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Nanoscale ; 12(31): 16451-16461, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790812


Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a huge obstacle during cancer treatment. One of the most studied MDR mechanisms is P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated drug efflux. Based on the three-dimensional structural characteristics of P-gp, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with average sizes of 4.1 nm and 5.4 nm were designed for the construction of nanodrug delivery systems (NanoDDSs), with the anticancer molecules 2-(9-anthracenylmethylene)-hydrazinecarbothioamide (ANS) and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) modified on the AuNP surfaces through the thiol group. In vitro cytotoxicity results suggested that the larger sized AuNPs can effectively decrease the drug resistance index of MCF-7/ADR cells to ∼2. Verapamil and P-gp antibody competitive experiments, combined with the cellular uptake of AuNPs, indicated that larger NanoDDSs were more conducive to intracellular drug accumulation and thus had improved anticancer activities, due to a size mismatch between the nanoparticles and the active site of P-gp, and, therefore, reduced drug efflux was seen. Measurements of ATPase activity and intracellular ATP levels indicated that the larger nanoparticles do not bind well to P-gp, thus avoiding effective recognition by P-gp. This was further evidenced by the observation that 4.1 nm and 5.4 nm NanoDDS-treated MCF-7/ADR cells showed remarkable differences in energy-related metabolic pathways. Therefore, the critical size of AuNPs for overcoming MDR was identified to be between 4.1 nm and 5.4 nm. This provides a more accurate description of the composite dimension requirements for NanoDDSs that are designed to overcome MDR.

Cancer Lett ; 474: 36-52, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931030


Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are important immunocytes associated with cancer metastasis. However, whether TAMs play a dominant role in mediating CXCL12/CXCR4-induced liver metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unexplored. Herein, we found that CD206+ TAMs, which infiltrated at the invasive front, were correlated with CXCR4 expression and liver metastasis of CRC in clinical specimens. Several miRNAs (miR-25-3p, miR-130b-3p, miR-425-5p), upregulated in CRC cells by activation of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis, could be transferred to macrophages via exosomes. These exosomal miRNAs induced M2 polarization of macrophages by regulating PTEN through activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. In turn, M2 polarized macrophages promoted cancer metastasis by enhancing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and secreting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Co-culture of CRC cells with macrophages transfected with these miRNAs or treated with exosomes enhanced their metastatic capacity both in vitro and in vivo. Clinically, the serum levels of exosomal miR-25-3p, miR-130b-3p and miR-425-5p were correlated with progression and metastasis of CRC. In conclusion, these results reveal a crucial role of exosomal miRNAs in mediating the crosstalk between CXCR4 overexpressing cancer cells and TAMs, providing potential therapeutic targets for circumventing liver metastasis of CRC.