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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2288: 145-162, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270010

RESUMO

Culture of isolated microspores is a widely used method to obtain haploid and doubled haploid plants for many crop species. This protocol describes the steps necessary to obtain a large number of microspore derived embryos for pakchoi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis) and zicaitai (Brassica rapa L. ssp. сhinensis Hanelt var. purpuraria Kitam).


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Brassica rapa/ultraestrutura , Cloroplastos/ultraestrutura , Cromossomos de Plantas/ultraestrutura , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meios de Cultura/química , Diploide , Germinação/genética , Haploidia , Homozigoto , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Ploidias , Pólen/genética , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
2.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(4)2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290301

RESUMO

Antibiotics are widely applied for plant cultivation in vitro to eliminate bacterial contamination. However, they can have both positive and negative effects on the cells of cultivated plants, and these effects largely depend on the type antibiotic used and its concentration. The objective of the present study was to estimate the effect of ß-lactam antibiotics ampicillin (Amp) and cefotaxime (Cef) on microspore embryogenesis induction in vitro in the Brassica species. The performed experiments confirmed cefotaxime inhibits microspores in B. napus and B. oleracea, even in concentrations as low as 50 mg/L. The highest embryo yield was obtained for B. napus in the NLN-13 medium with added ampicillin in concentrations of 50-100 mg/L as an antimicrobial agent. This embryo yield was significantly higher than that obtained in a medium without supplemented antibiotics and two times higher than in the medium with added cefotaxime. Analogous results were obtained for B. oleracea and B. rapa.

3.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(2)2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098097

RESUMO

Turnip is a biennial crop and, consequently, the creation of pure lines for breeding is a time-consuming process. The production of pure turnip lines using doubled haploids produced in isolated microspore culture has not been sufficiently developed. The aim of the present work was to determine some key factors inducing embryogenesis in the isolated microspore culture of turnip, as well as investigating the manners of embryo development. It was shown that the acidity of the medium is an important factor in embryo production; different optimal pH levels ranging from 6.2 to 6.6 corresponded to individual genotypes. Such factors as the cold treatment of buds and the addition of activated charcoal to the nutrient medium increased the responsiveness of all genotypes studied. The turnip variety 'Ronde witte roodkop herfst' demonstrated a genetic disorder in the development of microspores; namely, non-separation of some microspores from tetrads. In the in vitro culture, each of the daughter microspores developed on its own. This indicates the dependence of the possibility of embryogenesis in the turnip microspore culture on the genotype. Results suggest that the initiation of secondary embryogenesis in primary embryos leads to an increase in the proportion of doubled haploid plants.

4.
Phytochemistry ; 122: 254-264, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26723884

RESUMO

An enormous technological progress has resulted in an explosive growth in the amount of biological and chemical data that is typically multivariate and tangled in structure. Therefore, several computational approaches have mainly focused on dimensionality reduction and convenient representation of high-dimensional datasets to elucidate the relationships between the observed activity (or effect) and calculated parameters commonly expressed in terms of molecular descriptors. We have collected the experimental data available in patent and scientific publications as well as specific databases for various agrochemicals. The resulting dataset was then thoroughly analyzed using Kohonen-based self-organizing technique. The overall aim of the presented study is to investigate whether the developed in silico model can be applied to predict the agrochemical activity of small molecule compounds and, at the same time, to offer further insights into the distinctive features of different agrochemical categories. The preliminary external validation with several plant growth regulators demonstrated a relatively high prediction power (67%) of the constructed model. This study is, actually, the first example of a large-scale modeling in the field of agrochemistry.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/química , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Agroquímicos/química , Bases de Dados Factuais , Herbicidas/química , Estrutura Molecular , Praguicidas/química , Fitoestrógenos/química
5.
PLoS One ; 8(1): e53650, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23335967

RESUMO

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant steroid hormones with structural similarity to mammalian sex steroids and ecdysteroids from insects. The BRs are synthesized from sterols and are essential regulators of cell division, cell elongation and cell differentiation. In this work we show that voriconazole, an antifungal therapeutic drug used in human and veterinary medicine, severely impairs plant growth by inhibiting sterol-14α-demethylation and thereby interfering with BR production. The plant growth regulatory properties of voriconazole and related triazoles were identified in a screen for compounds with the ability to alter BR homeostasis. Voriconazole suppressed growth of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and of a wide range of both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. We uncover that voriconazole toxicity in plants is a result of a deficiency in BRs that stems from an inhibition of the cytochrome P450 CYP51, which catalyzes a step of BR-dependent sterol biosynthesis. Interestingly, we found that the woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca, a member of the Rosaceae, is naturally voriconazole resistant and that this resistance is conferred by the specific CYP51 variant of F. vesca. The potential of voriconazole as a novel tool for plant research is discussed.


Assuntos
Vias Biossintéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Variação Genética , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Esterol 14-Desmetilase/genética , Esteróis/biossíntese , Triazóis/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Fragaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragaria/genética , Fragaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fragaria/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Fenótipo , Pirimidinas/química , Triazóis/química , Voriconazol
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