriate to perform germline gene editing that culminates in human pregnancy. (2) Currently, there is no reason to prohibit in vitro germline genome editing on human embryos and gametes, with appropriate oversight and consent from donors, to facilitate research on the possible future clinical applications of gene editing. There should be no prohibition on making public funds available to support this research. (3) Future clinical application of human germline genome editing should not proceed unless, at a minimum, there is (a) a compelling medical rationale, (b) an evidence base that supports its clinical use, (c) an ethical justification, and (d) a transparent public process to solicit and incorporate stakeholder input.


Assuntos
Edição de Genes , Genoma Humano/genética , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas/genética , Edição de Genes/ética , Edição de Genes/legislação & jurisprudência , Edição de Genes/métodos , Humanos , Mudança Social
17.
Curr Protoc Hum Genet ; 94: 1.23.1-1.23.8, 2017 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28696560

RESUMO

Admixture mapping is a powerful method of gene mapping for diseases or traits that show differential risk by ancestry. Admixture mapping has been applied most often to Americans who trace ancestry to various combinations of Native Americans, Europeans, and West Africans. Recent developments in admixture mapping include improvements in methods and the reference data needed to make inferences about ancestry, as well as extensions of the mapping approach in the framework of linear mixed models. In this unit, the key concepts of admixture mapping are outlined. Several approaches for inferring local ancestry are described, and strategies for performing admixture mapping depending on the study design are provided. Finally, comparisons and contrasts between linkage analysis, association analysis, and admixture mapping are provided, with an emphasis on integrating admixture mapping and association testing. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Doença/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Animais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Ligação Genética , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/genética , Fenótipo
18.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 1572, 2017 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28484253

RESUMO

Genetic and archaeological studies have established a sub-Saharan African origin for anatomically modern humans with subsequent migrations out of Africa. Using the largest multi-locus data set known to date, we investigated genetic differentiation of early modern humans, human admixture and migration events, and relationships among ancestries and language groups. We compiled publicly available genome-wide genotype data on 5,966 individuals from 282 global samples, representing 30 primary language families. The best evidence supports 21 ancestries that delineate genetic structure of present-day human populations. Independent of self-identified ethno-linguistic labels, the vast majority (97.3%) of individuals have mixed ancestry, with evidence of multiple ancestries in 96.8% of samples and on all continents. The data indicate that continents, ethno-linguistic groups, races, ethnicities, and individuals all show substantial ancestral heterogeneity. We estimated correlation coefficients ranging from 0.522 to 0.962 between ancestries and language families or branches. Ancestry data support the grouping of Kwadi-Khoe, Kx'a, and Tuu languages, support the exclusion of Omotic languages from the Afroasiatic language family, and do not support the proposed Dené-Yeniseian language family as a genetically valid grouping. Ancestry data yield insight into a deeper past than linguistic data can, while linguistic data provide clarity to ancestry data.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais , Genoma Humano , Idioma , Filogenia , Pool Gênico , Migração Humana , Humanos
19.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 25(4): 794-800, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28296344

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of obesity varies between ethnic groups. No genome-wide association study (GWAS) for body mass index (BMI) has been conducted in continental Africans. METHODS: We performed a GWAS for BMI in 1,570 West Africans (WA). Replication was conducted in independent samples of WA (n = 1,411) and African Americans (AA) (n = 9,020). RESULTS: We identified a novel genome-wide significant African-specific locus for BMI (SEMA4D, rs80068415; minor allele frequency = 0.008, P = 2.10 × 10-8 ). This finding was replicated in independent samples of WA (P = 0.013) and AA (P = 0.017). Individuals with obesity had higher serum SEMA4D levels compared to those without obesity (P < 0.0001), and elevated levels of serum SEMA4D were associated with increased obesity risk (OR = 4.2, P < 1 × 10-4 ). The prevalence of obesity was higher in individuals with the CT versus TT genotypes (55.6% vs. 22.9%). CONCLUSIONS: A novel variant in SEMA4D was significantly associated with BMI. Carriers of the C allele were 4.6 BMI units heavier than carriers of the T allele (P = 0.0007). This variant is monomorphic in Europeans and Asians, highlighting the importance of studying diverse populations. While there is evidence for the involvement of SEMA4D in inflammatory processes, this study is the first to implicate SEMA4D in obesity pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Antígenos CD/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Semaforinas/genética , África Ocidental , Alelos , Antígenos CD/sangue , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Semaforinas/sangue
20.
PLoS One ; 12(3): e0173784, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28346466

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified over one hundred common genetic risk variants associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, most of the heritability of T2D has not been accounted for. In this study, we investigated the contribution of rare and common variants to T2D susceptibility by analyzing exome array data in 1,908 Han Chinese genotyped with Affymetrix Axiom® Exome Genotyping Arrays. Based on the joint common and rare variants analysis of 57,704 autosomal SNPs within 12,244 genes using Sequence Kernel Association Tests (SKAT), we identified significant associations between T2D and 25 variants (9 rare and 16 common) in MUC5B, p-value 1.01×10-14. This finding was replicated (p = 0.0463) in an independent sample that included 10,401 unrelated individuals. Sixty-six of 1,553 possible haplotypes based on 25 SNPs within MUC5B showed significant association with T2D (Bonferroni corrected p values < 3.2×10-5). The expression level of MUC5B is significantly higher in pancreatic tissues of persons with T2D compared to those without T2D (p-value = 5×10-5). Our findings suggest that dysregulated MUC5B expression may be involved in the pathogenesis of T2D. As a strong candidate gene for T2D, MUC5B may play an important role in the mechanisms underlying T2D etiology and its complications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Mucina-5B/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , China/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Éxons , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pâncreas/patologia
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