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1.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; : 1-12, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401630

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pathologic accumulation and activation of mast cells and eosinophils are implicated in allergic and inflammatory diseases. Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec)-8 is an inhibitory receptor selectively expressed on mast cells, eosinophils and, at a lower extent, basophils. When engaged with an antibody, Siglec-8 can induce apoptosis of activated eosinophils and inhibit mast cell activation. AK002 is a humanized, non-fucosylated IgG1 anti-Siglec-8 antibody undergoing clinical investigation for treatment of allergic, inflammatory, and proliferative diseases. Here we examine the human tissue selectivity of AK002 and evaluate the in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo activity of AK002 on eosinophils and mast cells. METHODS: The affinity of AK002 for Siglec-8 and CD16 was determined by biolayer interferometry. Ex vivo activity of AK002 on human eosinophils from blood and dissociated human tissue was tested in apoptosis and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays. The in vivo activity of a murine precursor of AK002 (mAK002) was tested in a passive systemic anaphylaxis (PSA) humanized mouse model. RESULTS: AK002 bound selectively to mast cells, eosinophils and, at a lower level, to basophils in human blood and tissue and not to other cell types examined. AK002 induced apoptosis of interleukin-5-activated blood eosinophils and demonstrated potent ADCC activity against blood eosinophils in the presence of natural killer cells. AK002 also significantly reduced eosinophils in dissociated human lung tissue. Furthermore, mAK002 prevented PSA in humanized mice through mast cell inhibition. CONCLUSION: AK002 selectively evokes potent apoptotic and ADCC activity against eosinophils and prevents systemic anaphylaxis through mast cell inhibition.

2.
Cell Host Microbe ; 26(3): 426-434.e6, 2019 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447308

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi causes typhoid fever only in humans. Murine infection with S. Typhimurium is used as a typhoid model, but its relevance to human typhoid is limited. Non-obese diabetic-scid IL2rγnull mice engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells (hu-SRC-SCID) are susceptible to lethal S. Typhi infection. In this study, we use a high-density S. Typhi transposon library in hu-SRC-SCID mice to identify virulence loci using transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS). Vi capsule, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and aromatic amino acid biosynthesis were essential for virulence, along with the siderophore salmochelin. However, in contrast to the murine S. Typhimurium model, neither the PhoPQ two-component system nor the SPI-2 pathogenicity island was required for lethal S. Typhi infection, nor was the CdtB typhoid toxin. These observations highlight major differences in the pathogenesis of typhoid and non-typhoidal Salmonella infections and demonstrate the utility of humanized mice for understanding the pathogenesis of a human-specific pathogen.

5.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 131, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113486

RESUMO

Tumor immunology has changed the landscape of cancer treatment. Yet, not all patients benefit as cancer immune responsiveness (CIR) remains a limitation in a considerable proportion of cases. The multifactorial determinants of CIR include the genetic makeup of the patient, the genomic instability central to cancer development, the evolutionary emergence of cancer phenotypes under the influence of immune editing, and external modifiers such as demographics, environment, treatment potency, co-morbidities and cancer-independent alterations including immune homeostasis and polymorphisms in the major and minor histocompatibility molecules, cytokines, and chemokines. Based on the premise that cancer is fundamentally a disorder of the genes arising within a cell biologic process, whose deviations from normality determine the rules of engagement with the host's response, the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) convened a task force of experts from various disciplines including, immunology, oncology, biophysics, structural biology, molecular and cellular biology, genetics, and bioinformatics to address the complexity of CIR from a holistic view. The task force was launched by a workshop held in San Francisco on May 14-15, 2018 aimed at two preeminent goals: 1) to identify the fundamental questions related to CIR and 2) to create an interactive community of experts that could guide scientific and research priorities by forming a logical progression supported by multiple perspectives to uncover mechanisms of CIR. This workshop was a first step toward a second meeting where the focus would be to address the actionability of some of the questions identified by working groups. In this event, five working groups aimed at defining a path to test hypotheses according to their relevance to human cancer and identifying experimental models closest to human biology, which include: 1) Germline-Genetic, 2) Somatic-Genetic and 3) Genomic-Transcriptional contributions to CIR, 4) Determinant(s) of Immunogenic Cell Death that modulate CIR, and 5) Experimental Models that best represent CIR and its conversion to an immune responsive state. This manuscript summarizes the contributions from each group and should be considered as a first milestone in the path toward a more contemporary understanding of CIR. We appreciate that this effort is far from comprehensive and that other relevant aspects related to CIR such as the microbiome, the individual's recombined T cell and B cell receptors, and the metabolic status of cancer and immune cells were not fully included. These and other important factors will be included in future activities of the taskforce. The taskforce will focus on prioritization and specific actionable approach to answer the identified questions and implementing the collaborations in the follow-up workshop, which will be held in Houston on September 4-5, 2019.

6.
Life Sci Alliance ; 2(2)2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936185

RESUMO

The immune system encompasses acquired and innate immunity that matures through interaction with microenvironmental components. Cytokines serve as environmental factors that foster functional maturation of immune cells. Although NOD/SCID/IL2rgKO (NSG) humanized mice support investigation of human immunity in vivo, a species barrier between human immune cells and the mouse microenvironment limits human acquired as well as innate immune function. To study the roles of human cytokines in human acquired and innate immune cell development, we created NSG mice expressing hIL-7 and hIL-15. Although hIL-7 alone was not sufficient for supporting human NK cell development in vivo, increased frequencies of human NK cells were confirmed in multiple organs of hIL-7 and hIL-15 double knockin (hIL-7xhIL-15 KI) NSG mice engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells. hIL-7xhIL-15 KI NSG humanized mice provide a valuable in vivo model to investigate development and function of human NK cells.

7.
Pharmacol Ther ; 200: 42-54, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998940

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent tissue stem cells that differentiate into a number of mesodermal tissue types, including osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and myofibroblasts. MSCs were originally identified in the bone marrow (BM) of humans and other mammals, but recent studies have shown that they are multilineage progenitors in various adult organs and tissues. MSCs that localize at perivascular sites function to rapidly respond to external stimuli and coordinate with the vascular and immune systems to accomplish the wound healing process. Cancer, considered as wounds that never heal, is also accompanied by changes in MSCs that parallels the wound healing response. MSCs are now recognized as key players at distinct steps of tumorigenesis. In this review, we provide an overview of the function of MSCs in wound healing and cancer progression with the goal of providing insight into the development of novel MSC-manipulating strategies for clinical cancer treatment.

8.
Mamm Genome ; 30(5-6): 123-142, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847553

RESUMO

With the increase in knowledge resulting from the sequencing of the human genome, the genetic basis for the underlying differences in individuals, their diseases, and how they respond to therapies is starting to be understood. This has formed the foundation for the era of precision medicine in many human diseases that is beginning to be implemented in the clinic, particularly in cancer. However, preclinical testing of therapeutic approaches based on individual biology will need to be validated in animal models prior to translation into patients. Although animal models, particularly murine models, have provided significant information on the basic biology underlying immune responses in various diseases and the response to therapy, murine and human immune systems differ markedly. These fundamental differences may be the underlying reason why many of the positive therapeutic responses observed in mice have not translated directly into the clinic. There is a critical need for preclinical animal models in which human immune responses can be investigated. For this, many investigators are using humanized mice, i.e., immunodeficient mice engrafted with functional human cells, tissues, and immune systems. We will briefly review the history of humanized mice, the remaining limitations, approaches to overcome them and how humanized mouse models are being used as a preclinical bridge in precision medicine for evaluation of human therapies prior to their implementation in the clinic.

9.
EBioMedicine ; 41: 584-596, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Graft-versus host disease (GVHD) is a complication of stem cell transplantation associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Non-specific immune-suppression, the mainstay of treatment, may result in immune-surveillance dysfunction and disease recurrence. METHODS: We created humanised mice model for chronic GVHD (cGVHD) by injecting cord blood (CB)-derived human CD34+CD38-CD45RA- haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) into hIL-6 transgenic NOD/SCID/Il2rgKO (NSG) newborns, and compared GVHD progression with NSG newborns receiving CB CD34- cells mimicking acute GVHD. We characterised human immune cell subsets, target organ infiltration, T-cell repertoire (TCR) and transcriptome in the humanised mice. FINDINGS: In cGVHD humanised mice, we found activation of T cells in the spleen, lung, liver, and skin, activation of macrophages in lung and liver, and loss of appendages in skin, obstruction of bronchioles in lung and portal fibrosis in liver recapitulating cGVHD. Acute GVHD humanised mice showed activation of T cells with skewed TCR repertoire without significant macrophage activation. INTERPRETATION: Using humanised mouse models, we demonstrated distinct immune mechanisms contributing acute and chronic GVHD. In cGVHD model, co-activation of human HSPC-derived macrophages and T cells educated in the recipient thymus contributed to delayed onset, multi-organ disease. In acute GVHD model, mature human T cells contained in the graft resulted in rapid disease progression. These humanised mouse models may facilitate future development of new molecular medicine targeting GVHD.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Macrófagos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Doença Aguda , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Doença Crônica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/mortalidade , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina/deficiência , Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina/genética , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Camundongos Transgênicos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
10.
J Immunol ; 202(3): 799-804, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593536

RESUMO

Broadly neutralizing, anti-HIV-1 gp120 mAbs have been isolated from infected individuals, and there is considerable interest in developing these reagents for Ab-based immunoprophylaxis and treatment. As a means to identify potentially new anti-HIV Abs, we exploited humanized NOD-scid IL2rγnull mice systemically infected with HIV-1 to generate a wide variety of Ag-specific human mAbs. The Abs were encoded by a diverse range of variable gene families and Ig classes, including IgA, and several showed significant levels of somatic mutation. Moreover, the isolated Abs not only bound target Ags with similar affinity as broadly neutralizing Abs, they also demonstrated neutralizing ability against multiple HIV-1 clades. The use of humanized mice will allow us to use our knowledge of HIV-1 gp120 structure and function, and the immune response targeting this protein, to generate native human prophylactic Abs to reduce the infection and spread of HIV-1.

11.
EBioMedicine ; 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nanomedicine offers an excellent opportunity to tackle treatment-refractory malignancies by enhancing the delivery of therapeutics to the tumor site. High endothelial venules (HEVs) are found primarily in lymph nodes or formed de novo in peripheral tissues during inflammatory responses. They express peripheral node addressin (PNAd), which is recognized by the monoclonal antibody MECA79. METHODS: Here, we demonstrated that HEVs form de novo in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We engineered MECA79 coated nanoparticles (MECA79-NPs) that recognize these ectopic HEVs in PDAC. FINDINGS: The trafficking of MECA79-NPs following intravenous delivery to human PDAC implanted in a humanized mouse model was more robust than non-conjugated NPs. Treatment with MECA79-Taxol-NPs augmented the delivery of Paclitaxel (Taxol) to the tumor site and significantly reduced the tumor size. This effect was associated with a higher apoptosis rate of PDAC cells and reduced vascularization within the tumor. INTERPRETATION: Targeting the HEVs of PDAC using MECA79-NPs could lay the ground for the localized delivery of a wide variety of drugs including chemotherapeutic agents. FUND: National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants: T32-EB016652 (B·B.), NIH Cancer Core Grant CA034194 (L.D.S.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases grants R01-AI126596 and R01-HL141815 (R.A.).

12.
FASEB J ; : fj201800636R, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383447

RESUMO

Immunodeficient mice engrafted with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) support preclinical studies of human pathogens, allograft rejection, and human T-cell function. However, a major limitation of PBMC engraftment is development of acute xenogeneic graft- versus-host disease (GVHD) due to human T-cell recognition of murine major histocompatibility complex (MHC). To address this, we created 2 NOD- scid IL-2 receptor subunit γ ( IL2rg) null (NSG) strains that lack murine MHC class I and II [NSG-ß-2-microglobulin ( B2M) null ( IA IE)null and NSG -( Kb Db) null ( IAnull)]. We observed rapid human IgG clearance in NSG- B2Mnull ( IA IE) null mice whereas clearance in NSG -( Kb Db) null ( IAnull) mice and NSG mice was comparable. Injection of human PBMCs into both strains enabled long-term engraftment of human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells without acute GVHD. Engrafted human T-cell function was documented by rejection of human islet allografts. Administration of human IL-2 to NSG -( Kb Db) null ( IAnull) mice via adeno-associated virus vector increased human CD45+ cell engraftment, including an increase in human regulatory T cells. However, high IL-2 levels also induced the development of GVHD. These data document that NSG mice deficient in murine MHC support studies of human immunity in the absence of acute GVHD and enable evaluation of human antibody therapeutics targeting human T cells.-Brehm, M. A., Kenney, L. L., Wiles, M. V., Low, B. E., Tisch, R. M., Burzenski, L., Mueller, C., Greiner, D. L., Shultz, L. D. Lack of acute xenogeneic graft- versus-host disease, but retention of T-cell function following engraftment of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in NSG mice deficient in MHC class I and II expression.

13.
Cell Metab ; 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449685

RESUMO

Identification of cell-surface markers specific to human pancreatic ß cells would allow in vivo analysis and imaging. Here we introduce a biomarker, ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-3 (NTPDase3), that is expressed on the cell surface of essentially all adult human ß cells, including those from individuals with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. NTPDase3 is expressed dynamically during postnatal human pancreas development, appearing first in acinar cells at birth, but several months later its expression declines in acinar cells while concurrently emerging in islet ß cells. Given its specificity and membrane localization, we utilized an NTPDase3 antibody for purification of live human ß cells as confirmed by transcriptional profiling, and, in addition, for in vivo imaging of transplanted human ß cells. Thus, NTPDase3 is a cell-surface biomarker of adult human ß cells, and the antibody directed to this protein should be a useful new reagent for ß cell sorting, in vivo imaging, and targeting.

14.
Front Genet ; 9: 233, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30022999

RESUMO

Tylosis with esophageal cancer syndrome (TOC) is a rare autosomal dominant proliferative skin disease caused by missense mutations in the rhomboid 5 homolog 2 (RHBDF2) gene. TOC is characterized by thickening of the skin in the palms and feet and is strongly linked with the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Murine models of human diseases have been valuable tools for investigating the underlying genetic and molecular mechanisms of a broad range of diseases. Although current mouse models do not fully recapitulate all aspects of human TOC, and the molecular mechanisms underlying TOC are still emerging, the available mouse models exhibit several key aspects of the disease, including a proliferative skin phenotype, a rapid wound healing phenotype, susceptibility to epithelial cancer, and aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Furthermore, we and other investigators have used these models to generate new insights into the causes and progression of TOC, including findings suggesting a tissue-specific role of the RHBDF2-EGFR pathway, rather than a role of the immune system, in mediating TOC; and indicating that amphiregulin, an EGFR ligand, is a functional driver of the disease. This review highlights the mouse models of TOC available to researchers for use in investigating the disease mechanisms and possible therapies, and the significance of genetic modifiers of the disease identified in these models in delineating the underlying molecular mechanisms.

15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1784: 243-258, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29761404

RESUMO

Macrophages are a heterogeneous population of innate immune cells and are distributed in most adult tissues. Certain tissue-resident macrophages with a prenatal origin, together with postnatal monocyte-derived macrophages, serve as the host scavenger system to eliminate invading pathogens, malignant cells, senescent cells, dead cells, cellular debris, and other foreign substances. As a key member of the mononuclear phagocyte system, macrophages play essential roles in regulation of prenatal development, tissue homeostasis, and disease progression. Over the past two decades, considerable efforts have been made to generate genetic models of macrophage ablation in mice. These models support investigations of the precise functions of tissue-specific macrophages under physiological and pathological conditions. Herein, we overview the currently available mouse strains for in vivo genetic ablation of macrophages and discuss their respective advantages and limitations.

16.
FEBS Open Bio ; 8(4): 702-710, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29632822

RESUMO

The epidermal growth factor (EGF)-receptor ligand amphiregulin (AREG) is a potent growth factor implicated in proliferative skin diseases and in primary and metastatic epithelial cancers. AREG, synthesized as a propeptide, requires conversion to an active peptide by metalloproteases by a process known as ectodomain shedding. Although (ADAM17) a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 is a key sheddase of AREG, ADAM8-, ADAM15-, and batimastat (broad metalloprotease inhibitor)-sensitive metalloproteases have also been implicated in AREG shedding. In the present study, using a curly bare (Rhbdf2cub ) mouse model that shows loss-of-hair, enlarged sebaceous gland, and rapid cutaneous wound-healing phenotypes mediated by enhanced Areg mRNA and protein levels, we sought to identify the principal ectodomain sheddase of AREG. To this end, we generated Rhbdf2cub mice lacking ADAM17 specifically in the skin and examined the above phenotypes of Rhbdf2cub mice. We find that ADAM17 deficiency in the skin of Rhbdf2cub mice restores a full hair coat, prevents sebaceous gland enlargement, and impairs the rapid wound-healing phenotype observed in Rhbdf2cub mice. Furthermore, in vitro, stimulated shedding of AREG is abolished in Rhbdf2cub mouse embryonic keratinocytes lacking ADAM17. Thus, our data support previous findings demonstrating that ADAM17 is the major ectodomain sheddase of AREG.

17.
Cell Rep ; 22(10): 2667-2676, 2018 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29514095

RESUMO

Many patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have residual ß cells producing small amounts of C-peptide long after disease onset but develop an inadequate glucagon response to hypoglycemia following T1D diagnosis. The features of these residual ß cells and α cells in the islet endocrine compartment are largely unknown, due to the difficulty of comprehensive investigation. By studying the T1D pancreas and isolated islets, we show that remnant ß cells appeared to maintain several aspects of regulated insulin secretion. However, the function of T1D α cells was markedly reduced, and these cells had alterations in transcription factors constituting α and ß cell identity. In the native pancreas and after placing the T1D islets into a non-autoimmune, normoglycemic in vivo environment, there was no evidence of α-to-ß cell conversion. These results suggest an explanation for the disordered T1D counterregulatory glucagon response to hypoglycemia.

18.
Hum Gene Ther ; 29(3): 352-365, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28826231

RESUMO

Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) serve as vectors for in vivo gene delivery in both mice and humans, and have broad applicability for the treatment of genetic diseases. Clinical trials with AAV vectors have demonstrated promise and safety in several human diseases. However, the in vivo validation of novel AAV constructs expressing products that act specifically on human cells and tissues is limited by a paucity of effective translatable models. Humanized mice that are engrafted with human cells, tissues, and immune systems offer strong potential to test the biological effectiveness of AAV vectors on human cells and tissues. Using the BLT (bone marrow, liver, thymus) humanized NOD-scid Il2rgnull (NSG) mouse model, which enables efficient development of HLA-restricted effector and regulatory T cells (Tregs), we have evaluated the delivery and function of human interleukin (IL)-2 by an AAV vector. Humanized mice treated with an AAV vector expressing human IL-2 showed a significant and sustained increase in the number of functional human FOXP3+CD4+ Tregs. The expression of human IL-2 did not significantly change the levels or activation status of conventional T-cell subsets. Numbers of activated human natural killer cells were also increased significantly in humanized mice treated with the IL-2 vector. These data recapitulate observations in clinical trials of IL-2 therapy and collectively show that humanized mouse models offer a translational platform for testing the efficacy of AAV vectors targeting human immune cells.

19.
FASEB J ; 32(3): 1537-1549, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29146734

RESUMO

Establishment of an in vivo small animal model of human tumor and human immune system interaction would enable preclinical investigations into the mechanisms underlying cancer immunotherapy. To this end, nonobese diabetic (NOD).Cg- PrkdcscidIL2rgtm1Wjl/Sz (null; NSG) mice were transplanted with human (h)CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells, which leads to the development of human hematopoietic and immune systems [humanized NSG (HuNSG)]. HuNSG mice received human leukocyte antigen partially matched tumor implants from patient-derived xenografts [PDX; non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), sarcoma, bladder cancer, and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC)] or from a TNBC cell line-derived xenograft (CDX). Tumor growth curves were similar in HuNSG compared with nonhuman immune-engrafted NSG mice. Treatment with pembrolizumab, which targets programmed cell death protein 1, produced significant growth inhibition in both CDX and PDX tumors in HuNSG but not in NSG mice. Finally, inhibition of tumor growth was dependent on hCD8+ T cells, as demonstrated by antibody-mediated depletion. Thus, tumor-bearing HuNSG mice may represent an important, new model for preclinical immunotherapy research.-Wang, M., Yao, L.-C., Cheng, M., Cai, D., Martinek, J., Pan, C.-X., Shi, W., Ma, A.-H., De Vere White, R. W., Airhart, S., Liu, E. T., Banchereau, J., Brehm, M. A., Greiner, D. L., Shultz, L. D., Palucka, K., Keck, J. G. Humanized mice in studying efficacy and mechanisms of PD-1-targeted cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
BMC Res Notes ; 10(1): 573, 2017 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29116018

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in RHBDF2 cause tylosis. Patients present with hyperproliferative skin, and keratinocytes from tylosis patients' skin show an enhanced wound-healing phenotype. The curly bare mouse model of tylosis, carrying a GOF mutation in the Rhbdf2 gene (Rhbdf2 cub ), presents with epidermal hyperplasia and shows accelerated cutaneous wound-healing phenotype through enhanced secretion of the epidermal growth factor receptor family ligand amphiregulin. Despite these advances in our understanding of tylosis, key questions remain. For instance, it is not known whether the disease is skin-specific, whether the immune system or the surrounding microenvironment plays a role, and whether mouse genetic background influences the hyperproliferative-skin and wound-healing phenotypes observed in Rhbdf2 cub mice. RESULTS: We performed bone marrow transfers and reciprocal skin transplants and found that bone marrow transfer from C57BL/6 (B6)-Rhbdf2 cub/cub donor mice to B6 wildtype recipient mice failed to transfer the hyperproliferative-skin and wound-healing phenotypes in B6 mice. Furthermore, skin grafts from B6 mice to the dorsal skin of B6-Rhbdf2 cub/cub mice maintained the phenotype of the donor mice. To test the influence of mouse genetic background, we backcrossed Rhbdf2 cub onto the MRL/MpJ strain and found that the hyperproliferative-skin and wound-healing phenotypes caused by the Rhbdf2 cub mutation persisted on the MRL/MpJ strain.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/fisiologia , Queratinócitos , Ceratodermia Palmar e Plantar Difusa/genética , Transplante de Pele , Cicatrização/genética , Animais , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Proliferação de Células/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Camundongos Congênicos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos MRL lpr , Fenótipo
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