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1.
J Mol Biol ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634471

RESUMO

Ubiquitin-conjugating E2 enzymes are central to the ubiquitination cascade and have been implicated in cancer and other diseases. Despite strong interest in developing specific E2 inhibitors, the shallow and exposed active site has proven recalcitrant to targeting with reversible small-molecule inhibitors. Here, we used phage display to generate highly potent and selective ubiquitin variants (UbVs) that target the E2 backside, which is located opposite to the active site. A UbV targeting Ube2D1 did not affect charging but greatly attenuated chain elongation. Likewise, a UbV targeting the E2 variant Ube2V1 did not interfere with the charging of its partner E2 enzyme but inhibited formation of di-ubiquitin. In contrast, a UbV that bound to the backside of Ube2G1 impeded the generation of thioester-linked ubiquitin to the active site cysteine of Ube2G1 by the E1 enzyme. Crystal structures of UbVs in complex with three E2 proteins revealed distinctive molecular interactions in each case, but they also highlighted a common backside pocket that the UbVs utilized for enhanced affinity and specificity. These findings validate the E2 backside as a target for inhibition and provide structural insights to aid inhibitor design and screening efforts.

2.
Protein Sci ; 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654425

RESUMO

To understand the molecular evolution of functional diversity in protein families, we comprehensively investigated the consequences of all possible mutation combinations separating two peptide-binding domains with highly divergent specificities. We analyzed the Erbin PDZ domain (Erbin-PDZ), which exhibits canonical type I specificity, and a synthetic Erbin-PDZ variant (E-14) that differs at six positions and exhibits an atypical specificity that closely resembles that of the natural Pdlim4 PDZ domain (Pdlim4-PDZ). We constructed a panel of 64 PDZ domains covering all possible transitions between Erbin-PDZ and E-14 (i.e. the panel contained variants with all possible combinations of either the Erbin-PDZ or E-14 sequence at the six differing positions). We assessed the specificity profiles of the 64 PDZ domains using a C-terminal phage-displayed peptide library containing all possible genetically encoded heptapeptides. The specificity profiles clustered into six distinct groups, showing that intermediate domains can be nodes for the evolution of divergent functions. Remarkably, three substitutions were sufficient to convert the specificity of Erbin-PDZ to that of Pdlim4-PDZ, whereas Pdlim4-PDZ contains 71 differences relative to Erbin-PDZ. X-ray crystallography revealed the structural basis for specificity transition: a single substitution in the center of the binding site, supported by contributions from auxiliary substitutions, altered the main chain conformation of the peptide ligand to resemble that of ligands bound to Pdlim4-PDZ. Our results show that a very small set of mutations can dramatically alter protein specificity, and these findings support the hypothesis whereby complex protein functions evolve by gene duplication followed by cumulative mutations.

3.
Structure ; 27(6): 1000-1012.e6, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056421

RESUMO

Pseudoenzymes have been identified across a diverse range of enzyme classes and fulfill important cellular functions. Examples of pseudoenzymes exist within ubiquitin conjugating and deubiquitinase (DUB) protein families. Here we characterize FAM105A/OTULINL, the only putative pseudodeubiquitinase of the ovarian tumor protease (OTU domain) family in humans. The crystal structure of FAM105A revealed that the OTU domain possesses structural deficiencies in both active site and substrate-binding infrastructure predicted to impair normal DUB function. We confirmed the absence of catalytic function against all ubiquitin linkages and an inability of FAM105A to bind ubiquitin compared with catalytically active FAM105B/OTULIN. FAM105A co-localized with KDEL markers and Lamin B1 at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and nuclear envelope, respectively. Accordingly, the FAM105A interactome exhibited significant enrichment in proteins localized to the ER/outer nuclear, Golgi and vesicular membranes. In light of undetectable deubiquitinase activity, we posit that FAM105A/OTULINL functions through its ability to mediate protein-protein interactions.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4119, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858488

RESUMO

USP37 is a deubiquitinase (DUB) with roles in the regulation of DNA damage repair and the cohesion of sister chromatids during mitosis. USP37 contains a unique insert of three ubiquitin interacting motifs (UIMs) within its catalytic DUB domain. We investigated the role of the three UIMs in the ability of USP37 to cleave di-ubiquitin chains. We found that the third UIM of USP37 recognizes the proximal ubiquitin moiety of K48 di-Ub to potentiate cleavage activity and posit that this mechanism of action may be generalizable to other chain types. In the case of K48-linked ubiquitin chains this potentiation stemmed largely from a dramatic increase in catalytic rate (kcat). We also developed and characterized three ubiquitin variant (UbV) inhibitors that selectively engage distinct binding sites in USP37. In addition to validating the deduced functional roles of the three UIMs in catalysis, the UbVs highlight a novel and effective means to selectively inhibit members of the difficult to drug DUB family.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(11): 5071-5076, 2019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814222

RESUMO

Drugs that reverse epigenetic silencing, such as the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor (DNMTi) 5-azacytidine (AZA), have profound effects on transcription and tumor cell survival. AZA is an approved drug for myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia, and is under investigation for different solid malignant tumors. AZA treatment generates self, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), transcribed from hypomethylated repetitive elements. Self dsRNA accumulation in DNMTi-treated cells leads to type I IFN production and IFN-stimulated gene expression. Here we report that cell death in response to AZA treatment occurs through the 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS)-RNase L pathway. OASs are IFN-induced enzymes that synthesize the RNase L activator 2-5A in response to dsRNA. Cells deficient in RNase L or OAS1 to 3 are highly resistant to AZA, as are wild-type cells treated with a small-molecule inhibitor of RNase L. A small-molecule inhibitor of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs) also antagonizes RNase L-dependent cell death in response to AZA, consistent with a role for JNK in RNase L-induced apoptosis. In contrast, the rates of AZA-induced and RNase L-dependent cell death were increased by transfection of 2-5A, by deficiencies in ADAR1 (which edits and destabilizes dsRNA), PDE12 or AKAP7 (which degrade 2-5A), or by ionizing radiation (which induces IFN-dependent signaling). Finally, OAS1 expression correlates with AZA sensitivity in the NCI-60 set of tumor cell lines, suggesting that the level of OAS1 can be a biomarker for predicting AZA sensitivity of tumor cells. These studies may eventually lead to pharmacologic strategies for regulating the antitumor activity and toxicity of AZA and related drugs.


Assuntos
2',5'-Oligoadenilato Sintetase/metabolismo , Azacitidina/farmacologia , Desmetilação do DNA , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata , Células A549 , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Radiação Ionizante , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia
6.
Structure ; 27(4): 590-605.e5, 2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30713027

RESUMO

The multi-domain deubiquitinase USP15 regulates diverse eukaryotic processes and has been implicated in numerous diseases. We developed ubiquitin variants (UbVs) that targeted either the catalytic domain or each of three adaptor domains in USP15, including the N-terminal DUSP domain. We also designed a linear dimer (diUbV), which targeted the DUSP and catalytic domains, and exhibited enhanced specificity and more potent inhibition of catalytic activity than either UbV alone. In cells, the UbVs inhibited the deubiquitination of two USP15 substrates, SMURF2 and TRIM25, and the diUbV inhibited the effects of USP15 on the transforming growth factor ß pathway. Structural analyses revealed that three distinct UbVs bound to the catalytic domain and locked the active site in a closed, inactive conformation, and one UbV formed an unusual strand-swapped dimer and bound two DUSP domains simultaneously. These inhibitors will enable the study of USP15 function in oncology, neurology, immunology, and inflammation.

7.
Protein Sci ; 28(5): 848-856, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793400

RESUMO

We previously described structural and functional characterization of the first ubiquitin variant (UbV), UbV.v27.1, engineered by phage display to bind with high affinity to a specific ubiquitin interacting motif (UIM). We identified two substitutions relative to ubiquitin (Gly10Val/His68Tyr) that were critical for enhancing binding affinity but could only rationalize the mechanism of action of the Tyr68 substitution. Here, we extend our characterization and uncover the mechanism by which the Val10 substitution enhances binding affinity. We show that Val10 in UbV.v27.1 drives UbV dimerization through an intermolecular ß-strand exchange. Dimerization serves to increase the contact surface between the UIM and UbV and also affords direct contacts between two UIMs through an overall 2:2 binding stoichiometry. Our identification of the role of Val10 in UbV dimerization suggests a general means for the development of dimeric UbVs with improved affinity and specificity relative to their monomeric UbV counterparts. Statement: Previously, we used phage display to engineer a UbV that bound tightly and specifically to a UIM. Here, we discovered that tight binding is partly due to the dimerization of the UbV, which increases the contact surface between the UbV and UIM. We show that UbV dimerization is dependent on the Gly10Val substitution, and posit that dimerization may provide a general means for engineering UbVs with improved binding properties.

8.
J Mol Biol ; 431(6): 1160-1171, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763569

RESUMO

We applied a yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H) analysis to screen for ubiquitin variant (UbV) inhibitors of a human deubiquitinase (DUB), ubiquitin-specific protease 2 (USP2). The Y2H screen used USP2 as the bait and a prey library consisting of UbVs randomized at four specific positions, which were known to interact with USP2 from phage display analysis. The screen yielded numerous UbVs that bound to USP2 both as a Y2H interaction in vivo and as purified proteins in vitro. The Y2H-derived UbVs inhibited the catalytic activity of USP2 in vitro with nanomolar-range potencies, and they bound and inhibited USP2 in human cells. Mutational and structural analysis showed that potent and selective inhibition could be achieved by just two substitutions in a UbV, which exhibited improved hydrophobic and hydrophilic contacts compared to the wild-type ubiquitin interaction with USP2. Our results establish Y2H as an effective platform for the development of UbV inhibitors of DUBs in vivo, providing an alternative strategy for the analysis of DUBs that are recalcitrant to phage display and other in vitro methods.

9.
Nat Genet ; 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429576

RESUMO

In the version of this article originally published, the main-text sentence "In three patients of European ancestry, we identified the germline variant encoding p.Ile97Met in TIM-3, which was homozygous in two (P12 and P13) and heterozygous in one (P15) in the germline but with no TIM-3 plasma membrane expression in the tumor" misstated the identifiers of the two homozygous individuals, which should have been P13 and P14. The error has been corrected in the HTML, PDF and print versions of the paper.

10.
Nat Genet ; 50(12): 1650-1657, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374066

RESUMO

Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma (SPTCL), a non-Hodgkin lymphoma, can be associated with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a life-threatening immune activation that adversely affects survival1,2. T cell immunoglobulin mucin 3 (TIM-3) is a modulator of immune responses expressed on subgroups of T and innate immune cells. We identify in ~60% of SPTCL cases germline, loss-of-function, missense variants altering highly conserved residues of TIM-3, c.245A>G (p.Tyr82Cys) and c.291A>G (p.Ile97Met), each with specific geographic distribution. The variant encoding p.Tyr82Cys TIM-3 occurs on a potential founder chromosome in patients with East Asian and Polynesian ancestry, while p.Ile97Met TIM-3 occurs in patients with European ancestry. Both variants induce protein misfolding and abrogate TIM-3's plasma membrane expression, leading to persistent immune activation and increased production of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1ß, promoting HLH and SPTCL. Our findings highlight HLH-SPTCL as a new genetic entity and identify mutations causing TIM-3 alterations as a causative genetic defect in SPTCL. While HLH-SPTCL patients with mutant TIM-3 benefit from immunomodulation, therapeutic repression of the TIM-3 checkpoint may have adverse consequences.

11.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4385, 2018 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349006

RESUMO

The tumor suppressor and deubiquitinase (DUB) BAP1 and its Drosophila ortholog Calypso assemble DUB complexes with the transcription regulators Additional sex combs-like (ASXL1, ASXL2, ASXL3) and Asx respectively. ASXLs and Asx use their DEUBiquitinase ADaptor (DEUBAD) domain to stimulate BAP1/Calypso DUB activity. Here we report that monoubiquitination of the DEUBAD is a general feature of ASXLs and Asx. BAP1 promotes DEUBAD monoubiquitination resulting in an increased stability of ASXL2, which in turn stimulates BAP1 DUB activity. ASXL2 monoubiquitination is directly catalyzed by UBE2E family of Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes and regulates mammalian cell proliferation. Remarkably, Calypso also regulates Asx monoubiquitination and transgenic flies expressing monoubiquitination-defective Asx mutant exhibit developmental defects. Finally, the protein levels of ASXL2, BAP1 and UBE2E enzymes are highly correlated in mesothelioma tumors suggesting the importance of this signaling axis for tumor suppression. We propose that monoubiquitination orchestrates a molecular symbiosis relationship between ASXLs and BAP1.

12.
BMC Biol ; 16(1): 88, 2018 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30097011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) controls the stability, localization and/or activity of the proteome. However, the identification and characterization of complex individual ubiquitination cascades and their modulators remains a challenge. Here, we report a broadly applicable, multiplexed, miniaturized on-bead technique for real-time monitoring of various ubiquitination-related enzymatic activities. The assay, termed UPS-confocal fluorescence nanoscanning (UPS-CONA), employs a substrate of interest immobilized on a micro-bead and a fluorescently labeled ubiquitin which, upon enzymatic conjugation to the substrate, is quantitatively detected on the bead periphery by confocal imaging. RESULTS: UPS-CONA is suitable for studying individual enzymatic activities, including various E1, E2, and HECT-type E3 enzymes, and for monitoring multi-step reactions within ubiquitination cascades in a single experimental compartment. We demonstrate the power of the UPS-CONA technique by simultaneously following ubiquitin transfer from Ube1 through Ube2L3 to E6AP. We applied this multi-step setup to investigate the selectivity of five ubiquitination inhibitors reportedly targeting different classes of ubiquitination enzymes. Using UPS-CONA, we have identified a new activity of a small molecule E2 inhibitor, BAY 11-7082, and of a HECT E3 inhibitor, heclin, towards the Ube1 enzyme. CONCLUSIONS: As a sensitive, quantitative, flexible, and reagent-efficient method with a straightforward protocol, UPS-CONA constitutes a powerful tool for interrogation of ubiquitination-related enzymatic pathways and their chemical modulators, and is readily scalable for large experiments.

13.
Nat Med ; 24(9): 1395-1406, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150719

RESUMO

Metformin is a first-line drug for the treatment of individuals with type 2 diabetes, yet its precise mechanism of action remains unclear. Metformin exerts its antihyperglycemic action primarily through lowering hepatic glucose production (HGP). This suppression is thought to be mediated through inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory complex I, and thus elevation of 5'-adenosine monophosphate (AMP) levels and the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), though this proposition has been challenged given results in mice lacking hepatic AMPK. Here we report that the AMP-inhibited enzyme fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase-1 (FBP1), a rate-controlling enzyme in gluconeogenesis, functions as a major contributor to the therapeutic action of metformin. We identified a point mutation in FBP1 that renders it insensitive to AMP while sparing regulation by fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (F-2,6-P2), and knock-in (KI) of this mutant in mice significantly reduces their response to metformin treatment. We observe this during a metformin tolerance test and in a metformin-euglycemic clamp that we have developed. The antihyperglycemic effect of metformin in high-fat diet-fed diabetic FBP1-KI mice was also significantly blunted compared to wild-type controls. Collectively, we show a new mechanism of action for metformin and provide further evidence that molecular targeting of FBP1 can have antihyperglycemic effects.

14.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3510, 2018 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158528

RESUMO

In most solid tumors, the Hippo pathway is inactivated through poorly understood mechanisms that result in the activation of the transcriptional regulators, YAP and TAZ. Here, we identify NUAK2 as a YAP/TAZ activator that directly inhibits LATS-mediated phosphorylation of YAP/TAZ and show that NUAK2 induction by YAP/TAZ and AP-1 is required for robust YAP/TAZ signaling. Pharmacological inhibition or loss of NUAK2 reduces the growth of cultured cancer cells and mammary tumors in mice. Moreover, in human patient samples, we show that NUAK2 expression is elevated in aggressive, high-grade bladder cancer and strongly correlates with a YAP/TAZ gene signature. These findings identify a positive feed forward loop in the Hippo pathway that establishes a key role for NUAK2 in enforcing the tumor-promoting activities of YAP/TAZ. Our results thus introduce a new opportunity for cancer therapeutics by delineating NUAK2 as a potential target for re-engaging the Hippo pathway.

15.
Structure ; 26(9): 1226-1236.e3, 2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30033217

RESUMO

Skp1-Cul1-F-box (SCF) E3 ligases constitute the largest and best-characterized family of the multisubunit E3 ligases with important cellular functions and numerous disease links. The specificity of an SCF E3 ligase is established by one of the 69 human F-box proteins that are recruited to Cul1 through the Skp1 adaptor. We previously reported generation of ubiquitin variants (UbVs) targeting Fbw7 and Fbw11, which inhibit ligase activity by binding at the F-box-Skp1 interface to competitively displace Cul1. In the present study, we employed an optimized engineering strategy to generate specific binding UbVs against 17 additional Skp1-F-box complexes. We validated our design strategy and uncovered the structural basis of binding specificity by crystallographic analyses of representative UbVs bound to Skp1-Fbl10 and Skp1-Fbl11. Our study highlights the power of combining phage display with structure-based design to develop UbVs targeting specific protein surfaces.

16.
Structure ; 26(8): 1101-1115.e6, 2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29983373

RESUMO

The human NDR family kinases control diverse aspects of cell growth, and are regulated through phosphorylation and association with scaffolds such as MOB1. Here, we report the crystal structure of the human NDR1 kinase domain in its non-phosphorylated state, revealing a fully resolved atypically long activation segment that blocks substrate binding and stabilizes a non-productive position of helix αC. Consistent with an auto-inhibitory function, mutations within the activation segment of NDR1 dramatically enhance in vitro kinase activity. Interestingly, NDR1 catalytic activity is further potentiated by MOB1 binding, suggesting that regulation through modulation of the activation segment and by MOB1 binding are mechanistically distinct. Lastly, deleting the auto-inhibitory activation segment of NDR1 causes a marked increase in the association with upstream Hippo pathway components and the Furry scaffold. These findings provide a point of departure for future efforts to explore the cellular functions and the mechanism of NDR1.

17.
Eur J Med Chem ; 146: 519-528, 2018 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29407977

RESUMO

Established strategies for discovering selective kinase inhibitors are target-centric as they often target certain structural or reactive features in the target kinase. In the absence of such prominent features, there is a lack of general methods for discovering selective inhibitors. Here we describe a new strategy that exploits conformational flexibility of kinases for achieving selective kinase inhibition. Through ring closure, we designed and synthesized a panel of isoquinoline-containing compounds as rigidified analogs of an amidophenyl-containing parent compound. These analogs potently inhibit kinases including Abl and BRAF but have diminished inhibition against some other kinases compared to the parent compound. Sequence analysis reveals that many of the kinases that are potently inhibited by the isoquonoline-containing compounds contain a long insertion within their catalytic domains. A crystal structure of one rigid compound bound to BRAF confirmed its binding mode. Our findings highlight the potential of a novel strategy of rigidification for improving the selectivity of kinase inhibitors.


Assuntos
Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Isoquinolinas/síntese química , Isoquinolinas/química , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
18.
Nature ; 554(7693): 549-553, 2018 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29433126

RESUMO

RAF family kinases have prominent roles in cancer. Their activation is dependent on dimerization of their kinase domains, which has emerged as a hindrance for drug development. In mammals, RAF family kinases include three catalytically competent enzymes (ARAF, BRAF and CRAF) and two pseudokinases (KSR1 and KSR2) that have been described as scaffolds owing to their apparent ability to bridge RAF isoforms and their substrate, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK). Kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR) pseudokinases were also shown to dimerize with kinase-competent RAFs to stimulate catalysis allosterically. Although GTP-bound RAS can modulate the dimerization of RAF isoforms by engaging their RAS-binding domains, KSR1 and KSR2 lack an RAS-binding domain and therefore the regulatory principles underlying their dimerization with other RAF family members remain unknown. Here we show that the selective heterodimerization of BRAF with KSR1 is specified by direct contacts between the amino-terminal regulatory regions of each protein, comprising in part a novel domain called BRS in BRAF and the coiled-coil-sterile α motif (CC-SAM) domain in KSR1. We also discovered that MEK binding to the kinase domain of KSR1 asymmetrically drives BRAF-KSR1 heterodimerization, resulting in the concomitant stimulation of BRAF catalytic activity towards free MEK molecules. These findings demonstrate that KSR-MEK complexes allosterically activate BRAF through the action of N-terminal regulatory region and kinase domain contacts and challenge the accepted role of KSR as a scaffold for MEK recruitment to RAF.


Assuntos
Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/química , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Regulação Alostérica , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ativação Enzimática , Humanos , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase 2/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Fosforilação , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Multimerização Proteica , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
19.
J Clin Invest ; 128(4): 1283-1299, 2018 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29480818

RESUMO

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cellular homeostatic mechanism that is activated in many human cancers and plays pivotal roles in tumor progression and therapy resistance. However, the molecular mechanisms for UPR activation and regulation in cancer cells remain elusive. Here, we show that oncogenic MYC regulates the inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1)/X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) branch of the UPR in breast cancer via multiple mechanisms. We found that MYC directly controls IRE1 transcription by binding to its promoter and enhancer. Furthermore, MYC forms a transcriptional complex with XBP1, a target of IRE1, and enhances its transcriptional activity. Importantly, we demonstrate that XBP1 is a synthetic lethal partner of MYC. Silencing of XBP1 selectively blocked the growth of MYC-hyperactivated cells. Pharmacological inhibition of IRE1 RNase activity with small molecule inhibitor 8866 selectively restrained the MYC-overexpressing tumor growth in vivo in a cohort of preclinical patient-derived xenograft models and genetically engineered mouse models. Strikingly, 8866 substantially enhanced the efficacy of docetaxel chemotherapy, resulting in rapid regression of MYC-overexpressing tumors. Collectively, these data establish the synthetic lethal interaction of the IRE1/XBP1 pathway with MYC hyperactivation and provide a potential therapy for MYC-driven human breast cancers.

20.
Nat Biotechnol ; 36(1): 95-102, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29176614

RESUMO

Programmable nucleases, such as Cas9, are used for precise genome editing by homology-dependent repair (HDR). However, HDR efficiency is constrained by competition from other double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways, including non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). We report the discovery of a genetically encoded inhibitor of 53BP1 that increases the efficiency of HDR-dependent genome editing in human and mouse cells. 53BP1 is a key regulator of DSB repair pathway choice in eukaryotic cells and functions to favor NHEJ over HDR by suppressing end resection, which is the rate-limiting step in the initiation of HDR. We screened an existing combinatorial library of engineered ubiquitin variants for inhibitors of 53BP1. Expression of one variant, named i53 (inhibitor of 53BP1), in human and mouse cells, blocked accumulation of 53BP1 at sites of DNA damage and improved gene targeting and chromosomal gene conversion with either double-stranded DNA or single-stranded oligonucleotide donors by up to 5.6-fold. Inhibition of 53BP1 is a robust method to increase efficiency of HDR-based precise genome editing.

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