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1.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 375, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461933

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune disease characterized by excessive dermal fibrosis with progression to internal organs, vascular impairment and immune dysregulation evidenced by the infiltration of inflammatory cells in affected tissues and the production of auto antibodies. While the pathogenesis remains unclear, several data highlight that T and B cells deregulation is implicated in the disease pathogenesis. Over the last decade, aberrant responses of circulating T follicular helper cells, a subset of CD4 T cells which are able to localise predominantly in the B cell follicles through a high level of chemokine receptor CXCR5 expression are described in pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases and chronic graft-versus-host-disease. In the present review, we summarized the observed alteration of number and frequency of circulating T follicular helper cells in systemic sclerosis. We described their role in aberrant B cell activation and differentiation though interleukine-21 secretion. We also clarified T follicular helper-like cells involvement in fibrogenesis in both human and mouse model. Finally, because T follicular helper cells are involved in both fibrosis and autoimmune abnormalities in systemic sclerosis patients, we presented the different strategies could be used to target T follicular helper cells in systemic sclerosis, the therapeutic trials currently being carried out and the future perspectives from other auto-immune diseases and graft-versus-host-disease models.


Assuntos
Escleroderma Sistêmico , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores , Animais , Linfócitos B , Humanos , Camundongos , Receptores CXCR5 , Células T Auxiliares Foliculares
2.
Blood Cancer J ; 11(8): 142, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376633

RESUMO

This study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of BNT162b2 vaccine in patients with hematological malignancies. Antibodies blocking spike binding to immobilized ACE-2 (NAb) correlated with anti-Spike (S) IgG d42 titers (Spearman r = 0.865, p < 0.0001), and an anti-S IgG d42 level ≥3100 UA/mL was predictive of NAb ≥ 30%, the positivity cutoff for NAb (p < 0.0001). Only 47% of the patients achieved an anti-S IgG d42 level ≥3100 UA/mL after the two BNT162b2 inocula, compared to 87% of healthy controls. In multivariable analysis, male patients, use of B-cell targeting treatment within the last 12 months prior to vaccination, and CD19+ B-cell level <120/uL, were associated with a significantly decreased probability of achieving a protective anti-S IgG level after the second BNT162b2 inoculum. Finally, using the IFN-γ ELISPOT assay, we found a significant increase in T-cell response against the S protein, with 53% of patients having an anti-S IgG-positive ELISPOT after the second BNT162b2 inoculum. There was a correlation between the anti-S ELISPOT response and IgG d42 level (Spearman r = 0.3026, p = 0.012). These findings suggest that vaccination with two BNT162b2 inocula translates into a significant increase in humoral and cellular response in patients with hematological malignancies, but only around half of the patients can likely achieve effective immune protection against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/imunologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Neoplasias Hematológicas/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Comorbidade , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 10(6): 1061-1072, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32642412

RESUMO

Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is recently found to have therapeutic potential in systemic sclerosis (SSc), a life-threatening multi-system fibrosing autoimmune disease with type I interferon (IFN-I) signature. Chronically activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are responsible for IFN-I secretion and are closely related with fibrosis establishment in SSc. In this study, we showed that high concentrations of As2O3 induced apoptosis of pDCs via mitochondrial pathway with increased BAX/BCL-2 ratio, while independent of reactive oxygen species generation. Notably, at clinical relevant concentrations, As2O3 preferentially inhibited IFN-α secretion as compared to other cytokines such as TNF-α, probably due to potent down-regulation of the total protein and mRNA expression, as well as phosphorylation of the interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7). In addition, As2O3 induced a suppressive phenotype, and in combination with cytokine inhibition, it down-regulated pDCs' capacity to induce CD4+ T cell proliferation, Th1/Th22 polarization, and B cell differentiation towards plasmablasts. Moreover, chronically activated pDCs from SSc patients were not resistant to the selective IFN-α inhibition, and regulatory phenotype induced by As2O3. Collectively, our data suggest that As2O3 could target pDCs and exert its treatment efficacy in SSc, and more autoimmune disorders with IFN-I signature.

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