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1.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670473

RESUMO

Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are RNA binding proteins, which aid in maturation, stabilization, and transport of mRNA. They have a significant role in cellular nucleic acid metabolism. The hnRNPs alter gene expression and are linked to various neurodegenerative disorders and cancers. Previously, six unrelated girls with developmental delay, intellectual disability, and hypotonia were found to have de novo heterozygous pathogenic missense variants in HNRNPH2, located on the X chromosome. A gain-of-function effect was proposed for the variant and it was thought to be lethal in males as no surviving males were identified. We describe a family with two affected siblings, one male and one female, with a known pathogenic variant in HNRNPH2, possibly due to maternal germline mosaicism.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755234

RESUMO

The phenotypic spectrum of Type 2 collagenopathies ranges from lethal achondrogenesis Type 2 to milder osteoarthritis with mild chondrodysplasia. All of them are monoallelic except for the two recent reports showing that biallelic variants in COL2A1 can cause spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita in two children. Here we report two additional families with homozygous variants, c.4135C>T (p.Arg1379Cys) and c.3190C>T (p.Arg1133Cys) in COL2A1 resulting in two distinct skeletal dysplasia phenotypes of intermediate severity. Though all six patients from four families exhibit a spondylo-epimetaphyseal dysplasia, they demonstrate a wide variation in severity of short stature and involvement of epiphyses, metaphyses, and vertebrae. We hypothesize that the variants are likely to be hypomorphic, given the underlying mechanisms of disease causation for known heterozygous variants in COL2A1. With this report, we provide further evidence to the existence of autosomal recessive Type 2 collagenopathy.

3.
J Hum Genet ; 64(12): 1237-1242, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591492

RESUMO

VAC14-related disorders include two distinct phenotypes, striatonigral degeneration [MIM# 617054] and Yunis-Varon syndrome. Striatonigral degeneration is a recently described childhood onset dystonia caused by pathogenic variants in VAC14. It is characterized by a period of apparent normalcy followed by abrupt onset neuroregression, dystonia, involuntary movements and degenerative brain lesions involving caudate nucleus, putamen and substantia nigra. Yunis-Varon syndrome is a well described severe condition characterised by skeletal findings and dysmorphism along with neuronal degeneration. Pathogenic variants in FIG4 have been previously reported to cause Yunis-Varon syndrome. Recently, loss of function variants in VAC14 were also reported in an individual affected with Yunis-Varon syndrome. Total seven individuals from four families are reported to have VAC14-related disorders till date. Here, we report another individual with clinical and radiological features suggestive of striatonigral degeneration with homozygous missense variant in VAC14. The patient fibroblasts showed extensive vacuolization, characteristic of VAC14-related disorders. We also review the phenotype and genotype associated with these disorders.

4.
J Hum Genet ; 64(12): 1173-1186, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530938

RESUMO

Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS, MIM#135900) is a congenital disorder characterized by coarse facial features, intellectual disability, and hypoplasia of the fifth digit and nails. Pathogenic variants for CSS have been found in genes encoding proteins in the BAF (BRG1-associated factor) chromatin-remodeling complex. To date, more than 150 CSS patients with pathogenic variants in nine BAF-related genes have been reported. We previously reported 71 patients of whom 39 had pathogenic variants. Since then, we have recruited an additional 182 CSS-suspected patients. We performed comprehensive genetic analysis on these 182 patients and on the previously unresolved 32 patients, targeting pathogenic single nucleotide variants, short insertions/deletions and copy number variations (CNVs). We confirmed 78 pathogenic variations in 78 patients. Pathogenic variations in ARID1B, SMARCB1, SMARCA4, ARID1A, SOX11, SMARCE1, and PHF6 were identified in 48, 8, 7, 6, 4, 1, and 1 patients, respectively. In addition, we found three CNVs including SMARCA2. Of particular note, we found a partial deletion of SMARCB1 in one CSS patient and we thoroughly investigated the resulting abnormal transcripts.

5.
Clin Genet ; 96(6): 560-565, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411728

RESUMO

Meckel syndrome (MKS) is a perinatally lethal, genetically heterogeneous, autosomal recessive condition caused by defective primary cilium formation leading to polydactyly, multiple cysts in kidneys and malformations of nervous system. We performed exome sequencing in six fetuses from six unrelated families with MKS. We identified seven novel variants in B9D2, TNXDC15, CC2D2A, CEP290 and TMEM67. We describe the second family with MKS due to a homozygous variant in B9D2 and fifth family with bi-allelic variant in TXNDC15. Our data validates the causation of MKS by pathogenic variation in B9D2 and TXNDC15 and also adds novel variants in CC2D2A, CEP290 and TMEM67 to the literature.

7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(9): 1709-1717, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250547

RESUMO

Cartilage hair hypoplasia (CHH), anauxetic dysplasia 1, and anauxetic dysplasia 2 are rare metaphyseal dysplasias caused by biallelic pathogenic variants in RMRP and POP1, which encode the components of RNAse-MRP endoribonuclease complex (RMRP) in ribosomal biogenesis pathway. Nucleolus and neural progenitor protein (NEPRO), encoded by NEPRO (C3orf17), is known to interact with multiple protein subunits of RMRP. We ascertained a 6-year-old girl with skeletal dysplasia and some features of CHH. RMRP and POP1 did not harbor any causative variant in the proband. Parents-child trio exomes revealed a candidate biallelic variant, c.435G>C, p.(Leu145Phe) in NEPRO. Two families with four affected individuals with skeletal dysplasia and a homozygous missense variant, c.280C>T, p.(Arg94Cys) in NEPRO, were identified from literature and their published phenotype was compared in detail to the phenotype of the child we described. All the five affected individuals have severe short stature, brachydactyly, skin laxity, joint hypermobility, and joint dislocations. They also have short metacarpals, broad middle phalanges, and metaphyseal irregularities. Protein modeling and stability prediction showed that the mutant protein has decreased stability. Both the reported variants are in the same domain of the protein. Our report delineates the clinical and radiological characteristics of an emerging ribosomopathy caused by biallelic variants in NEPRO.

8.
Clin Dysmorphol ; 28(4): 190-194, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205050

RESUMO

GATA zinc finger domain-containing 2B (GATAD2B) encodes p66beta, a subunit of transcription repressor complex methyl-CpG-binding protein-1 histone deacetylase complex/nucleosome remodelling and deacetylase, and mediates gene silencing. Pathogenic variants in GATAD2B are known to cause mental retardation, autosomal dominant 18, characterized by intellectual disability, limited speech development, generalized hypotonia and dysmorphism. Till date, 17 cases of GATAD2B-related intellectual disability, resulting either from loss-of-function variants in GATAD2B or microdeletions spanning GATAD2B, have been reported. Singleton exome sequencing was performed for index patient. The pathogenic variant identified was validated and segregation analysis was performed by Sanger sequencing. In this study, we report on an additional subject with GATAD2B-related intellectual disability identified through whole exome sequencing. The clinically unaffected father harboured the pathogenic variant in a mosaic state. We review the existing phenotypic and genotypic information for the individuals with this condition. GATAD2B-related intellectual disability is a rare condition with subtle yet recognizable clinical features. In this article, we highlight a consistent clinical profile of subjects with GATAD2B-related intellectual disability.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 132-150, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230720

RESUMO

Arthrogryposis is a clinical finding that is present either as a feature of a neuromuscular condition or as part of a systemic disease in over 400 Mendelian conditions. The underlying molecular etiology remains largely unknown because of genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. We applied exome sequencing (ES) in a cohort of 89 families with the clinical sign of arthrogryposis. Additional molecular techniques including array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) were performed on individuals who were found to have pathogenic copy number variants (CNVs) and mosaicism, respectively. A molecular diagnosis was established in 65.2% (58/89) of families. Eleven out of 58 families (19.0%) showed evidence for potential involvement of pathogenic variation at more than one locus, probably driven by absence of heterozygosity (AOH) burden due to identity-by-descent (IBD). RYR3, MYOM2, ERGIC1, SPTBN4, and ABCA7 represent genes, identified in two or more families, for which mutations are probably causative for arthrogryposis. We also provide evidence for the involvement of CNVs in the etiology of arthrogryposis and for the idea that both mono-allelic and bi-allelic variants in the same gene cause either similar or distinct syndromes. We were able to identify the molecular etiology in nine out of 20 families who underwent reanalysis. In summary, our data from family-based ES further delineate the molecular etiology of arthrogryposis, yielded several candidate disease-associated genes, and provide evidence for mutational burden in a biological pathway or network. Our study also highlights the importance of reanalysis of individuals with unsolved diagnoses in conjunction with sequencing extended family members.

10.
Eur J Med Genet ; 62(8): 103708, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247379

RESUMO

Ribose 5-phosphate isomerase deficiency is a rare genetic leukoencephalopathy caused by pathogenic sequence variants in RPIA, that encodes ribose 5-phosphate isomerase, an enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway. Till date, only three individuals with ribose 5-phosphate isomerase deficiency have been described in literature. We report on a subject with RPIA associated progressive leukoencephalopathy with elevated urine arabitol and ribitol levels and a novel missense variant c.770T > C p.(Ile257Thr) in exon 8 of RPIA. We also compare the phenotypes of all the four subjects. Our report confirms the phenotype and the genetic cause of this condition.

11.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(16): 2720-2737, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042281

RESUMO

Mutations in genes encoding components of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) complexes have previously been associated with a spectrum of diseases collectively termed ciliopathies. Ciliopathies relate to defects in the formation or function of the cilium, a sensory or motile organelle present on the surface of most cell types. IFT52 is a key component of the IFT-B complex and ensures the interaction of the two subcomplexes, IFT-B1 and IFT-B2. Here, we report novel IFT52 biallelic mutations in cases with a short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) or a congenital anomaly of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). Combining in vitro and in vivo studies in zebrafish, we showed that SRTD-associated missense mutation impairs IFT-B complex assembly and IFT-B2 ciliary localization, resulting in decreased cilia length. In comparison, CAKUT-associated missense mutation has a mild pathogenicity, thus explaining the lack of skeletal defects in CAKUT case. In parallel, we demonstrated that the previously reported homozygous nonsense IFT52 mutation associated with Sensenbrenner syndrome [Girisha et al. (2016) A homozygous nonsense variant in IFT52 is associated with a human skeletal ciliopathy. Clin. Genet., 90, 536-539] leads to exon skipping and results in a partially functional protein. Finally, our work uncovered a novel role for IFT52 in microtubule network regulation. We showed that IFT52 interacts and partially co-localized with centrin at the distal end of centrioles where it is involved in its recruitment and/or maintenance. Alteration of this function likely contributes to centriole splitting observed in Ift52-/- cells. Altogether, our findings allow a better comprehensive genotype-phenotype correlation among IFT52-related cases and revealed a novel, extra-ciliary role for IFT52, i.e. disruption may contribute to pathophysiological mechanisms.

13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(5): 870-874, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941876

RESUMO

BCORL1, a transcriptional corepressor, is involved in negative gene regulation through associations with several protein complexes including Class II histone deacetylases (HDACs). Acquired somatic mutations in BCORL1 have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several malignancies, but germline mutations of BCORL1 have not been associated with a specific genetic syndrome. We report five individuals from three pedigrees with phenotypes including intellectual disability, behavioral difficulties, and dysmorphic features who were found via whole exome sequencing to have variants in BCORL1. In silico analysis of these variants strongly suggests pathogenicity. We propose that hemizygous pathogenic variants in BCORL1 underlie a newly identified X-linked epigenetic syndrome.

14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(5): 857-861, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816001

RESUMO

ITPA related epileptic encephalopathy (epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 35) is a rare inborn error of metabolism. All reported individuals with this condition, including the present case manifest global developmental delay, seizures, progressive postnatal microcephaly, hypotonia, thin corpus callosum, cerebral atrophy, delayed myelination and white matter changes in posterior limb of internal capsule. Cataract and dilated cardiomyopathy are other characteristic findings. Currently, a single publication describes this condition in four families. Three truncating and two missense variants in ITPA have been identified in these families. We hereby report another family with ITPA related disorder and review the genotype and phenotype of the reported subjects.

15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(3): 439-453, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773278

RESUMO

SPONASTRIME dysplasia is a rare, recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by short stature, facial dysmorphism, and aberrant radiographic findings of the spine and long bone metaphysis. No causative genetic alterations for SPONASTRIME dysplasia have yet been determined. Using whole-exome sequencing (WES), we identified bi-allelic TONSL mutations in 10 of 13 individuals with SPONASTRIME dysplasia. TONSL is a multi-domain scaffold protein that interacts with DNA replication and repair factors and which plays critical roles in resistance to replication stress and the maintenance of genome integrity. We show here that cellular defects in dermal fibroblasts from affected individuals are complemented by the expression of wild-type TONSL. In addition, in vitro cell-based assays and in silico analyses of TONSL structure support the pathogenicity of those TONSL variants. Intriguingly, a knock-in (KI) Tonsl mouse model leads to embryonic lethality, implying the physiological importance of TONSL. Overall, these findings indicate that genetic variants resulting in reduced function of TONSL cause SPONASTRIME dysplasia and highlight the importance of TONSL in embryonic development and postnatal growth.

16.
BMC Med Genet ; 20(1): 31, 2019 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30764785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gaucher disease is a rare pan-ethnic, lysosomal storage disorder resulting due to beta-Glucosidase (GBA1) gene defect. This leads to the glucocerebrosidase enzyme deficiency and an increased accumulation of undegraded glycolipid glucocerebroside inside the cells' lysosomes. To date, nearly 460 mutations have been described in the GBA1 gene. With the aim to determine mutations spectrum and molecular pathology of Gaucher disease in India, the present study investigated one hundred unrelated patients (age range: 1 day to 31 years) having splenomegaly, with or without hepatomegaly, cytopenia and bone abnormality in some of the patients. METHODS: The biochemical investigation for the plasma chitotriosidase enzyme activity and ß-Glucosidase enzyme activity confirmed the Gaucher disease. The mutations were identified by screening the patients' whole GBA gene coding region using bidirectional Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: The biochemical analysis revealed a significant reduction in the ß-Glucosidase activity in all patients. Sanger sequencing established 71 patients with homozygous mutation and 22 patients with compound heterozygous mutation in GBA1 gene. Lack of identification of mutations in three patients suggests the possibility of either large deletion/duplication or deep intronic variations in the GBA1 gene. In four cases, where the proband died due to confirmed Gaucher disease, the parents were found to be a carrier. Overall, the study identified 33 mutations in 100 patients that also covers four missense mutations (p.Ser136Leu, p.Leu279Val, p.Gly383Asp, p.Gly399Arg) not previously reported in Gaucher disease patients. The mutation p.Leu483Pro was identified as the most commonly occurring Gaucher disease mutation in the study (62% patients). The second common mutations identified were p.Arg535Cys (7% patients) and RecNcil (7% patients). Another complex mutation Complex C was identified in a compound heterozygous status (3% patients). The homology modeling of the novel mutations suggested the destabilization of the GBA protein structure due to conformational changes. CONCLUSIONS: The study reports four novel and 29 known mutations identified in the GBA1 gene in one-hundred Gaucher patients. The given study establishes p.Leu483Pro as the most prevalent mutation in the Indian patients with type 1 Gaucher disease that provide new insight into the molecular basis of Gaucher Disease in India.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Doença de Gaucher/genética , Glucosilceramidase/genética , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Éxons , Feminino , Doença de Gaucher/metabolismo , Glucosilceramidase/química , Glucosilceramidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Homologia Estrutural de Proteína , Adulto Jovem
17.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(2): 150-158, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614194

RESUMO

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a dominant multisystemic malformation syndrome due to mutations in five genes-NIPBL, SMC1A, HDAC8, SMC3, and RAD21. The characteristic facial dysmorphisms include microcephaly, arched eyebrows, synophrys, short nose with depressed bridge and anteverted nares, long philtrum, thin lips, micrognathia, and hypertrichosis. Most affected individuals have intellectual disability, growth deficiency, and upper limb anomalies. This study looked at individuals from diverse populations with both clinical and molecularly confirmed diagnoses of CdLS by facial analysis technology. Clinical data and images from 246 individuals with CdLS were obtained from 15 countries. This cohort included 49% female patients and ages ranged from infancy to 37 years. Individuals were grouped into ancestry categories of African descent, Asian, Latin American, Middle Eastern, and Caucasian. Across these populations, 14 features showed a statistically significant difference. The most common facial features found in all ancestry groups included synophrys, short nose with anteverted nares, and a long philtrum with thin vermillion of the upper lip. Using facial analysis technology we compared 246 individuals with CdLS to 246 gender/age matched controls and found that sensitivity was equal or greater than 95% for all groups. Specificity was equal or greater than 91%. In conclusion, we present consistent clinical findings from global populations with CdLS while demonstrating how facial analysis technology can be a tool to support accurate diagnoses in the clinical setting. This work, along with prior studies in this arena, will assist in earlier detection, recognition, and treatment of CdLS worldwide.

18.
Brain ; 142(1): 50-58, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576410

RESUMO

Physical stress, including high temperatures, may damage the central metabolic nicotinamide nucleotide cofactors [NAD(P)H], generating toxic derivatives [NAD(P)HX]. The highly conserved enzyme NAD(P)HX dehydratase (NAXD) is essential for intracellular repair of NAD(P)HX. Here we present a series of infants and children who suffered episodes of febrile illness-induced neurodegeneration or cardiac failure and early death. Whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing identified recessive NAXD variants in each case. Variants were predicted to be potentially deleterious through in silico analysis. Reverse-transcription PCR confirmed altered splicing in one case. Subject fibroblasts showed highly elevated concentrations of the damaged cofactors S-NADHX, R-NADHX and cyclic NADHX. NADHX accumulation was abrogated by lentiviral transduction of subject cells with wild-type NAXD. Subject fibroblasts and muscle biopsies showed impaired mitochondrial function, higher sensitivity to metabolic stress in media containing galactose and azide, but not glucose, and decreased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. Recombinant NAXD protein harbouring two missense variants leading to the amino acid changes p.(Gly63Ser) and p.(Arg608Cys) were thermolabile and showed a decrease in Vmax and increase in KM for the ATP-dependent NADHX dehydratase activity. This is the first study to identify pathogenic variants in NAXD and to link deficient NADHX repair with mitochondrial dysfunction. The results show that NAXD deficiency can be classified as a metabolite repair disorder in which accumulation of damaged metabolites likely triggers devastating effects in tissues such as the brain and the heart, eventually leading to early childhood death.


Assuntos
Hidroliases/deficiência , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Pré-Escolar , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Febre/complicações , Febre/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Vetores Genéticos , Humanos , Hidroliases/genética , Lactente , Cinética , Lentivirus , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mutação , NAD/análogos & derivados , NAD/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/complicações , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
19.
Clin Dysmorphol ; 28(1): 17-21, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303820

RESUMO

Glycogen storage disease IV (GSD IV), caused by a defect in GBE1, is a clinically heterogeneous disorder. A classical hepatic form and a neuromuscular form have been described. The severe neuromuscular form presents as a fetal akinesia deformation sequence or a congenital subtype. We ascertained three unrelated families with fetuses/neonates who presented with fetal akinesia deformation sequence to our clinic for genetic counseling. We performed a detailed clinical evaluation, exome sequencing, and histopathology examination of two fetuses and two neonates from three unrelated families presenting with these perinatally lethal neuromuscular forms of GSD IV. Exome sequencing in the affected fetuses/neonates identified four novel pathogenic variants (c.1459G>T, c.144-1G>A, c.1680C>G, and c.1843G>C) in GBE1 (NM_000158). Histopathology examination of tissues from the affected fetuses/neonate was consistent with the diagnosis. Here, we add three more families with the severe perinatally lethal neuromuscular forms of GSD IV to the GBE1 mutation spectrum.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/enzimologia , Artrogripose/genética , Sistema da Enzima Desramificadora do Glicogênio/genética , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo IV/enzimologia , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo IV/genética , Mutação/genética , Doenças Neuromusculares/enzimologia , Doenças Neuromusculares/genética , Artrogripose/patologia , Sequência de Bases , Feminino , Feto/patologia , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo IV/patologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Doenças Neuromusculares/patologia , Linhagem
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(6): 948-967, 2018 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526868

RESUMO

Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous conditions due to defects in genes involved in development and function of the nervous system. Individuals with NDD, in addition to their primary neurodevelopmental phenotype, may also have accompanying syndromic features that can be very helpful diagnostically especially those with recognizable facial appearance. In this study, we describe ten similarly affected individuals from six unrelated families of different ethnic origins having bi-allelic truncating variants in TMEM94, which encodes for an uncharacterized transmembrane nuclear protein that is highly conserved across mammals. The affected individuals manifested with global developmental delay/intellectual disability, and dysmorphic facial features including triangular face, deep set eyes, broad nasal root and tip and anteverted nostrils, thick arched eye brows, hypertrichosis, pointed chin, and hypertelorism. Birthweight in the upper normal range was observed in most, and all but one had congenital heart defects (CHD). Gene expression analysis in available cells from affected individuals showed reduced expression of TMEM94. Global transcriptome profiling using microarray and RNA sequencing revealed several dysregulated genes essential for cell growth, proliferation and survival that are predicted to have an impact on cardiotoxicity hematological system and neurodevelopment. Loss of Tmem94 in mouse model generated by CRISPR/Cas9 was embryonic lethal and led to craniofacial and cardiac abnormalities and abnormal neuronal migration pattern, suggesting that this gene is important in craniofacial, cardiovascular, and nervous system development. Our study suggests the genetic etiology of a recognizable dysmorphic syndrome with NDD and CHD and highlights the role of TMEM94 in early development.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertelorismo/genética , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Fenótipo , Transcriptoma/genética
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