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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794826

RESUMO

Agouti signaling protein (ASP) is a secreted paracrine protein that has been widely reported to function in melanogenesis and obesity and could potentially be a core protein that regulates the color and fatty phenotype of P. sinensis. In this study, we screened out interacting proteins of ASP by combined co-immunoprecipitation mass spectrometry (CoIP-MS), yeast two hybrid (Y2H) analysis, and computational predictions. We performed docking of ASP with its well-known receptor melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) to predict the binding capacity and to screen out actual ASP interacting proteins, CoIP-MS was performed where identified 32 proteins that could bind with ASP and Y2H confirmed seven proteins binding with ASP directly. CoIP-MS and Y2H screening results including PPI prediction revealed that vitronectin (VTN), apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1), apolipoprotein B (APOB), and filamin B (FLNB) were the key interacting proteins of ASP. VTN, APOA1, and APOB are functional proteins in lipid metabolism and various skin disorders, suggesting ASP may function in lipid metabolism through these partners. This study provided protein-protein interaction information of ASP, and the results will promote further research into the diverse roles of ASP, as well as its binding partners, and their function in different strains of P. sinensis.

2.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 44(9): 686-92, 2019.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532140

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke is a major cause of permanent disability and death in adults, and electroacupuncture (EA) intervention has a positive role in improving neurological function in patients with ischemic stroke through a series of complex processes. In the present paper, we make a review about the development of researches on the involvement of micro-ribonucleic acid (miRNA) in ischemic stroke from excitatory amino acid toxicity, oxidative stress, inflammatory response, apoptosis and necrosis, and particularly sum up outcomes of researches about the roles of miRNAs in EA-induced improvement of neurological function in experimental cerebral ischemia animals. EA treatment can 1) balance levels of miRNAs (such as mir-126 and mir-328, etc.) to promote angiogenesis of ischemic cerebral cortex tissue by regulating expression of vascular endothelial growth factor family genes and proteins; 2) promote nerve regeneration by up-regulating serum miR-124 and hippocampal miR-132 expression to possibly facilitate cerebral repair and reduce cognitive dysfunction respectively via related proteins; 3) reduce cerebral edema via modulating expression of some miRNAs to control expression of aquaporin, matrix metalloproteinases, etc. and 4) suppress inflammatory response via up-regulating expression of miRNAs to inhibit expression of NF-κB, TNF-α, etc. in the local cerebral tissue. As a result, the neurological function is bettered after EA intervention.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Eletroacupuntura , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
3.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395947

RESUMO

PTPN23 is a His-domain protein-tyrosine phosphatase implicated in ciliogenesis, the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway, and RNA splicing. Until recently, no defined human phenotype had been associated with alterations in this gene. We identified and report a cohort of seven patients with either homozygous or compound heterozygous rare deleterious variants in PTPN23. Combined with four patients previously reported, a total of 11 patients with this disorder have now been identified. We expand the phenotypic and variation spectrum associated with defects in this gene. Patients have strong phenotypic overlap, suggesting a defined autosomal recessive syndrome caused by reduced function of PTPN23. Shared characteristics of affected individuals include developmental delay, brain abnormalities (mainly ventriculomegaly and/or brain atrophy), intellectual disability, spasticity, language disorder, microcephaly, optic atrophy, and seizures. We observe a broad range of variants across patients that are likely strongly reducing the expression or disrupting the function of the protein. However, we do not observe any patients with an allele combination predicted to result in complete loss of function of PTPN23, as this is likely incompatible with life, consistent with reported embryonic lethality in the mouse. None of the observed or reported variants are recurrent, although some have been identified in homozygosis in patients from consanguineous populations. This study expands the phenotypic and molecular spectrum of PTPN23 associated disease and identifies major shared features among patients affected with this disorder, while providing additional support to the important role of PTPN23 in human nervous and visual system development and function.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 631-639, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353024

RESUMO

Notch signaling is an established developmental pathway for brain morphogenesis. Given that Delta-like 1 (DLL1) is a ligand for the Notch receptor and that a few individuals with developmental delay, intellectual disability, and brain malformations have microdeletions encompassing DLL1, we hypothesized that insufficiency of DLL1 causes a human neurodevelopmental disorder. We performed exome sequencing in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. The cohort was identified using known Matchmaker Exchange nodes such as GeneMatcher. This method identified 15 individuals from 12 unrelated families with heterozygous pathogenic DLL1 variants (nonsense, missense, splice site, and one whole gene deletion). The most common features in our cohort were intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, seizures, variable brain malformations, muscular hypotonia, and scoliosis. We did not identify an obvious genotype-phenotype correlation. Analysis of one splice site variant showed an in-frame insertion of 12 bp. In conclusion, heterozygous DLL1 pathogenic variants cause a variable neurodevelopmental phenotype and multi-systemic features. The clinical and molecular data support haploinsufficiency as a mechanism for the pathogenesis of this DLL1-related disorder and affirm the importance of DLL1 in human brain development.

5.
Nat Prod Bioprospect ; 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175580

RESUMO

Gastrodia elata is a famous traditional Chinese herb with medicinal and edible application. In this study, three new polybenzyls, gastropolybenzylols G-I (1-3) were isolated from the EtOAc extract of G. elata. Their structures were identified by extensive spectroscopic analyses involving HRESIMS, UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR. Compound 1 showed agonistic effects on MT1 and MT2 receptors with agonistic rates of 55.91±4.84% and 165.13±5.65% at the concentration of 0.5 mM, respectively, and an EC50 value of 76.24 µM on MT2 receptor.

7.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 27(15): 3299-3306, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204226

RESUMO

Gastrodia elata is a famous traditional Chinese herb with medicinal and edible application. In this study, nine polybenzyls (1-9), including six new ones (2-5, 7 and 9), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of G. elata. Five compounds 1, 3, 4, 6 and 8 were found to activate melatonin receptors. Especially, compound 1 showed agonistic effects on MT1 and MT2 receptors with EC50 values of 237 and 244 µM. For better understanding their structure-activity relationships (SARs), ten polybenzyl analogs were further synthesized and assayed for their activities on melatonin receptors. Preliminary SARs study suggested that two para-hydroxy groups were the key pharmacophore for maintaining activity. Molecular docking simulations verified that compound 1 could strongly interact with MT2 receptor by bonding to Phe 118, Gly 121, His 208, Try 294 and Ala 297 residues.

8.
Kidney Int ; 95(6): 1494-1504, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005274

RESUMO

Although genetic testing is increasingly used in clinical nephrology, a large number of patients with congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) remain undiagnosed with current gene panels. Therefore, careful curation of novel genetic findings is key to improving diagnostic yields. We recently described a novel intellectual disability syndrome caused by de novo heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the splicing factor SON. Here, we show that many of these patients, including two previously unreported, exhibit a wide array of kidney abnormalities. Detailed phenotyping of 14 patients with SON haploinsufficiency identified kidney anomalies in 8 patients, including horseshoe kidney, unilateral renal hypoplasia, and renal cysts. Recurrent urinary tract infections, electrolyte disturbances, and hypertension were also observed in some patients. SON knockdown in kidney cell lines leads to abnormal pre-mRNA splicing, resulting in decreased expression of several established CAKUT genes. Furthermore, these molecular events were observed in patient-derived cells with SON haploinsufficiency. Taken together, our data suggest that the wide spectrum of phenotypes in patients with a pathogenic SON mutation is a consequence of impaired pre-mRNA splicing of several CAKUT genes. We propose that genetic testing panels designed to diagnose children with a kidney phenotype should include the SON gene.

9.
Brain ; 142(5): 1195-1202, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30915432

RESUMO

Disruption of cellular iron homeostasis can contribute to neurodegeneration. In mammals, two iron-regulatory proteins (IRPs) shape the expression of the iron metabolism proteome. Targeted deletion of Ireb2 in a mouse model causes profoundly disordered iron metabolism, leading to functional iron deficiency, anemia, erythropoietic protoporphyria, and a neurodegenerative movement disorder. Using exome sequencing, we identified the first human with bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in the gene IREB2 leading to an absence of IRP2. This 16-year-old male had neurological and haematological features that emulate those of Ireb2 knockout mice, including neurodegeneration and a treatment-resistant choreoathetoid movement disorder. Cellular phenotyping at the RNA and protein level was performed using patient and control lymphoblastoid cell lines, and established experimental assays. Our studies revealed functional iron deficiency, altered post-transcriptional regulation of iron metabolism genes, and mitochondrial dysfunction, as observed in the mouse model. The patient's cellular abnormalities were reversed by lentiviral-mediated restoration of IRP2 expression. These results confirm that IRP2 is essential for regulation of iron metabolism in humans, and reveal a previously unrecognized subclass of neurodegenerative disease. Greater understanding of how the IRPs mediate cellular iron distribution may ultimately provide new insights into common and rare neurodegenerative processes, and could result in novel therapies.

10.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2025-2035, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723320

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lanosterol synthase (LSS) gene was initially described in families with extensive congenital cataracts. Recently, a study has highlighted LSS associated with hypotrichosis simplex. We expanded the phenotypic spectrum of LSS to a recessive neuroectodermal syndrome formerly named alopecia with mental retardation (APMR) syndrome. It is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by hypotrichosis and intellectual disability (ID) or developmental delay (DD), frequently associated with early-onset epilepsy and other dermatological features. METHODS: Through a multicenter international collaborative study, we identified LSS pathogenic variants in APMR individuals either by exome sequencing or LSS Sanger sequencing. Splicing defects were assessed by transcript analysis and minigene assay. RESULTS: We reported ten APMR individuals from six unrelated families with biallelic variants in LSS. We additionally identified one affected individual with a single rare variant in LSS and an allelic imbalance suggesting a second event. Among the identified variants, two were truncating, seven were missense, and two were splicing variants. Quantification of cholesterol and its precursors did not reveal noticeable imbalance. CONCLUSION: In the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, lanosterol synthase leads to the cyclization of (S)-2,3-oxidosqualene into lanosterol. Our data suggest LSS as a major gene causing a rare recessive neuroectodermal syndrome.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(11): 10578-10588, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802029

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) poses a great threat to human health. The elegant combination of gene therapy and chemotherapy by nanocarriers has been repeatedly highlighted to realize enhanced therapeutic efficacy relative to monotreatment. However, the leading strategy to achieve the efficient codelivery of the gene and drug remains the electrostatic condensation with the nucleic acid and the hydrophobic encapsulation of drug molecules by the nanocarriers, which suffers substantially from premature drug leakage during circulation and severe off-target-associated side effects. To address these issues, we reported in this study the codelivery of liver-specific miRNA-122 and anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) using a macromolecular prodrug approach, that is, electrostatic condensation with miRNA-122 using galactosylated-chitosan-5-fluorouracil (GC-FU). The delivery efficacy was evaluated comprehensively in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, the biocompatibility of GC-FU/miR-122 nanoparticles (NPs) was assessed by hemolysis activity analysis, BSA adsorption test, and cell viability assay in both normal liver cells (L02 cells) and endothelial cells. The resulting codelivery systems showed enhanced blood and salt stability, efficient proliferation inhibition of HCC cells, and further induction apoptosis of HCC cells, as well as downregulated expression of ADAM17 and Bcl-2. The strategy developed herein is thus a highly promising platform for an effective codelivery of miRNA-122 and 5-Fu with facile fabrication and great potential for the clinical translation toward HCC synergistic therapy.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pró-Fármacos/química , Proteína ADAM17/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Quitosana/química , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Fluoruracila/química , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , MicroRNAs/química , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Pró-Fármacos/uso terapêutico
12.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(1): 192-199, 2019 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628275

RESUMO

To examine the mountainous lake CO2 evasion in Southwest China, partial pressures of carbon dioxide[p(CO2)] and the CO2 exchange flux[F(CO2)] via the water-air interface of nine mountainous lakes in Chongqing, China, have been studied in summer using the thin boundary layer model (TBL) and floating chambers. Key water quality parameters were concomitantly measured. The results indicate that the pCO2 in the mountainous lakes in western Chongqing ranges from 2.1 to 45.0 Pa, with a mean value of (18.1±12.1) Pa. The mean CO2 fluxes calculated by the TBL model and chamber method are (-8.0±2.9), (-3.4±3.6), and (-7.1±22.3) mmol·(m2·d)-1, respectively. The p(CO2) and F(CO2) have positive correlations with the wind speed and ORP but negative correlations with the pH. Our study indicates that mountainous lakes are atmospheric sinks of CO2 and the TBL model should be cautiously adopted.

13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(4): 1127-1137, 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30525561

RESUMO

Resveratrol is a polyphenol commonly found in plants and food health products, such as grape and red wine, and was identified for its binding to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by using HerboChips screening. The binding, therefore, resulted in alterations of VEGF binding to its receptor and revealed the roles of VEGF in angiogenesis. Several lines of evidence gave support to the inhibitory activities of resveratrol in VEGF-triggered angiogenesis. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), compared with a VEGF-induced group, resveratrol, at a high concentration, suppressed VEGF-mediated endothelial cell proliferation, cell migration, cell invasion, and tube formation by 80 ± 9.01%, 140 ± 3.78%, 110 ± 7.51%, and 120 ± 10.26%, respectively. Moreover, resveratrol inhibited the subintestinal vessel formation in zebrafish embryo. In signaling cascades, application of resveratrol in HUVECs reduced the VEGF-triggered VEGF receptor 2 phosphorylation and c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation. Moreover, the VEGF-mediated phosphorylations of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, protein kinase B, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase were obviously decreased by (3 ± 0.37)-, (2 ± 0.27)- and (6 ± 0.23)-fold, respectively, in the presence of resveratrol at high concentration. Parallelly, the VEGF-induced reactive oxygen species formation was significantly decreased by 50 ± 7.88% to 120 ± 14.82% under resveratrol treatment. Thus, our results provided support to the antiangiogenic roles of resveratrol, as well as its related signaling mechanisms, in attenuating the VEGF-mediated responses. The present results supported possible development of resveratrol, which should be considered as a therapeutic agent in terms of prevention and clinical treatment of diseases related to angiogenesis.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Resveratrol/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Inibidores da Angiogênese/química , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Animais , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/química , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Resveratrol/química , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/química , Peixe-Zebra
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 121: 463-471, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30326223

RESUMO

Pyrogallol is naturally found in aquatic plant and has been proposed as a substrate of tyrosinase. In this study, we evaluated the dual effect of pyrogallol on tyrosinase as an inhibitor in the presence of L­DOPA simultaneously via integrating methods of enzyme kinetics and computational molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Pyrogallol was found to be a reversible inhibitor of tyrosinase in the presence of L­DOPA and its induced mechanism was the parabolic non-competitive inhibition type (IC50 = 0.772 ±â€¯0.003 mM and Ki = 0.529 ±â€¯0.022 mM). Kinetic measurements by real-time interval assay showed that pyrogallol induced rapid inactivation process composing with slight activations at the low dose. Spectrofluorimetry studies showed that pyrogallol mainly induced regional changes in the active site of tyrosinase accompanying with hydrophobic disruption at high dose. The computational MD simulations further revealed that pyrogallol could interact with several residues near the tyrosinase active site pocket such as HIS61, HIS85, HIS259, ASN260, HIS263, VAL283, and ALA296. Our study provides insight into the mechanism by which hydroxyl group composing pyrogallol inhibit tyrosinase and pyrogallol is a potential natural anti-pigmentation agent.


Assuntos
Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/química , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Pirogalol/farmacologia , Domínio Catalítico , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirogalol/metabolismo
15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503787

RESUMO

Regulation of α-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.20) and its inhibitors is of great interest to researchers due to its clinical relevance as a target enzyme for the treatment of α-glucosidase-mediated diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and Pompe disease. In this study, we conducted a phloroglucinol-induced inhibition kinetics assay and performed computational molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to assess binding manner in α-glucosidase. The results showed that phloroglucinol reversibly inhibited α-glucosidase in a dose-dependent but non-competitive manner (Ki = 2.07 ±â€¯0.16 mM). Interestingly, the maximum peak wavelength and the hydrophobic surface remained unchanged during the inhibition reaction, with computational MD simulations further revealing that phloroglucinol bound in front of the active site pocket rather than in the α-glucosidase active site. Therefore, we speculate that phloroglucinol-specific inhibition is mild and the inhibitor likely binds to a single binding site near but not in the active site. Our study provided insight into the effects and mechanisms associated with a mild inhibitor of α-glucosidase activity and promotes fundamental research and potential applications of inhibitors for treatment of α-glucosidase-mediated clinical disease.

16.
Eur J Radiol ; 108: 236-241, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396662

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate and evaluate the value as accuracy of diagnosis different degrees of anemia through the unenhanced thoracic computed tomography (CT) scan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CT attenuation of right ventricle (RV) cavity, left ventricular (LV) cavity, interventricular septum and difference between the interventricular septum and left ventricle cavity (IVS-LV) were retrospectively analyzed and measured in 317 patients with different degrees of anemia and the normal patients. The hemoglobin (Hb) level was estimated within 24 h. Statistical analysis was made to obtain the best diagnostic threshold of anemia levels by CT scan, measurement repeatability was assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) values. RESULTS: An obvious parallel correlation of hemoglobin concentration and CT attenuation of IVS-LV existed (the determination coefficient was 0.818; P < .001). Based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, the conclusion was that when the threshold of CT attenuation of IVS-LV at (5.5-9.5) HU in male and (4.5-8.5) HU in female, the specificity for diagnosing mild anemia was low, while the sensitivity was very high (87.1%, 100%, respectively), if the CT value was among (9.5-13.5) HU in male or (8.5-13.5) HU in female, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing moderate anemia were fine (92.9% and 74.8% in male; 93.9% and 60.0% in female), and once the CT value was more than 13.5 HU the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing severe anemia in all gender were greatly good (94.7% and 83.6% in male; 82.4% and 84.6% in female). The intra-and inter-observer reliability and reproducibility were good (ICC were all more than 0.99). CONCLUSION: The CT attenuation of IVS-LV could predict the severity of anemia with good sensitivity and specificity, which could add value to clinical practice and more importantly facilitating patient care as hematologic laboratory investigations are lacking.

17.
Molecules ; 23(10)2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30360380

RESUMO

Xanthine oxidase, an enzyme present in significant levels in the intestine and liver, metabolizes hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid in the purine catabolic pathway. An inhibitory compound acting against xanthine oxidase was isolated from sweet white clover (Melilotus albus) by bioassay and high-performance liquid chromatography guided separation. It was identified as tricin by spectroscopic analysis. Tricin possessed a potent xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 4.13 µM. Further inhibition kinetics data indicated it to be a mixed-type inhibitor and Ki and KI values were determined to be 0.47 µM and 4.41 µM. To find a rich source of tricin, the distribution of tricin in seven different tissues from four Gramineae species was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The highest amount (1925.05 mg/kg dry materials) was found in the straw of wheat, which is considered as a potentially valuable source of natural tricin.

18.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; : 1-10, 2018 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30307317

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the greatest public health problems worldwide, and chemotherapy remains the major approach for the HCC treatment. Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the anthracycline antibiotics but its clinical use is limited due to its severe cardiotoxicity. In this study, novel hybrid nanoparticles by self-assembling based on pectin-doxorubicin conjugates (PDC-NPs) were fabricated for HCC treatment. The stabilized structure of the PDC-NPs was characterized by methylene blue absorption, the size, zeta potential and the morphology, which was investigated by Zetasizer nanoparticle analyzer and transmission electron microscope (TEM), of nanoparticles. The PDC-NPs achieved a sustained and prolonged release ability, which was illustrated with in vitro drug release profiles, anti-cell proliferation study, cellular uptake assay and in vivo pharmacokinetics analysis. Biocompatibility of the PDC-NPs was assessed with bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption test, hemolysis activity examination and viability evaluation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Importantly, in vivo studies of the PDC-NPs, which were performed in the athymic BALB/c nude mice, demonstrated that the PDC-NPs significantly reduced the lethal side effect of DOX. Additionally, the H&E staining and serum biochemistry study further confirmed the excellent biological security of the PDC-NPs.

19.
Hum Mutat ; 39(11): 1569-1580, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311390

RESUMO

The ClinGen Inborn Errors of Metabolism Working Group was tasked with creating a comprehensive, standardized knowledge base of genes and variants for metabolic diseases. Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency was chosen to pilot development of the Working Group's standards and guidelines. A PAH variant curation expert panel (VCEP) was created to facilitate this process. Following ACMG-AMP variant interpretation guidelines, we present the development of these standards in the context of PAH variant curation and interpretation. Existing ACMG-AMP rules were adjusted based on disease (6) or strength (5) or both (2). Disease adjustments include allele frequency thresholds, functional assay thresholds, and phenotype-specific guidelines. Our validation of PAH-specific variant interpretation guidelines is presented using 85 variants. The PAH VCEP interpretations were concordant with existing interpretations in ClinVar for 69 variants (81%). Development of biocurator tools and standards are also described. Using the PAH-specific ACMG-AMP guidelines, 714 PAH variants have been curated and will be submitted to ClinVar. We also discuss strategies and challenges in applying ACMG-AMP guidelines to autosomal recessive metabolic disease, and the curation of variants in these genes.

20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(14): 3006-3011, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111062

RESUMO

To study the pharmacokinetics of active ingredients (alkaloids, iridoids and flavonoids) in Huanglian Jiedu decoction (HLJDD) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) model rats, and investigate its mechanism in treatment of AD. All of rats were divided into normal control group (n=6), shame operation group (n=6) and model group (n=12). Rats in shame operation group received daily subcutaneous injection of D-galactose (D-gal 50 mg·kg⁻¹) for a total of 45 d to induce subacute aging model. Based on the operation of shame operation group, the rats in model group were given with an injection of Aß25₋35 (4.0 g·L⁻¹)-ibotenic acid (2.0 g·L⁻¹) into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis. Then rats in model group were divided into HLJDD one day administration group (n=6) and HLJDD one week group (n=6). The plasma concentration of alkaloids, iridoid and flavonoids was determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QQQ-MS) at different time points. The levels of seven inflammatory factors (MIP-2, IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, TNF-α) in cerebrospinalfluid (CSF) were measured by Bio-Plex multi-factor detection technology. Iridoids in AD model rats, with high bioavailability, were easily absorbed and eliminated. The plasma concentration of alkaloid was lower, and the AUC (area under the curve) was higher in HLJDD one week group than that in HLJDD one day group. The plasma concentration-time curves of flavonoids showed obvious bimodal phenomena. After the gastric administration of HLJDD, the inflammatory factors in CSF of AD rats demonstrated a callback trend, including IL-1ß/IL-10 (P<0.05) with significant difference. The pharmacokinetic behaviors of iridoids, alkaloids and flavonoids (41 compounds) in AD model rats were fundamentally elucidated, and HLJDD can improve the central inflammatory status of AD rats by regulating the levels of inflammatory factors.

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