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1.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested positive associations for iron and red meat intake with risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Inherited pathogenic variants in genes involved in the hepcidin-regulating iron metabolism pathway are known to cause iron overload and hemochromatosis. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine whether common genetic variation in the hepcidin-regulating iron metabolism pathway is associated with PDAC. METHODS: We conducted a pathway analysis of the hepcidin-regulating genes using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) summary statistics generated from 4 genome-wide association studies in 2 large consortium studies using the summary data-based adaptive rank truncated product method. Our population consisted of 9253 PDAC cases and 12,525 controls of European descent. Our analysis included 11 hepcidin-regulating genes [bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6), ferritin heavy chain 1 (FTH1), ferritin light chain (FTL), hepcidin (HAMP), homeostatic iron regulator (HFE), hemojuvelin (HJV), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), ferroportin 1 (SLC40A1), transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1), and transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2)] and their surrounding genomic regions (±20 kb) for a total of 412 SNPs. RESULTS: The hepcidin-regulating gene pathway was significantly associated with PDAC (P = 0.002), with the HJV, TFR2, TFR1, BMP6, and HAMP genes contributing the most to the association. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support that genetic susceptibility related to the hepcidin-regulating gene pathway is associated with PDAC risk and suggest a potential role of iron metabolism in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Further studies are needed to evaluate effect modification by intake of iron-rich foods on this association.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13805, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226613

RESUMO

Imbalances of blood biomarkers are associated with disease, and biomarkers may also vary non-pathologically across population groups. We described variation in concentrations of biomarkers of one-carbon metabolism, vitamin status, inflammation including tryptophan metabolism, and endothelial and renal function among cancer-free older adults. We analyzed 5167 cancer-free controls aged 40-80 years from 20 cohorts in the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3). Centralized biochemical analyses of 40 biomarkers in plasma or serum were performed. We fit multivariable linear mixed effects models to quantify variation in standardized biomarker log-concentrations across four factors: age, sex, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI). Differences in most biomarkers across most factors were small, with 93% (186/200) of analyses showing an estimated difference lower than 0.25 standard-deviations, although most were statistically significant due to large sample size. The largest difference was for creatinine by sex, which was - 0.91 standard-deviations lower in women than men (95%CI - 0.98; - 0.84). The largest difference by age was for total cysteine (0.40 standard-deviation increase per 10-year increase, 95%CI 0.36; 0.43), and by BMI was for C-reactive protein (0.38 standard-deviation increase per 5-kg/m2 increase, 95%CI 0.34; 0.41). For 31 of 40 markers, the mean difference between current and never smokers was larger than between former and never smokers. A statistically significant (p < 0.05) association with time since smoking cessation was observed for 8 markers, including C-reactive protein, kynurenine, choline, and total homocysteine. We conclude that most blood biomarkers show small variations across demographic characteristics. Patterns by smoking status point to normalization of multiple physiological processes after smoking cessation.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205293

RESUMO

We examined the associations of dietary cholesterol and egg intakes with cardiometabolic and all-cause mortality among Chinese and low-income Black and White Americans. Included were 47,789 Blacks, 20,360 Whites, and 134,280 Chinese aged 40-79 years at enrollment. Multivariable Cox models with restricted cubic splines were applied to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for mortality outcomes using intakes of 150 mg cholesterol/day and 1 egg/week as the references. Cholesterol intake showed a nonlinear association with increased all-cause mortality and a linear association with increased cardiometabolic mortality among Black Americans: HRs (95% CIs) associated with 300 and 600 mg/day vs. 150 mg/day were 1.07 (1.03-1.11) and 1.13 (1.05-1.21) for all-cause mortality (P-linearity = 0.04, P-nonlinearity = 0.002, and P-overall < 0.001) and 1.10 (1.03-1.16) and 1.21 (1.08-1.36) for cardiometabolic mortality (P-linearity = 0.007, P-nonlinearity = 0.07, and P-overall = 0.005). Null associations with all-cause or cardiometabolic mortality were noted for White Americans (P-linearity ≥ 0.13, P-nonlinearity ≥ 0.06, and P-overall ≥ 0.05 for both). Nonlinear inverse associations were observed among Chinese: HR (95% CI) for 300 vs. 150 mg/day was 0.94 (0.92-0.97) for all-cause mortality and 0.91 (0.87-0.95) for cardiometabolic mortality, but the inverse associations disappeared with cholesterol intake > 500 mg/day (P-linearity ≥ 0.12; P-nonlinearity ≤ 0.001; P-overall < 0.001 for both). Similarly, we observed a positive association of egg intake with all-cause mortality in Black Americans, but a null association in White Americans and a nonlinear inverse association in Chinese. In conclusion, the associations of cholesterol and egg intakes with cardiometabolic and all-cause mortality may differ across ethnicities who have different dietary patterns and cardiometabolic risk profiles. However, residual confounding remains possible.


Assuntos
Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ovos , Síndrome Metabólica/mortalidade , Mortalidade/etnologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde do Homem , Síndrome Metabólica/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Saúde da Mulher
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various carotenoids in circulation, including isomers, may have different influences on cancer risk. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study including 343 incident prostate cancer (PCa) cases and 640 controls individually matched on age, race, study site, and time of blood collection. Carotenoids investigated were carotene, cryptoxanthin, lycopene, dihydrolycopene, lutein, anhydrolutein, and zeaxanthin, including α vs. ß configurations and cis vs. trans isomers. General linear model and conditional logistic regression were applied to evaluate associations for PCa risk with adjustment for potential confounders. We conducted additional analyses with further stratification by race, multivitamin use, and smoking status. RESULTS: Case-control differences were found in carotenoid subtype levels, although not all reached the multiple comparison adjusted threshold for significance. Plasma lycopene (odds ratio (OR)T1 vs. T3 =0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.29-0.87, Ptrend=0.014), dihydrolycopene (ORT1 vs. T3 =0.37, 95%CI: 0.18-0.74, Ptrend=0.006), and cis-anhydrolutein (ORT1 vs. T3 =0.57, 95%CI: 0.33-0.96, Ptrend=0.037) were inversely, while ß-trans-carotene (ORT1 vs. T3 =2.13, 95%CI: 1.33-3.43, Ptrend=0.002) and trans-lutein (ORT1 vs. T3 =1.86, 95%CI: 1.20-2.88, Ptrend=0.006) were positively associated with PCa risk. Stratified analyses showed inverse associations of lycopene, dihydrolycopene, and cis-anhydrolutein with PCa risk in subjects without multivitamin use; lycopene and dihydrolycopene in African-Americans and current smokers; and dihydrolycopene in non-smokers. Positive associations of ß-trans-carotene and trans-lutein were observed in African-Americans, non-smokers, and multivitamin users. CONCLUSION: The associations of carotenoids with risk of PCa differed by carotenoid subtypes. IMPACT: Public health recommendations on carotenoid intakes for PCa prevention should take subtypes and isomers into consideration.

5.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 7: 802-810, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077269

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cancer occurrence is increasing in Africa, although research has lagged. The objective of this review was to analyze cancer research outputs from Africa, with a particular focus on Zambia. METHODS: We searched PubMed for published cancer-related articles from African countries. All articles reporting on cancer in Africa were considered. We conducted analyses to explore correlations between cancer research output and total population, gross domestic product, and new cancer cases recorded in 2020. For Zambia articles, we also analyzed cancer types and time trends. RESULTS: A total of 48,487 cancer-related publications from Africa were identified, with nearly half coming from Egypt (13,372; 28%) and South Africa (9,393; 19%). Cancer research output correlated significantly with country population (Spearman's correlation coefficient 0.74; P < .001) and the number of new cancer cases recorded in 2020 (Spearman's correlation coefficient 0.77; P < .001). Standardized by population size, Western Sahara (0.576), Seychelles (0.244), Tunisia (0.239), South Africa (0.158), and Egypt (0.131) had the highest overall output per 1,000 population. A total of 244 publications were from Zambia; the most studied cancers were cervical (25%), Kaposi sarcoma (24%), and breast (10%). Although an increase in cancer research output from Zambia was noted, only 33% of publications were first or last authored by Zambians. The major limitation of this review is that the evaluation was based on a single electronic database, PubMed. CONCLUSION: Cancer research output from Africa is very low, with many of the publications concentrated in a few countries. There is an urgent need to invest in both human resources and infrastructure to increase cancer research output from African countries, particularly in less populous countries.

6.
J Nutr ; 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Legumes, important components of a healthy diet, may exert their health benefits through the influence of the gut microbiome. However, this hypothesis has not been well investigated. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the associations between long-term legume consumption and the gut microbiome among elderly Chinese. METHODS: The gut microbiome was profiled by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing in 2302 Chinese adults enrolled in 2 large cohort studies, the Shanghai Women's Health Study and Shanghai Men's Health Study. Legume consumption, including peanuts, soy foods, and other beans, was assessed by food-frequency questionnaires prior to the stool collection. The associations of legume consumption with microbiome diversity and taxa abundance were evaluated by linear or negative binomial hurdle models, adjusting for sociodemographics, lifestyle factors, and BMI. False discovery rate (FDR)-corrected P values (PFDR) < 0.1 were considered significant. RESULTS: Respectively, 52% and 48% of study participants were male and female. The mean age at stool collection was 68.03 y for females and 70.28 y for males. Total legume consumption was not associated with gut microbiome ɑ-diversity; however, male peanut consumers had a higher Chao1 index (ß = 22.52, P = 0.01), whereas peanut consumption was associated with decreased Shannon (ß = -0.03, P = 0.02) and Simpson (ß = -0.002, P = 0.04) indexes among females. In female and male combined analyses, total legume consumption was associated with increased Enterobacteriales (ß = 0.30, PFDR = 0.06). Within this order, an unclassified genus in the family Enterobacteriaceae was positively associated with total legume (ß = 0.46, PFDR = 0.03) and peanut (ß = 0.59, PFDR = 0.01) consumption. Stratified analyses showed significant associations were primarily confined to females and participants without metabolic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Legume consumption was associated with gut microbiome diversity and abundance of some bacteria in elderly Chinese. Associations were significant only among 1 sex group. Further research, including large-scale prospective studies and feeding trials, is needed to fully understand the role of the gut microbiome in legume-health associations.

7.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 12(5): e00344, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955373

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening reduces CRC incidence and mortality. However, it is unclear whether the reduction in CRC risk may differ by genetic susceptibility. METHODS: We evaluated this question in a cohort of 304,740 participants of European descent aged 50 years and older. Genetic susceptibility was measured using a polygenic risk score (PRS) constructed with risk variants identified in genomewide association studies. Cox models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of CRC risk. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 7.0 years, 2,261 incident CRC cases and 528 CRC deaths were identified. CRC screening was associated with a significantly reduced CRC incidence among individuals with a high (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.92) and intermediate PRS (0.84, 0.71-0.98) but not among those with a low PRS (1.03, 0.86-1.25; Pinteraction, 0.005). A similar but more evident difference was observed for mortality (Pinteraction, 0.046), with more than 30% reduced mortality observed in the high PRS group (0.69, 0.52-0.91). Among the younger group (age 50-60 years), CRC screenings were associated with a slightly (but nonsignificantly) elevated incidence and mortality in the low PRS group but a reduced risk in the high PRS group (Pinteraction, 0.043 [incidence]; 0.092 [mortality]). No significant interaction was observed in the older group (age > 60 years). DISCUSSION: Individuals with a higher genetic risk benefited more substantially from CRC screenings than those with a lower risk. Our findings suggest that PRS may be used to develop personalized CRC screening to maximize its effect on CRC prevention.

8.
Breast Cancer Res ; 23(1): 62, 2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051827

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: In contrast to developed countries, breast cancer in China is characterized by a rapidly escalating incidence rate in the past two decades, lower survival rate, and vast geographic variation. However, there is no validated risk prediction model in China to aid early detection yet. METHODS: A large nationwide prospective cohort, China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB), was used to evaluate relative and attributable risks of invasive breast cancer. A total of 300,824 women free of any prior cancer were recruited during 2004-2008 and followed up to Dec 31, 2016. Cox models were used to identify breast cancer risk factors and build a relative risk model. Absolute risks were calculated by incorporating national age- and residence-specific breast cancer incidence and non-breast cancer mortality rates. We used an independent large prospective cohort, Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS), with 73,203 women to externally validate the calibration and discriminating accuracy. RESULTS: During a median of 10.2 years of follow-up in the CKB, 2287 cases were observed. The final model included age, residence area, education, BMI, height, family history of overall cancer, parity, and age at menarche. The model was well-calibrated in both the CKB and the SWHS, yielding expected/observed (E/O) ratios of 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.94-1.09) and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.89-0.99), respectively. After eliminating the effect of age and residence, the model maintained moderate but comparable discriminating accuracy compared with those of some previous externally validated models. The adjusted areas under the receiver operating curve (AUC) were 0.634 (95% CI, 0.608-0.661) and 0.585 (95% CI, 0.564-0.605) in the CKB and the SWHS, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Based only on non-laboratory predictors, our model has a good calibration and moderate discriminating capacity. The model may serve as a useful tool to raise individuals' awareness and aid risk-stratified screening and prevention strategies.

9.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the time course of mortality reduction following smoking cessation in Asians who have smoking behaviours distinct from their Western counterparts. We evaluated the level of reduction in all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and lung cancer mortality by years since quitting smoking, in Asia. METHODS: Using Cox regression, we analysed individual participant data (n = 709 151) from 16 prospective cohorts conducted in China, Japan, Korea/Singapore, and India/Bangladesh, separately by cohorts. Cohort-specific hazard ratios (HRs) were combined using a random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 12.0 years, 108 287 deaths were ascertained-35 658 from CVD and 7546 from lung cancer. Among Asian men, a dose-response relationship of risk reduction in deaths from all causes, CVD and lung cancer was observed with an increase in years after smoking cessation. Compared with never smokers, however, all-cause and CVD mortality among former smokers remained elevated 10-14 years after quitting [multivariable-adjusted HR (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25 (1.13-1.37) and 1.20 (1.02-1.41), respectively]. Lung cancer mortality stayed almost 2-fold higher than among never smokers 15-19 years after smoking cessation [1.97 (1.41-2.73)], particularly among former heavy smokers [2.62 (1.71-4.00)]. Women who quitted for ≥5 years retained a significantly elevated mortality from all causes, CVD and lung cancer. Overall patterns of the cessation-mortality associations were similar across countries. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that adverse effects of tobacco smoking persist for an extended time period, even for more than two decades, which is beyond the time windows defined in current clinical guidelines for risk assessment of lung cancer and CVD.

10.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 589, 2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood type has been associated with the risk of gastric cancer, but few studies have examined the association with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS: We conducted a case-control study using genotyping data of Chinese individuals, including cases of 2022 ESCC, 1189 gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, 1161 gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma, and 2696 controls. Genetic blood type was imputed using three single nucleotide polymorphisms. We used logistic regression to examine the association between blood type and the risk of each cancer. RESULTS: Compared to blood type O, the risk of ESCC was significantly elevated for blood type B and AB, with the highest risk for type AB (OR, 95%CI: 1.34, 1.07-1.67). Analysis of genotype suggested that the association of ESCC was from carrying the B allele. Similarly, blood type was significantly associated with gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma (P < 0.001) with risk significantly elevated in type A (1.37, 1.14-1.65) and AB (1.44, 1.10-1.89) compared to type O. Blood type was not associated with gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (P = 0.13). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel insights into the association between blood type and the risk of ESCC and restricted previously observed association to only gastric noncardia cancer, providing important evidence to clarify the pattern of association and suggesting mechanisms of action.

11.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Choline is an essential nutrient; however, the associations of choline and its related metabolites with cardiometabolic risk remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of circulating choline, betaine, carnitine, and dimethylglycine (DMG) with cardiometabolic biomarkers and their potential dietary and nondietary determinants. METHODS: The cross-sectional analyses included 32,853 participants from 17 studies, who were free of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney diseases, and inflammatory bowel disease. In each study, metabolites and biomarkers were log-transformed and standardized by means and SDs, and linear regression coefficients (ß) and 95% CIs were estimated with adjustments for potential confounders. Study-specific results were combined by random-effects meta-analyses. A false discovery rate <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: We observed moderate positive associations of circulating choline, carnitine, and DMG with creatinine [ß (95% CI): 0.136 (0.084, 0.188), 0.106 (0.045, 0.168), and 0.128 (0.087, 0.169), respectively, for each SD increase in biomarkers on the log scale], carnitine with triglycerides (ß = 0.076; 95% CI: 0.042, 0.109), homocysteine (ß = 0.064; 95% CI: 0.033, 0.095), and LDL cholesterol (ß = 0.055; 95% CI: 0.013, 0.096), DMG with homocysteine (ß = 0.068; 95% CI: 0.023, 0.114), insulin (ß = 0.068; 95% CI: 0.043, 0.093), and IL-6 (ß = 0.060; 95% CI: 0.027, 0.094), but moderate inverse associations of betaine with triglycerides (ß = -0.146; 95% CI: -0.188, -0.104), insulin (ß = -0.106; 95% CI: -0.130, -0.082), homocysteine (ß = -0.097; 95% CI: -0.149, -0.045), and total cholesterol (ß = -0.074; 95% CI: -0.102, -0.047). In the whole pooled population, no dietary factor was associated with circulating choline; red meat intake was associated with circulating carnitine [ß = 0.092 (0.042, 0.142) for a 1 serving/d increase], whereas plant protein was associated with circulating betaine [ß = 0.249 (0.110, 0.388) for a 5% energy increase]. Demographics, lifestyle, and metabolic disease history showed differential associations with these metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating choline, carnitine, and DMG were associated with unfavorable cardiometabolic risk profiles, whereas circulating betaine was associated with a favorable cardiometabolic risk profile. Future prospective studies are needed to examine the associations of these metabolites with incident cardiovascular events.

12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(7): 1416-1423, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the association between reproductive risk factors and breast cancer subtype in Black women. On the basis of the previous literature, we hypothesized that the relative prevalence of specific breast cancer subtypes might differ according to reproductive factors. METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis of 2,188 (591 premenopausal, 1,597 postmenopausal) Black women with a primary diagnosis of breast cancer from four studies in the southeastern United States. Breast cancers were classified by clinical subtype. Case-only polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for HER2+ and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) status in relation to estrogen receptor-positive (ER+)/HER2- status (referent) for reproductive risk factors. RESULTS: Relative to women who had ER+/HER2- tumors, women who were age 19-24 years at first birth (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.22-2.59) were more likely to have TNBC. Parous women were less likely to be diagnosed with HER2+ breast cancer and more likely to be diagnosed with TNBC relative to ER+/HER2- breast cancer. Postmenopausal parous women who breastfed were less likely to have TNBC [OR, 0.65 (95% CI, 0.43-0.99)]. CONCLUSIONS: This large pooled study of Black women with breast cancer revealed etiologic heterogeneity among breast cancer subtypes. IMPACT: Black parous women who do not breastfeed are more likely to be diagnosed with TNBC, which has a worse prognosis, than with ER+/HER2- breast cancer.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolomics is widely used to identify potential novel biomarkers for cancer risk. No investigation, however, has been conducted to prospectively evaluate the role of perturbation of metabolome in gastric cancer development. METHODS: 250 incident cases diagnosed with primary gastric cancer were selected from the Shanghai Women's Health and the Shanghai Men's Health Study, and each was individually matched to one control by incidence density sampling. An untargeted global profiling platform was used to measure approximately 1,000 metabolites in prediagnostic plasma. Conditional logistic regression was utilized to generate ORs and P values. RESULTS: Eighteen metabolites were associated with gastric cancer risk at P < 0.01. Among them, 11 metabolites were lysophospholipids or lipids of other classes; for example, 1-(1-enyl-palmitoyl)-GPE (P-16:0) (OR = 1.56; P = 1.89 × 10-4). Levels of methylmalonate, a suggested biomarker of vitamin B12 deficiency, was correlated with increased gastric cancer risk (OR = 1.42; P = 0.004). Inverse associations were found for three biomarkers for coffee/tea consumption (3-hydroxypyridine sulfate, quinate and N-(2-furoyl) glycine), although the associations were only significant when comparing cases that were diagnosed within 5 years after the blood collection to matched controls. Most of the identified associations were more profound in women and never smokers than their male or ever smoking counterparts and some with notable significant interactions. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified multiple potential risk biomarkers for gastric cancer independent of Helicobacter pylori infection and other major risk factors. IMPACT: New risk-assessment tools to identify high-risk population could be developed to improve prevention of gastric cancer.

14.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917229

RESUMO

The association between fish consumption and new-onset type 2 diabetes is inconsistent and differs according to geographical location. We examined the association between the total and types of fish consumption and type 2 diabetes using individual participant data from 28 prospective cohort studies from the Americas (6), Europe (15), the Western Pacific (6), and the Eastern Mediterranean (1) comprising 956,122 participants and 48,084 cases of incident type 2 diabetes. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for associations of total fish, shellfish, fatty, lean, fried, freshwater, and saltwater fish intake and type 2 diabetes were derived for each study, adjusting for a consistent set of confounders and combined across studies using random-effects meta-analysis. We stratified all analyses by sex due to observed interaction (p = 0.002) on the association between fish and type 2 diabetes. In women, for each 100 g/week higher intake the IRRs (95% CIs) of type 2 diabetes were 1.02 (1.01-1.03, I2 = 61%) for total fish, 1.04 (1.01-1.07, I2 = 46%) for fatty fish, and 1.02 (1.00-1.04, I2 = 33%) for lean fish. In men, all associations were null. In women, we observed variation by geographical location: IRRs for total fish were 1.03 (1.02-1.04, I2 = 0%) in the Americas and null in other regions. In conclusion, we found evidence of a neutral association between total fish intake and type 2 diabetes in men, but there was a modest positive association among women with heterogeneity across studies, which was partly explained by geographical location and types of fish intake. Future research should investigate the role of cooking methods, accompanying foods and environmental pollutants, but meanwhile, existing dietary regional, national, or international guidelines should continue to guide fish consumption within overall healthy dietary patterns.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Peixes , Animais , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(5): 1145-1156, 2021 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a diet-derived, gut microbial-host cometabolite, has been linked to cardiometabolic diseases. However, the relations remain unclear between diet, TMAO, and cardiometabolic health in general populations from different regions and ethnicities. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of circulating TMAO with dietary and cardiometabolic factors in a pooled analysis of 16 population-based studies from the United States, Europe, and Asia. METHODS: Included were 32,166 adults (16,269 white, 13,293 Asian, 1247 Hispanic/Latino, 1236 black, and 121 others) without cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic kidney disease, or inflammatory bowel disease. Linear regression coefficients (ß) were computed for standardized TMAO with harmonized variables. Study-specific results were combined by random-effects meta-analysis. A false discovery rate <0.10 was considered significant. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, circulating TMAO was associated with intakes of animal protein and saturated fat (ß = 0.124 and 0.058, respectively, for a 5% energy increase) and with shellfish, total fish, eggs, and red meat (ß = 0.370, 0.151, 0.081, and 0.056, respectively, for a 1 serving/d increase). Plant protein and nuts showed inverse associations (ß = -0.126 for a 5% energy increase from plant protein and -0.123 for a 1 serving/d increase of nuts). Although the animal protein-TMAO association was consistent across populations, fish and shellfish associations were stronger in Asians (ß = 0.285 and 0.578), and egg and red meat associations were more prominent in Americans (ß = 0.153 and 0.093). Besides, circulating TMAO was positively associated with creatinine (ß = 0.131 SD increase in log-TMAO), homocysteine (ß = 0.065), insulin (ß = 0.048), glycated hemoglobin (ß = 0.048), and glucose (ß = 0.023), whereas it was inversely associated with HDL cholesterol (ß = -0.047) and blood pressure (ß = -0.030). Each TMAO-biomarker association remained significant after further adjusting for creatinine and was robust in subgroup/sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In an international, consortium-based study, animal protein was consistently associated with increased circulating TMAO, whereas TMAO associations with fish, shellfish, eggs, and red meat varied among populations. The adverse associations of TMAO with certain cardiometabolic biomarkers, independent of renal function, warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Dieta , Metabolismo Energético , Metilaminas/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Saúde Global , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Oxidantes/sangue
16.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844845

RESUMO

There is limited evidence on the association between red meat consumption and pancreatic cancer among ethnic minorities. We assessed this relationship in two large prospective cohorts: the Multiethnic Cohort Study (MEC) and the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS). Demographic, dietary and other risk factor data were collected at cohort entry. Red meat intake was assessed using cohort-specific validated food frequency questionnaires. Incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified via linkages to state cancer registries. Cox regression was used to calculate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of red meat intake with pancreatic cancer risk in each cohort. We performed additional analyses to evaluate cooking methods, mutagens and effect modification by NAT1/2 genotypes. From a total of 184 542 (MEC) and 66 793 (SCCS) at-risk participants, we identified 1618 (MEC) and 266 (SCCS) incident pancreatic cancer cases. Red meat consumption was associated with pancreatic cancer risk in the MEC (RRQ4vsQ1 1.18, 95% CI 1.02-1.37) and with borderline statistical significance in the SCCS (RRQ4vsQ1 1.31, 95% CI 0.93-1.86). This association was significant in African Americans (RRQ4vsQ1 1.49, 95% CI 1.06-2.11) and Latinos (RRQ4vsQ1 1.44, 95% CI 1.02-2.04) in the MEC, and among African Americans (RRQ4vsQ1 1.55, 95% CI 1.03-2.33) in the SCCS. NAT2 genotypes appeared to modify the relationship between red meat and pancreatic cancer in the MEC (pinteraction = 0.03). Our findings suggest that the associations for red meat may be strongest in African Americans and Latinos. The mechanisms underlying the increased risk for these populations should be further investigated.

17.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(4): 810-820, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both genetic and lifestyle factors play an etiologic role in colorectal cancer (CRC). OBJECTIVES: We evaluated potential gene-environment interactions in CRC risk. METHODS: We used data from 346,297 participants in the UK Biobank cohort. Healthy lifestyle scores (HLSs) were constructed using 8 lifestyle factors, primarily according to the American Cancer Society guidelines, and were categorized into unhealthy, intermediate, and healthy groups. A polygenic risk score (PRS) was created using 95 genetic risk variants identified by genome-wide association studies of CRC and was categorized by tertile. Cox models were used to estimate the HRs and 95% CIs of CRC risk associated with the HLS and PRS. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 5.8 y, 2066 incident cases of CRC were identified. Healthier HLSs were associated with reduced risk of CRC in a dose-response manner. The risk reduction was more apparent among those with high PRS (HRhealthy vs. unhealthy HLS1: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.79 for men and 0.71; 0.58, 0.85 for men and women combined) than those with low PRS. Although no multiplicative interactions were identified, the HLS1 and PRS showed a significant additive interaction (P = 0.02 for all participants combined, 0.04 for men). In analyses including all participants, the adjusted CRC cumulative risk from age 40 to 75 y was 6.40% for those with high PRS/unhealthy HLS1, with a relative excess risk due to interaction of 0.58 (95% CI: 0.06, 1.10), compared with 2.09% among those with low PRS/healthy HLS1. This pattern was more apparent among those who reported not having received any bowel screening before baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Although the observational nature of the study precludes proof of causality, our findings suggest that individuals with a high genetic susceptibility could benefit more substantially than those with a low genetic risk from lifestyle modification in reducing CRC risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reino Unido
18.
Cancer ; 127(11): 1758-1769, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Robust and reliable prognosis prediction models have not been developed and validated for Asian patients with breast cancer, a rapidly growing yet understudied population in the United States. METHODS: We used longitudinal data from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study, a population-based prospective cohort study (n = 5042), to develop prediction models for 5- and 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The initial models considered age at diagnosis, tumor grade, tumor size, number of positive nodes, TNM stage, chemotherapy, tamoxifen therapy, and estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status. We then evaluated whether the addition of modifiable lifestyle factors (physical activity, soy isoflavones intake, and postdiagnostic weight change) improved the models. All final models have been validated internally and externally in the National Cancer Database when applicable. RESULTS: Our final models included age at diagnosis, tumor grade, tumor size, number of positive nodes, TNM stage, chemotherapy, tamoxifen therapy, ER status, PR status, 6-month postdiagnostic weight change, interaction between ER status and tamoxifen therapy, and interaction between age and TNM stage. The internal validation yielded C-statistics of 0.76, 0.74, 0.78, and 0.75 for 5-year DFS, 10-year DFS, 5-year OS, and 10-year OS, respectively. The external validation yielded C-statistics of 5- and 10-year OS both at 0.78 for Chinese ethnicity, 0.79 for East Asian ethnicity, and 0.75 and 0.76 for all ethnic groups combined. CONCLUSION: We developed prediction models for breast cancer prognosis from a large prospective study. Our prognostic models performed very well in women from the United States-particularly in Asian American women-and demonstrated high prediction accuracy and generalizability.

19.
Genet Epidemiol ; 45(5): 471-484, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739539

RESUMO

Previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been largely focused on European (EUR) populations. However, polygenic risk scores (PRSs) derived from EUR have been shown to perform worse in non-EURs compared with EURs. In this study, we aim to improve PRS prediction in East Asians (EASs). We introduce a rescaled meta-analysis framework to combine both EUR (N = 122,175) and EAS (N = 30,801) GWAS summary statistics. To improve PRS prediction in EASs, we use a scaling factor to up-weight the EAS data, such that the resulting effect size estimates are more relevant to EASs. We then derive PRSs for EAS from the rescaled meta-analysis results of EAS and EUR data. Evaluated in an independent EAS validation data set, this approach increases the prediction liability-adjusted Nagelkerke's pseudo R2 by 40%, 41%, and 5%, respectively, compared with PRSs derived from an EAS GWAS only, EUR GWAS only, and conventional fixed-effects meta-analysis of EAS and EUR data. The PRS derived from the rescaled meta-analysis approach achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.6059, higher than AUC = 0.5782, 0.5809, 0.6008 for EAS, EUR, and conventional meta-analysis of EAS and EUR. We further compare PRSs constructed by single-nucleotide polymorphisms that have different linkage disequilibrium (LD) scores and minor allele frequencies (MAFs) between EUR and EAS, and observe that lower LD scores or MAF in EAS correspond to poorer PRS performance (AUC = 0.5677, 0.5530, respectively) than higher LD scores or MAF (AUC = 0.589, 0.5993, respectively). We finally build a PRS stratified by LD score differences in EUR and EAS using rescaled meta-analysis, and obtain an AUC of 0.6096, with improvement over other strategies investigated.

20.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(4): 630-642, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607311

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Suboptimal pathologic nodal staging prevails after curative-intent resection of lung cancer. We evaluated the impact of a lymph node specimen collection kit on lung cancer surgery outcomes in a prospective, population-based, staggered implementation study. METHODS: From January 1, 2014, to August 28, 2018, we implemented the kit in three homogeneous institutional cohorts involving 11 eligible hospitals from four contiguous hospital referral regions. Our primary outcome was pathologic nodal staging quality, defined by the following evidence-based measures: the number of lymph nodes or stations examined, proportions with poor-quality markers such as nonexamination of lymph nodes, and aggregate quality benchmarks including the National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria. Additional outcomes included perioperative complications, health care utilization, and overall survival. RESULTS: Of 1492 participants, 56% had resection with the kit and 44% without. Pathologic nodal staging quality was significantly higher in the kit cases: 0.2% of kit cases versus 9.8% of nonkit cases had no lymph nodes examined; 3.2% versus 25.3% had no mediastinal lymph nodes; 75% versus 26% attained the National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria (p < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Kit cases revealed no difference in perioperative complications or health care utilization except for significantly shorter duration of surgery, lower proportions with atelectasis, and slightly higher use of blood transfusion. Resection with the kit was associated with a lower hazard of death (crude, 0.78 [95% confidence interval: 0.61-0.99]; adjusted 0.85 [0.71-1.02]). CONCLUSIONS: Lung cancer surgery with a lymph node collection kit significantly improved pathologic nodal staging quality, with a trend toward survival improvement, without excessive perioperative morbidity or mortality.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Excisão de Linfonodo , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumonectomia , Estudos Prospectivos
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