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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653000


The rapidly growing size and complexity of 3D geological models has increased the need for level-of-detail techniques and compact encodings to facilitate interactive visualization. For large-scale hexahedral meshes, state-of-the-art approaches often employ wavelet schemes for level of detail as well as for data compression. Here, wavelet transforms serve two purposes: (1) they achieve substantial compression for data reduction; and (2) the multiresolution encoding provides levels of detail for visualization. However, in coarser detail levels, important geometric features, such as geological faults, often get too smoothed out or lost, due to linear translation-invariant filtering. The same is true for attribute features, such as discontinuities in porosity or permeability. We present a novel, integrated approach addressing both purposes above, while preserving critical data features of both model geometry and its attributes. Our first major contribution is that we completely decouple the computation of levels of detail from data compression, and perform nonlinear filtering in a high-dimensional data space jointly representing the geological model geometry with its attributes. Computing detail levels in this space enables us to jointly preserve features in both geometry and attributes. While designed in a general way, our framework specifically employs joint bilateral filters, computed efficiently on a high-dimensional permutohedral grid. For data compression, after the computation of all detail levels, each level is separately encoded with a standard wavelet transform. Our second major contribution is a compact GPU data structure for the encoded mesh and attributes that enables direct real-time GPU visualization without prior decoding.

IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 25(1): 715-725, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30136991


This paper presents DXR, a toolkit for building immersive data visualizations based on the Unity development platform. Over the past years, immersive data visualizations in augmented and virtual reality (AR, VR) have been emerging as a promising medium for data sense-making beyond the desktop. However, creating immersive visualizations remains challenging, and often require complex low-level programming and tedious manual encoding of data attributes to geometric and visual properties. These can hinder the iterative idea-to-prototype process, especially for developers without experience in 3D graphics, AR, and VR programming. With DXR, developers can efficiently specify visualization designs using a concise declarative visualization grammar inspired by Vega-Lite. DXR further provides a GUI for easy and quick edits and previews of visualization designs in-situ, i.e., while immersed in the virtual world. DXR also provides reusable templates and customizable graphical marks, enabling unique and engaging visualizations. We demonstrate the flexibility of DXR through several examples spanning a wide range of applications.

Realidade Aumentada , Visualização de Dados , Realidade Virtual , Gráficos por Computador , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Software , Interface Usuário-Computador
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 24(1): 457-467, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28866590


We report on a controlled user study comparing three visualization environments for common 3D exploration. Our environments differ in how they exploit natural human perception and interaction capabilities. We compare an augmented-reality head-mounted display (Microsoft HoloLens), a handheld tablet, and a desktop setup. The novel head-mounted HoloLens display projects stereoscopic images of virtual content into a user's real world and allows for interaction in-situ at the spatial position of the 3D hologram. The tablet is able to interact with 3D content through touch, spatial positioning, and tangible markers, however, 3D content is still presented on a 2D surface. Our hypothesis is that visualization environments that match human perceptual and interaction capabilities better to the task at hand improve understanding of 3D visualizations. To better understand the space of display and interaction modalities in visualization environments, we first propose a classification based on three dimensions: perception, interaction, and the spatial and cognitive proximity of the two. Each technique in our study is located at a different position along these three dimensions. We asked 15 participants to perform four tasks, each task having different levels of difficulty for both spatial perception and degrees of freedom for interaction. Our results show that each of the tested environments is more effective for certain tasks, but that generally the desktop environment is still fastest and most precise in almost all cases.

Gráficos por Computador , Holografia/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Interface Usuário-Computador , Realidade Virtual , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 20(12): 2417-26, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26146475


This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs.

Gráficos por Computador , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Humanos , Distribuição Normal , Imagens de Fantasmas , Projetos Ser Humano Visível