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2.
Hepatol Int ; 2022 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35301679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Budd Chiari syndrome (BCS) commonly affects adolescents and adults. With improved survival, important quality-of-life parameters such as sexual life and fertility become more relevant. This study was aimed to assess the gonadal function in male patients with BCS and the effect of treatment on gonadal function. METHODS: Thirty male patients with newly diagnosed BCS were prospectively assessed for the presence of gonadal dysfunction. Erectile function was assessed using standardized International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire (IIEF). Follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), estradiol, total testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (cFT), calculated bioavailable testosterone (cBT), sperm count, and sperm motility were compared at baseline and at 6 months of treatment for the assessment of gonadal function. RESULTS: Sixteen (53.3%) out of 30 patients were sexually active at the time of study and 5/16 (31%) had erectile dysfunction. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) was the most common pattern seen in 50% cases followed by hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (HyH) in 23% cases. 27% patients had eugonadism. At 6 months of treatment, 60% of patients in HH group became eugonadal as compared to only 14% in HyH group. Proportion of patients with erectile dysfunction reduced (5/16 vs 1/16) after 6 months of therapy. The improvement in sperm count and sperm motility was not significant. CONCLUSION: Gonadal dysfunction is common in male patients with BCS. HH remains the most common type of hypogonadism BCS and the type which improves significantly after treatment.

4.
Clin Drug Investig ; 42(2): 177-184, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35102516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There are limited data on the adverse events of D-penicillamine in Wilson's disease (WD) that can result in dose modification or treatment discontinuation. The objective of this study was to observe the adverse events related to D-penicillamine in patients with hepatic WD. METHODS: A retrospective audit of prospectively registered hepatic WD patients at a tertiary care center between December 2006 and January 2020 was carried out. Demographic variables, laboratory parameters, and details of treatment were noted. Adverse events (AEs) related to D-penicillamine treatment, the timing and management of these AEs were analysed. RESULTS: The study included 112 patients with hepatic WD on D-penicillamine. D-penicillamine intolerance was seen in 28/112 (25%) over 179 person-years. Of the 28 AEs, severe AEs leading to permanent D-penicillamine discontinuation occurred in 16 (57%) [never reintroduced 12 (43%), discontinued after intolerant to rechallenge, 4 (14%)], temporary cessation followed by reintroduction to initial dose 13 (46%) and continuation with reduced dose in 3 (11%) patients. Overall, most common AEs were hematological [16, 57% (pancytopenia n = 8, bicytopenia n = 5 and hemolytic anemia n = 3)] while renal adverse events (n = 7, 25%) constituted the most common indication for permanent discontinuation. Cytopenias developed beyond 12 months of D-penicillamine initiation whereas hemolytic anemia developed within first 3 months. Following D-penicillamine discontinuation in 25 patients, it was reintroduced to initial dose in 13/25 (52%), switched to trientine due to neurological worsening in 2/25 (8%) and switched to zinc in 10/25 (40%). In patients with reintroduction, gradual dose escalation was tolerated in 9/13 (69%) with a recurrence of AEs leading to permanent discontinuation in 4/13 (31%). CONCLUSION: D-penicillamine treatment is associated with significant AEs mainly related to blood, kidney, and skin. Temporary cessation of drug with reintroduction at a lower dose is an effective and safe option.


Assuntos
Degeneração Hepatolenticular , Penicilamina , Quelantes/efeitos adversos , Degeneração Hepatolenticular/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Penicilamina/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trientina , Zinco
5.
JGH Open ; 6(2): 126-131, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35155822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The COVID pandemic and countrywide lockdown has had significant impact on patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), with delay in diagnosis, difficulty in access to healthcare and unavailability of drugs. We conducted a telephonic survey to assess this impact. METHODS: Out of 350, 302 participated in the survey. Demographic data, disease severity at the time of survey, extent of disease, details of therapy, and adherence were noted. A validated questionnaire addressing information source, perception of COVID-19 situation, contact with healthcare, and adherence to standard precautions was administered telephonically. RESULTS: Out of 350 contacted patients, 302 (86.28%) patients participated in the survey. Median age of cohort was 39 years. Ulcerative colitis (UC) constituted 79%, 16% Crohn's disease (CD), and 5% IBD-unclassified. At the time of survey, 86.98% patients with UC were in clinical remission and 75.75% of CD patients were generally well. A total of 115 (38%) cases were nonadherent to therapy due to unavailability of medicines (66.38%), financial constraints (25.21%) and inability to reach healthcare facility (3.6%). Disease flare was seen in 14.2% and correlated well with nonadherence. Existing drug therapy was switched to alternative drug in 70 (23.17%) cases due to unavailability (74%). Social media (52.3%) and television (40.4%) were the common sources of information about the pandemic. Telemedicine platforms (WhatsApp and telephone) were used by 180 (59.6%) patients for consultation with good acceptance (81.6%). 87 (28.8%) patients failed to contact healthcare. Apprehension regarding severe COVID infection was noted in 80% while 29% thought that IBD therapy could increase infection risk. Adherence to wearing mask, hand washing, and social distancing was 100%. CONCLUSION: Pandemic resulted in disruption of healthcare visits and medication supply. Majority were concerned about increased risk of COVID-19 infection and adhered to standard precautions. Mobile phone-based formats for patient care may be an alternative due to patient acceptance and convenience.

6.
Metab Syndr Relat Disord ; 20(3): 166-173, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35085026

RESUMO

Background: Previous data from South Asia and India had shown that patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have mild liver disease severity. There are no data regarding long-term clinical outcomes in patients with NAFLD from South Asia. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinicopathological profile, severity of NAFLD, and clinical outcomes in a large cohort of patients with NAFLD from South Asia. Methods: In an ongoing real-life study [Indian Consortium on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (ICON-D)], interim data captured across 23 centers in India over 18 months was analyzed for clinicopathological profile, severity of NAFLD, and hepatic/extrahepatic events on follow-up. Results: Of 4313 patients (mean age 45 ± 12.2 years, males 52%), data on metabolic risk factors in 3553 (82.3%) patients revealed that 378 (10.6%) were lean, 575 (16.2%) overweight, 2584 (72.7%) obese; metabolic syndrome in 1518 (42.7%) and at least one metabolic risk factor in 3292 (92.6%) patients. Evidence of significant or advanced fibrosis assessed with [aspartate transaminase to platelet ratio index (APRI), n = 3196 (74%)], [fibrosis-4 (FIB-4), n = 3554 (82.4%)], [NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS), n = 1924 (44.6%)], [Fibroscan, n = 2475, (57.3%)], and histology [n = 267 (6.2%)] was present in 682 (21.3%), 676 (19%), 397 (20.6%), 715 (29%), and 41 (15.4%) patients, respectively; 246 (10%) patients on Fibroscan and 22 (8.2%) on histology had evidence of cirrhosis. On a mean follow-up 43.5 months, hepatic and extrahepatic events recorded in 1353 (31.3%) patients showed that patients with compensated cirrhosis [71 (5.2%)] had more hepatic [26 (36.7%)] and extrahepatic events [8 (11.3%)] in comparison with those without cirrhosis (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Around one fifth of patients with NAFLD in South Asia have significant liver disease. Both hepatic and extrahepatic events on follow-up are observed more commonly in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-related compensated cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Adulto , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Biópsia/efeitos adversos , Fibrose , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia
7.
Am J Hematol ; 97(4): 431-439, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35049058

RESUMO

A total of 2%-10% of patients with vascular liver disease (VLD) have paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). Eculizumab reduces complement-mediated haemolytic activity in PNH. This study was aimed at assessing the impact of eculizumab on VLD outcome. Retrospective cohort of PNH patients, in Valdig registry, who had VLD diagnosed between 1997 and 2019 is considered. Eculizumab was the exposure of interest. Studied outcomes were death, venous thrombosis, bleeding, arterial ischemic event, infection, and liver-related complications. We compared survival and new thrombotic events from PNH/VLD cohort to Envie2 non-PNH cohort. Sixty-two patients (33 women), median age 35 years (28-48) and median follow-up VLD diagnosis 4.7 years (1.2-9.5), were included. Clone size was 80% (70-90), median hemoglobin concentration was 10.0 g/dl (8-11), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was 736 IU (482-1744). Forty-two patients (68%) had eculizumab; median exposure time was 40.1 [9.3-72.6] months. Mortality was significantly lower in exposed versus nonexposed period: 2.6 versus 8.7 per 100 (PY), incidence rate ratio (IRR) was 0.29, 95% CI (0.1-0.9), p = .035. Thrombosis recurrence occurred less frequently during the exposure to eculizumab: 0.5 versus 2.8 per 100 PY, IRR 0.22 (0.07-0.64). Other secondary end points (i.e., bleeding, arterial ischemic lesions, infection, and liver complications) were less common during the exposure to eculizumab, although not reaching statistical significance. Six-year thrombosis-free survival was 70%, 95% CI [0.60-0.83] for PNH cohort and 83%, 95% CI [0.70-1.00] for non-PNH Envie 2 patients, (p < .001). In conclusion, patients with PNH and VLD are at higher risk of recurrent thrombosis than non-PNH patients. Eculizumab is significantly associated with a lower mortality and less thrombotic recurrence in patients with PNH and VLD.


Assuntos
Hemoglobinúria Paroxística , Hepatopatias , Trombose , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Feminino , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/complicações , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hepatopatias/complicações , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trombose/complicações
8.
J Viral Hepat ; 29(2): 156-170, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817896

RESUMO

There are limited data to provide better understanding of the knowledge/awareness of general population towards liver health in Asia. We sought to identify the knowledge gaps and attitudes towards liver health and liver diseases as well as evaluate associated individual-level and macro-level factors based on contextual analysis. An online survey assessing knowledge, awareness and attitudes towards liver health and disease was conducted among 7500 respondents across 11 countries/territories in Asia. A liver index was created to measure the respondents' knowledge level and the degree of awareness and attitudes. Multilevel logistic regression was performed to identify individual factors and contextual effects that were associated with liver index. The overall liver index (0-100-point scale) was 62.4 with 6 countries/territories' liver indices greater than this. In the multilevel model, the inclusion of geographical information could explain for 9.6% of the variation. Residing in a country/territory with higher HBV prevalence (80% IOR: 1.20-2.79) or higher HCV death rate (80% IOR: 1.35-3.13) increased the individual probability of obtaining a high overall liver index. Individual factors like age, gender, education, household income, disease history and health screening behaviour were also associated with liver index (all p-values<0.001). The overall liver index was positively associated with the two macro-level factors viz. HBV prevalence and HCV death rate. There is a need to formulate policies especially in regions of lower HBV prevalence and HCV death rate to further improve the knowledge, awareness and attitudes of the general public towards liver diseases.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hepatopatias , Ásia , Humanos , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Transplant Proc ; 53(10): 2923-2928, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biliary complications, especially bile leaks, are an important cause of early postoperative morbidity and, rarely, mortality after liver transplant. The risk is higher in living donor liver transplant (LDLT) compared to deceased donor liver transplant (DDLT). Attempts to reduce bile leaks have included refinements in the biliary anastomosis technique and use of various external and internal stents, with inconsistent benefits. Recent availability and successful use of the absorbable Archimedes stent has prompted its intrabiliary placement across the anastomosis. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we analyzed the data of 20 adult patients who underwent a liver transplant with duct-to-duct biliary anastomosis using the Archimedes stent. Both DDLT and LDLT were performed using cava-preserving hepatectomy followed by standard implantation methods. Duct-to-duct biliary anastomosis was performed in all cases using interrupted sutures with extracorporeal knots over an absorbable intrabiliary stent. In addition to standard postoperative care, patients were monitored for bile leak. RESULTS: Nine DDLTs had a single anastomosis over a 10-Fr stent. Out of 11 LDLT patients, 7 had a single anastomosis and 4 patients had 2 anastomoses, all over a 6-Fr stent. Two patients died, 1 as a result of graft primary nonfunction and another because of multidrug-resistant pneumonia. One patient had ascending cholangitis owing to stent migration in the duodenum. This episode was treated with endoscopic stent removal and appropriate antibiotics, with good recovery. None of the other patients had bile leaks, biloma, or stent-related complications. CONCLUSIONS: Archimedes internal absorbable biliary stents can be safely used in both living and deceased donor liver transplants to prevent bile leaks.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado , Adulto , Bile , Ductos Biliares/cirurgia , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Doadores Vivos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Stents
10.
Hepatol Int ; 15(6): 1376-1388, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a rapidly progressive illness with high short-term mortality. Timely liver transplant (LT) may improve survival. We evaluated various indices for assessment of the severity of liver failure and their application for eligibility and timing of living donor LT (LDLT). METHODS: Altogether 1021 patients were analyzed for the severity and organ failure at admission to determine transplant eligibility and 28 day survival with or without transplant. RESULTS: The ACLF cohort [mean age 44 ± 12.2 years, males 81%) was of sick patients; 55% willing for LT at admission, though 63% of them were ineligible due to sepsis or organ failure. On day 4, recovery in sepsis and/or organ failure led to an improvement in transplant eligibility from 37% at baseline to 63.7%. Delay in LT up to 7 days led to a higher incidence of multiorgan failure (p < 0.01) contributing to 23% of the first week and 55% of all-cause 28-day mortality. In a matched cohort analysis, the actuarial survival with LT (n = 41) and conditional survival in the absence of transplant (n = 191) were comparable, when the condition, i.e., transplant was adjusted. The comparison curve showed differentiation in survival beyond 7 days (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: ACLF is a rapidly progressive disease and risk stratification within the first week of hospitalization is needed. 'Emergent LT' should be defined in the first week in the ACLF patients; the transplant window for improving survival in a live donor setting.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Transplante de Fígado , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Doadores Vivos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 11(5): 557-564, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of macrovesicular steatosis on liver biopsy is the commonest histopathological finding. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the presence of ≥5% macrovesicular steatosis without significant alcohol use. It is subdivided into primary and secondary NAFLD; information on their differences is limited. AIM: To determine the histopathological differences between primary and secondary NAFLD and establish whether the prevalence of advanced fibrosis varies between the two types. METHODOLOGY: Three years of retrospective study of 90 liver biopsies with ≥5% macrovesicular steatosis. Age, gender, clinical history, serum transaminase levels were noted. The biopsy was reviewed for steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Differences between primary and secondary NAFLD for age, gender, AST/ALT ratio, histopathological features were determined. Descriptive statistical analysis, 2-tailed Student's t test, Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test were used, where p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULT: Primary and secondary NAFLD were 42 (46.7%) and 48 (53.3%), respectively. Inflammation was noted in 50 (55.5%) and fibrosis in 31 (34.4%). The prevalence of advanced fibrosis was 24.4%. Primary and secondary NAFLD differed significantly on ballooning degeneration, Mallory Denk bodies (MDBs), glycogenated nuclei, and fibrosis stage (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences among AST/ALT ratio, steatosis, and inflammation grade. CONCLUSION: Primary NAFLD is a more severe type of liver disease. On histopathology, ballooning degeneration, MDBs, glycogenated nuclei, and advanced fibrosis was more prevalent in primary than secondary NAFLD.

12.
Hepatol Int ; 15(3): 531-567, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240318

RESUMO

Budd Chiari syndrome (BCS) is a diverse disease with regard to the site of obstruction, the predisposing thrombophilic disorders and clinical presentation across the Asia-Pacific region. The hepatic vein ostial stenosis and short segment thrombosis are common in some parts of Asia-Pacific region, while membranous obstruction of the vena cava is common in some and complete thrombosis of hepatic veins in others. Prevalence of myeloproliferative neoplasms and other thrombophilic disorders in BCS varies from region to region and with different sites of obstruction. This heterogeneity also raises several issues and dilemmas in evaluation and approach to management of a patient with BCS. The opportunity to recanalize hepatic vein in patients with hepatic vein ostial stenosis or inferior vena cava stenting or pasty among those membranous obstruction of the vena cava is a unique opportunity in the Asia-Pacific region to restore hepatic outflow closely mimicking physiology. In order to address these issues arising out of the diversity as well as the unique features in the region, the Asia Pacific Association for Study of Liver has formulated these guidelines for clinicians.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Budd-Chiari , Síndrome de Budd-Chiari/terapia , Consenso , Veias Hepáticas , Humanos , Veia Cava Inferior
13.
Hepatol Int ; 15(4): 970-982, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the dynamics of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and ammonia estimation in acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) patients due to a paucity of evidence. METHODS: ACLF patients recruited from the APASL-ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) were followed up till 30 days, death or transplantation, whichever earlier. Clinical details, including dynamic grades of HE and laboratory data, including ammonia levels, were serially noted. RESULTS: Of the 3009 ACLF patients, 1315 (43.7%) had HE at presentation; grades I-II in 981 (74.6%) and grades III-IV in 334 (25.4%) patients. The independent predictors of HE at baseline were higher age, systemic inflammatory response, elevated ammonia levels, serum protein, sepsis and MELD score (p < 0.05; each). The progressive course of HE was noted in 10.0% of patients without HE and 8.2% of patients with HE at baseline, respectively. Independent predictors of progressive course of HE were AARC score (≥ 9) and ammonia levels (≥ 85 µmol/L) (p < 0.05; each) at baseline. A final grade of HE was achieved within 7 days in 70% of patients and those with final grades III-IV had the worst survival (8.9%). Ammonia levels were a significant predictor of HE occurrence, higher HE grades and 30-day mortality (p < 0.05; each). The dynamic increase in the ammonia levels over 7 days could predict nonsurvivors and progression of HE (p < 0.05; each). Ammonia, HE grade, SIRS, bilirubin, INR, creatinine, lactate and age were the independent predictors of 30-day mortality in ACLF patients. CONCLUSIONS: HE in ACLF is common and is associated with systemic inflammation, poor liver functions and high disease severity. Ammonia levels are associated with the presence, severity, progression of HE and mortality in ACLF patients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Encefalopatia Hepática , Amônia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
14.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 64(Supplement): S69-S72, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135141

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Incidence of gastric carcinoma and gastric polyps is on rise all over the world. Chronic atrophic gastritis to intestinal metaplasia progressing to adenocarcinoma has been documented pathway for gastric carcinogenesis. Another pathway for gastric carcinoma is adenoma carcinoma sequence similar to colon cancer. AIM: To study prevalence, endoscopic, and histomorphological features of gastric polyps. METHODS AND MATERIAL: This was retrospective analysis of gastric polyps from 2012 to 2019 in consecutive 10,800 upper gastrointestinal endoscopies. Demographic, endoscopic, and histopathological data were obtained from hospital records. All gastric polyps were classified as per standard histologic criteria. Additional histological features noted were presence of dysplasia, focus of adenoma, or malignancy. RESULTS: The prevalence of gastric polyps was 434 (4%) of 10,800 upper gastrointestinal endoscopies. Majority of polyps were found in the last 4 years (277: 63.8%). Mean age was 55.4 years with male to female ratio 1:1.2. Most of the polyps (94.9%) were less than 1 cm, located in gastric antrum. Multiple polyps were seen in 20.9% cases. On histopathology, fundic gland polyps were most common (147: 33.8%), followed by hyperplastic (128: 29.4%) polyps. Adenomatous polyps were nine (2%); of these, two cases of hyperplastic polyps and one each of fundic gland polyp and benign epithelial polyp showed adenomatous foci. CONCLUSION: Fundic gland polyps were the most common polyps. With rising incidence of gastric carcinoma, identification of gastric polyps on endoscopy with biopsy can prevent progression to carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Pólipos Adenomatosos/classificação , Pólipos Adenomatosos/patologia , Técnicas Histológicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Pólipos Intestinais/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/classificação , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Idoso , Biópsia , Endoscopia , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Feminino , Gastrite/complicações , Técnicas Histológicas/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Hepatol Int ; 15(3): 753-765, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple predictive models of mortality exist for acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) patients that often create confusion during decision-making. We studied the natural history and evaluated the performance of prognostic models in ACLF patients. METHODS: Prospectively collected data of ACLF patients from APASL-ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) was analyzed for 30-day outcomes. The models evaluated at days 0, 4, and 7 of presentation for 30-day mortality were: AARC (model and score), CLIF-C (ACLF score, and OF score), NACSELD-ACLF (model and binary), SOFA, APACHE-II, MELD, MELD-Lactate, and CTP. Evaluation parameters were discrimination (c-indices), calibration [accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive/negative predictive values (PPV/NPV)], Akaike/Bayesian Information Criteria (AIC/BIC), Nagelkerke-R2, relative prediction errors, and odds ratios. RESULTS: Thirty-day survival of the cohort (n = 2864) was 64.9% and was lowest for final-AARC-grade-III (32.8%) ACLF. Performance parameters of all models were best at day 7 than at day 4 or day 0 (p < 0.05 for C-indices of all models except NACSELD-ACLF). On comparison, day-7 AARC model had the numerically highest c-index 0.872, best accuracy 84.0%, PPV 87.8%, R2 0.609 and lower prediction errors by 10-50%. Day-7 NACSELD-ACLF-binary was the simple model (minimum AIC/BIC 12/17) with the highest odds (8.859) and sensitivity (100%) but with a lower PPV (70%) for mortality. Patients with day-7 AARC score > 12 had the lowest 30-day survival (5.7%). CONCLUSIONS: APASL-ACLF is often a progressive disease, and models assessed up to day 7 of presentation reliably predict 30-day mortality. Day-7 AARC model is a statistically robust tool for classifying risk of death and accurately predicting 30-day outcomes with relatively lower prediction errors. Day-7 AARC score > 12 may be used as a futility criterion in APASL-ACLF patients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , APACHE , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico
16.
Clin Endosc ; 54(6): 903-908, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pancreatic strictures in chronic pancreatitis are treated using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with plastic stent placement. The management of recalcitrant strictures remains a challenge, with the use of a Soehendra stent retriever or a needle knife described in case reports. Here, we discuss our experience with dilation of dominant pancreatic strictures with a 6-Fr cystotome. METHODS: A retrospective review of an endoscopy database was performed to search for patients with pancreatic strictures recalcitrant to conventional methods of dilation in which a cystotome was used. Technical success was defined as the successful dilation of the stricture with plastic stent placement. Functional success was defined as substantial pain relief or resolution of pancreatic fistulae. RESULTS: Ten patients (mean age, 30.8 years) underwent dilation of a dominant pancreatic stricture secondary to chronic pancreatitis, with a 6-Fr cystotome. Seven patients presented with pain. Three patients had pancreatic fistulae (two had pancreatic ascites and one had a pancreaticopleural fistula). The median stricture length was 10 mm (range, 5-25 mm). The head of the pancreas was the most common location of the stricture (60%). Technical and functional success was achieved in all patients. One patient had self-limiting bleeding, whereas another patient developed mild post-ERCP pancreatitis. CONCLUSION: The use of a 6-Fr cystotome (diathermy catheter) can be an alternative method for dilation of recalcitrant pancreatic strictures after the failure of conventional modalities.

17.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 11(1): 97-143, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33679050

RESUMO

Malnutrition and sarcopenia are common in patients with chronic liver disease and are associated with increased risk of decompensation, infections, wait-list mortality and poorer outcomes after liver transplantation. Assessment of nutritional status and management of malnutrition are therefore essential to improve outcomes in patients with chronic liver disease. This consensus statement of the Indian National Association for Study of the Liver provides a comprehensive review of nutrition in chronic liver disease and gives recommendations for nutritional screening and treatment in specific clinical scenarios of malnutrition in cirrhosis in adults as well as children with chronic liver disease and metabolic disorders.

18.
Liver Int ; 41(1): 150-157, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic risk factors may impact the severity and outcome of alcoholic liver disease. The present study evaluated this effect in patients with alcohol-associated acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). METHODOLOGY: One thousand two hundred and sixteen prospectively enrolled patients with ACLF (males 98%, mean age 42.5 ± 9.4 years, mean CTP, MELD and AARC scores of 12 ± 1.4, 29.7 ± 7 and 9.8 ± 2 respectively) from the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL) ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) database were analysed retrospectively. Patients with or without metabolic risk factors were compared for severity (CTP, MELD, AARC scores) and day 30 and 90 mortality. Information on overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension and dyslipidaemia were available in 1028 (85%), 1019 (84%), 1017 (84%) and 965 (79%) patients respectively. RESULTS: Overall, 392 (32%) patients died at day 30 and 528 (43%) at day 90. Overweight/obesity, T2DM, hypertension and dyslipidaemia were present in 154 (15%), 142 (14%), 66 (7%) and 141 (15%) patients, respectively, with no risk factors in 809 (67%) patients. Patients with overweight/obesity had higher MELD scores (30.6 ± 7.1 vs 29.2 ± 6.9, P = .007) and those with dyslipidaemia had higher AARC scores (10.4 ± 1.2 vs 9.8 ± 2, P = .014). Overweight/obesity was associated with increased day 30 mortality (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.06-2.24, P = .023). None of other metabolic risk factors, alone or in combination, had any impact on disease severity or mortality. On multivariate analysis, overweight or obesity was significantly associated with 30-day mortality (aHR 1.91, 95% CI 1.41-2.59, P < .001), independent of age, CTP, MELD and AARC scores. CONCLUSION: Overweight/obesity and dyslipidaemia increase the severity of alcohol-associated ACLF, and the former also increases the short-term mortality in these patients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/etiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 744505, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35111772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may be at risk of developing portal venous system thrombosis (PVST) with worse outcomes. This study aims to explore the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors of PVST among patients with IBD. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched. All the eligible studies were divided according to the history of colorectal surgery. Only the prevalence of PVST in patients with IBD was pooled if the history of colorectal surgery was unclear. The incidence of PVST in patients with IBD after colorectal surgery was pooled if the history of colorectal surgery was clear. Prevalence, incidence, and risk factors of PVST were pooled by only a random-effects model. Subgroup analyses were performed in patients undergoing imaging examinations. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 36 studies with 143,659 patients with IBD were included. Among the studies where the history of colorectal surgery was unclear, the prevalence of PVST was 0.99, 1.45, and 0.40% in ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's disease (CD), and unclassified IBD, respectively. Among the studies where all the patients underwent colorectal surgery, the incidence of PVST was 6.95, 2.55, and 3.95% in UC, CD, and unclassified IBD after colorectal surgery, respectively. Both the prevalence and incidence of PVST became higher in patients with IBD undergoing imaging examinations. Preoperative corticosteroids therapy (OR = 3.112, 95% CI: 1.017-9.525; p = 0.047) and urgent surgery (OR = 1.799, 95% CI: 1.079-2.998; p = 0.024) are significant risk factors of PVST in patients with IBD after colorectal surgery. The mortality of patients with IBD with PVST after colorectal surgery was 4.31% (34/789). CONCLUSION: PVST is not rare, but potentially lethal in patients with IBD after colorectal surgery. More severe IBD, indicated by preoperative corticosteroids and urgent surgery, is associated with a higher risk of PVST after colorectal surgery. Therefore, screening for PVST by imaging examinations and antithrombotic prophylaxis in high-risk patients should be actively considered. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: Registered on PROSPERO, Identifier: CRD42020159579.

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