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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 90: 201-205, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to elaborate on and validate a score for the early diagnosis of mediastinitis after cardiothoracic surgery. METHODS: Between 2007 and 2017, patients who experienced thoracic surgical-site infection after cardiothoracic surgery were enrolled. Laboratory, clinical, and chest CT findings were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were followed up until hospital discharge or intra-hospital death. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: 950 surgical-site infections were found and analyzed (131 mediastinitis, 819 superficial/deep infections). Of the 131 mediastinitis episodes, 88% required surgical thoracic debridement,Staphylococcus aureus was identified in 43%, and overall mortality was 42%. The following variables were related to mediastinitis diagnosis: sternal diastasis (OR=2.5; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.2-5.3; P=0.012), bilateral pleural effusion (OR=1.9; 95%CI: 1.0-3.6; P=0.04), leukocyte count ≥14,000cells/mm3 (OR=2.5; 95%CI: 1.3-4.7; P=0.006), male sex (OR=2; 95%CI: 1.11-4; P=0.022), and positive blood culture (OR=3.0; 95%CI: 1.6-5.6; P=0.001). The score predicted with reasonable accuracy mediastinitis in the derivation cohort (AUC-ROC, 0.7476) and the validation cohort (AUC-ROC, 0.7149). Groups with high (31%) and low (5%) risk of mediastinitis were identified. CONCLUSIONS: An early diagnostic score in patients with surgical-site infection after cardiothoracic surgery identified groups with a low and high risk for mediastinitis.

2.
J Intensive Care ; 7: 37, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367384

RESUMO

Background: Appropriate use of antimicrobials is essential to improve outcomes in sepsis. The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of a rapid molecular blood test-SeptiFast (SF) reduces the antibiotic consumption through early de-escalation in patients with nosocomial sepsis compared with conventional blood cultures (BCs). Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, superiority, controlled trial conducted at Sao Paulo Heart Institute in the period October 2012-May 2016. Adult patients admitted to the hospital for at least 48 h with a diagnosis of nosocomial sepsis underwent microorganism identification by both SF test and BCs. Patients randomized into the intervention group received antibiotic therapy adjustment according to the results of SF. Patients randomized into the control group received standard antibiotic adjustment according to the results of BCs. The primary endpoint was antimicrobial consumption during the first 14 days after randomization. Results: A total of 200 patients were included (100 in each group). The intention to treat analysis found no significant differences in median antibiotic consumption. In the subgroup of patients with positive SF and blood cultures (19 and 25 respectively), we found a statistically significant reduction in the median antimicrobial consumption which was 1429 (1071-2000) days of therapy (DOT)/1000 patients-day in the intervention group and 1889 (1357-2563) DOT/1000 patients-day in the control group (p = 0.017), in the median time of antimicrobial de-escalation (8 versus 54 h-p < 0.001), in the duration of antimicrobial therapy (p = 0.039) and in anti-gram-positive antimicrobial costs (p = 0.002). Microorganism identification was possible in 24.5% of patients (45/184) by SF and 21.2% (39/184) by BC (p = 0.45). Conclusion: This randomized clinical trial showed that the use of a rapid molecular-based pathogen identification test does not reduce the median antibiotic consumption in nosocomial sepsis. However, in patients with positive microbiological tests, the use of SeptiFast reduced antimicrobial consumption through early de-escalation compared to conventional blood cultures. These results were driven by a reduction in the consumption of antimicrobials used for Gram-positive bacteria. Trial registration: The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01450358) on 12th October 2011.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 18Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) has emerged as a useful diagnostic tool for suspected infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with prosthetic valves or implantable devices. However, there is limited evidence regarding the use of 18F-FDG-PET/CT for the diagnosis of native valve IE (NVE). METHODS: Between 2014 and 2017, 303 episodes of left-sided suspected IE (188 prosthetic valves/ascending aortic prosthesis and 115 native valves) were studied. 18F-FDG-PET/CT accuracy was determined in the subgroups of patients with NVE and prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) / ascending aortic prosthesis infection (AAPI). Associations between inflammatory infiltrate patterns and 18F-FDG-PET/CT uptake were investigated in an exploratory ad hoc histological analysis. RESULTS: Among 188 patients with PVE/AAPI, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 18F-FDG-PET/CT focal uptake were 93%, 90%, 89%, and 94%, respectively, while among 115 patients with NVE, the corresponding values were: 22%, 100%, 100%, and 66%. The inclusion of abnormal 18F-FDG cardiac uptake as a major criterion at admission enabled a re-categorization of 76% (47/62) of PVE/AAPI cases initially classified as "possible" to "definite" IE. In the histopathological analysis, a predominance of PMN inflammatory infiltrate and reduced extent of fibrosis were observed in the PVE group only. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of 18F-FDG-PET/CT at the initial presentation of patients with suspected PVE increases the diagnostic capability of the Modified Duke criteria. In patients presenting with suspected NVE, the use of 18F-FDG-PET/CT is less accurate, and could only be considered a complementary diagnostic tool for a specific population of patients with NVE.

6.
In. Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Saraiva, José Francisco Kerr; Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira. Tratado de Cardiologia: SOCESP / Cardiology Treaty: SOCESP. São Paulo, Manole, 4ª; 2019. p.724-729.
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1009282
7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 77: 48-52, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248465

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and epidemiological features, treatments, and outcomes of patients with isolated right-sided and left-sided fungal endocarditis and to determine the risk factors for in-hospital mortality in patients with Candida sp endocarditis. METHODS: A retrospective review of all consecutive cases of fungal endocarditis from five hospitals was performed. Clinical features were compared between patients with isolated right-sided and left-sided endocarditis. In the subgroup of fungal endocarditis due to Candida species, binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine variables related to in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Seventy-eight patients with fungal endocarditis were studied. Their median age was 50 years; 55% were male and 19 patients (24%) had isolated right-sided endocarditis. Overall, cardiac surgery was performed in 46 patients (59%), and in-hospital mortality was 54%. Compared to patients with left-side fungal endocarditis, patients with isolated right-sided endocarditis had lower mortality (32% vs. 61%; p=0.025) and were less often submitted to cardiac surgery (37% vs. 66%; p=0.024). The most frequent etiology was Candida spp (85%). In this subgroup, acute heart failure (odds ratio 5.0; p=0.027) and exclusive medical treatment (odds ratio 11.1; p=0.004) were independent predictors of in-hospital death, whereas isolated right-sided endocarditis was related to a lower risk of mortality (odds ratio 0.13; p=0.023). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with isolated right-sided fungal endocarditis have particular clinical and epidemiological features. They were submitted to cardiac surgery less often and had better survival than patients with left-sided fungal endocarditis. Isolated right-sided endocarditis was also a marker of a less harmful illness in the subgroup of Candida sp endocarditis.


Assuntos
Endocardite/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Micoses/mortalidade , Adulto , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Equinocandinas/uso terapêutico , Endocardite/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/microbiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 67: 3-6, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28935245

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the annual incidence of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) and to evaluate its current classification based on the epidemiological distribution of agents identified and their sensitivity profiles. METHODS: Consecutive cases of PVE occurring within the first year of valve surgery during the period 1997-2014 were included in this prospective cohort study. Incidence, demographic, clinical, microbiological, and in-hospital mortality data of these PVE patients were recorded. RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-two cases of PVE were included, and the global annual incidence of PVE was 1.7%. Most PVE cases occurred within 120days after surgery (76.7%). After this period, there was a reduction in resistant microorganisms (64.4% vs. 32.3%, respectively; p=0.007) and an increase in the incidence of Streptococcus spp (1.9% vs. 23.5%; p=0.007). A literature review revealed 646 cases of PVE with an identified etiology, of which 264 (41%) were caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci and 43 (7%) by Streptococcus spp. This is in agreement with the current study findings. CONCLUSIONS: Most PVE cases occurred within 120days after valve surgery, and the same etiological agents were identified in this period. The current cut-off level of 365days for the classification of early-onset PVE should be revisited.


Assuntos
Endocardite Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/etiologia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/efeitos adversos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da condutas da emergência do InCor: cardiopneumologia / IInCor Emergency Conduct Manual: Cardiopneumology. São Paulo, Manole, 2ª revisada e atualizada; 2017. p.250-266.
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-848466
10.
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da condutas da emergência do InCor: cardiopneumologia / IInCor Emergency Conduct Manual: Cardiopneumology. São Paulo, Manole, 2ª revisada e atualizada; 2017. p.717-725.
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-848517
11.
Autops Case Rep ; 6(3): 17-22, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27818954

RESUMO

The case fatality rate of infective endocarditis (IE) is high and is associated with varying causes. Among them, acute myocardial infarction due to an embolism in a coronary artery is rare; the incidence of this complication in the setting of IE is reported to be up to 1.5%. We report a case of sudden death in a 22-year-old woman diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus who was referred to the Cardiology Center for the treatment of mitral valve incompetence due to IE. She was hemodynamically stable with antibiotic therapy and vasoactive drugs, despite severe mitral valve regurgitation. Unexpectedly, she presented cardiac arrest and died. The autopsy showed total occlusion of the left main coronary artery by septic embolus, which originated from the mitral vegetation, as the cause of death. Thus, although a rare complication, it should always be kept in mind that a coronary embolism can be a lethal complication of IE, and the possibility of surgical treatment combined with the underlying antibiotic therapy should be raised.

12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 5(4): e003016, 2016 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27091179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Host factors and complications have been associated with higher mortality in infective endocarditis (IE). We sought to develop and validate a model of clinical characteristics to predict 6-month mortality in IE. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a large multinational prospective registry of definite IE (International Collaboration on Endocarditis [ICE]-Prospective Cohort Study [PCS], 2000-2006, n=4049), a model to predict 6-month survival was developed by Cox proportional hazards modeling with inverse probability weighting for surgery treatment and was internally validated by the bootstrapping method. This model was externally validated in an independent prospective registry (ICE-PLUS, 2008-2012, n=1197). The 6-month mortality was 971 of 4049 (24.0%) in the ICE-PCS cohort and 342 of 1197 (28.6%) in the ICE-PLUS cohort. Surgery during the index hospitalization was performed in 48.1% and 54.0% of the cohorts, respectively. In the derivation model, variables related to host factors (age, dialysis), IE characteristics (prosthetic or nosocomial IE, causative organism, left-sided valve vegetation), and IE complications (severe heart failure, stroke, paravalvular complication, and persistent bacteremia) were independently associated with 6-month mortality, and surgery was associated with a lower risk of mortality (Harrell's C statistic 0.715). In the validation model, these variables had similar hazard ratios (Harrell's C statistic 0.682), with a similar, independent benefit of surgery (hazard ratio 0.74, 95% CI 0.62-0.89). A simplified risk model was developed by weight adjustment of these variables. CONCLUSIONS: Six-month mortality after IE is ≈25% and is predicted by host factors, IE characteristics, and IE complications. Surgery during the index hospitalization is associated with lower mortality but is performed less frequently in the highest risk patients. A simplified risk model may be used to identify specific risk subgroups in IE.


Assuntos
Endocardite/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Pontuação de Propensão , Sistema de Registros , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 21(8): 1429-32, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26197233

RESUMO

We evaluated culture-negative, community-acquired endocarditis by using indirect immunofluorescent assays and molecular analyses for Bartonella spp. and Coxiella burnetii and found a prevalence of 19.6% and 7.8%, respectively. Our findings reinforce the need to study these organisms in patients with culture-negative, community-acquired endocarditis, especially B. henselae in cat owners.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Bartonella/patogenicidade , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Coxiella burnetii/patogenicidade , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Bartonella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Bartonella/diagnóstico , Brasil/epidemiologia , Gatos , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Coxiella burnetii/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endocardite Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 31: 56-8, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25461651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutritionally variant streptococci (NVS) are Gram-positive cocci characterized by their dependence on pyridoxal or cysteine supplementation for growth in standard blood culture media. They are responsible for severe infections in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts, including infective endocarditis (IE). NVS have been divided into two different genera, Granulicatella and Abiotrophia. METHODS: We report four cases of IE caused by Granulicatella species, including clinical presentation, echocardiographic characteristics, treatments received, and outcomes. We also performed a literature search for previously reported cases of IE caused by Granulicatella species to better characterize this condition. RESULTS: A total of 29 cases of Granulicatella endocarditis were analyzed, including the four newly reported cases. The aortic (44%) and mitral (38%) valves were those most commonly affected. Multivalvular involvement was observed in 13% of cases. The mean vegetation length was 16mm. Complications were frequent, including heart failure (30%), embolism (30%), and perivalvular abscess (11%). The most frequent antibiotic regimen (85%) was penicillin or one of its derivatives plus gentamicin. The mortality rate was 17%. CONCLUSIONS: Endocarditis due to Granulicatella species is a rare and severe condition. Complications are frequent despite the use of appropriate antibiotic regimens.


Assuntos
Carnobacteriaceae , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Endocardite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 29: 120-4, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25461241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early and accurate risk prediction is an unmet clinical need in patients with infective endocarditis (IE). The aim of this study was to determine the value of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels obtained on admission for the prediction of in-hospital death in IE patients. METHODS: Between 2009 and 2011, consecutive patients with IE diagnosed using the revised Duke criteria and admitted to the emergency department were evaluated prospectively. BNP levels were measured on admission. Death during hospitalization was the primary endpoint. RESULTS: Among 104 consecutive patients with IE and with available BNP levels, 34 (32.7%) died in hospital. BNP levels were significantly higher in patients who died as compared to survivors (709.0 pg/ml vs. 177.5 pg/ml, p<0.001). The accuracy of BNP to predict death as quantified by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.826 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.747-0.905). The value of BNP was additive to that provided by clinical, microbiological, and echocardiography assessment. On multivariate analysis, new heart failure (hazard ratio (HR) 2.02, 95% CI 1.15-3.57, p=0.015), sepsis (HR 2.10, 95% CI 1.25-3.55, p=0.005), Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis (HR 2.67, 95% CI 1.60-4.45, p<0.001), left ventricular ejection fraction ≤55% (HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.00-2.65, p=0.047), and BNP (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.06, p<0.001) were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: Among patients with IE, BNP levels obtained on admission provide incremental value for early and accurate risk prediction.


Assuntos
Endocardite Bacteriana/mortalidade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Endocardite Bacteriana/sangue , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 25: 191-5, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24971520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We studied the clinical characteristics, in-hospital mortality, and long-term prognosis of patients with culture-negative endocarditis. METHODS: In total, 221 episodes of definite endocarditis were studied (2004-2009). We compared the clinical, laboratory, and echocardiography characteristics and the survival rates of patients with culture-negative and culture-positive endocarditis. Survival after hospital discharge was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method and coefficient of mortality comparisons. RESULTS: Culture-negative endocarditis occurred in 51/221 (23.1%) episodes. Compared with the culture-positive endocarditis patients, the time elapsed between admission and initiation of antibiotic therapy was longer in patients with culture-negative endocarditis (p<0.001), and these patients also had lower C-reactive protein levels at admission (p<0.001). In-hospital mortality rates were not different between culture-negative and culture-positive patients. After hospital discharge, there was also no significant difference between groups in survival curves (p=0.471). Severe sepsis (adjusted prevalence ratio 3.32, p=0.010) and diabetes mellitus (adjusted prevalence ratio 2.32, p=0.009) were independently associated with in-hospital death in culture-negative patients. CONCLUSIONS: Culture-negative endocarditis patients presented with lower levels of C-reactive protein at admission and required more time for initiation of antibiotic therapy, although there was no difference in in-hospital mortality or long-term survival between culture-negative and culture-positive endocarditis patients. Diabetes mellitus and severe sepsis were associated with in-hospital death in patients with culture-negative endocarditis.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Endocardite Bacteriana/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Endocardite Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/terapia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 19: 87-90, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24291467

RESUMO

Lead endocarditis (LE) is one of the most feared complications and remains a challenging diagnosis in cardiology due to the possibility of an obscure clinical course and symptoms, leading to a delayed diagnosis, or even no diagnosis. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) appears to be a valuable imaging technique and has been shown to have advantages in the diagnosis of patients with fever of unknown origin. We present the case of a 52-year-old man with a 3-year history of intermittent fever, chills, anemia, and weight loss (13kg). He was submitted to an extensive investigation to clarify his symptoms and all results were negative. LE was finally diagnosed by FDG PET/CT. This examination could become a useful noninvasive method for the detection of LE at an earlier stage, thus avoiding repeated tests and reducing the length of hospital stay.


Assuntos
Endocardite não Infecciosa/etiologia , Febre de Causa Desconhecida/etiologia , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Marca-Passo Artificial/efeitos adversos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Anemia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Endocardite não Infecciosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Febre de Causa Desconhecida/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reoperação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Perda de Peso
19.
São Paulo; s.n; 2014. [126] p. ilus, tab, graf.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-730762

RESUMO

Endocardite infecciosa é uma doença associada à elevada morbidade e letalidade. O diagnóstico precoce e o reconhecimento de sua etiologia podem contribuir para o sucesso do tratamento antibiótico; entretanto, cerca de um quarto das endocardites permanece sem diagnóstico etiológico. Este estudo teve como objetivo principal identificar a frequência de endocardite por Bartonella spp. e Coxiella burnetii dentre as endocardites com culturas negativas comunitárias e avaliar os fatores preditores dessas infecções. Como objetivo secundário compararam-se as características clínicolaboratoriais e prognósticas entre as endocardites comunitárias com culturas negativas e positivas. Foram avaliados também os fatores associados à letalidade intra-hospitalar das endocardites com culturas negativas. Entre janeiro de 2004 e janeiro de 2009, foram investigados 369 episódios consecutivos de endocardite em pacientes atendidos no Instituto do Coração do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo - InCor HC-FMUSP. Foram estudados os casos que ocorreram em adultos, classificados pelos critérios de Duke modificados como "endocardite definida" e de origem comunitária. Assim, foram incluídos 221 episódios de endocardite, 170 com culturas positivas e 51 com culturas negativas. Neste último grupo, foram feitas as pesquisas sorológicas (reação de imunofluorescência indireta) e histopatológica de Bartonella spp. e Coxiella burnetii. Consideraram-se positivos títulos de imunoglobulina G (IgG) >= 800 para Bartonella henselae e ou Bartonella quintana, e IgG antifase I para C. burnetii > 800. O estudo histopatológico das valvas cardíacas foi capaz de identificar morfologicamente a etiologia de 87% das endocardites com culturas negativas, enquanto que o método de Gram do tecido a fresco o fez em somente 10% dos casos. As endocardites com culturas negativas apresentaram maior frequência de dispneia à admissão (p=0,001), menor valor de proteína C reativa (p=0,009)...


Infective endocarditis is associated with high morbidity and lethality. Early diagnosis and recognition of the specific etiology can contribute to successful antibiotic treatment. However, approximately one-fourth of endocarditis cases remain without an etiologic diagnosis. This study aimed to identify the frequency of endocarditis caused by Bartonella spp. and Coxiella burnetii among cases of community-acquired culture-negative endocarditis and to also assess risk factors for such infections. As a secondary objective, the clinical, laboratory and prognostic features of community-acquired endocarditis were compared. Factors related to the in-hospital lethality of culture-negative endocarditis were also assessed. Between January 2004 and January 2009, 369 consecutive cases of endocarditis were investigated in patients attending the no Instituto do Coração do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo - InCor HC-FMUSP. Cases occurring in adults, those classified by the modified Duke criteria as "defined endocarditis" and community-acquired cases were studied. In total, 221 cases of endocarditis comprising 170 culture-positive and 51 culturenegative cases were included. For the culture-negative cases, serology (indirect immunofluorescence reaction) and histopathological analyses for Bartonella spp. and Coxiella burnetii were performed. Cases were considered positive for Bartonella henselae or Bartonella quintana with IgG titers >= 800 and for Coxiella burnetii with antiphase I IgG titers > 800. Histopathological studies of the cardiac valves were capable of morphologically identifying the etiology in 87% of the culture-negative endocarditis cases, whereas the Gram stain was only positive in 10% of cases using fresh tissue. Culture-negative endocarditis patients presented a greater frequency of dyspnea on admission (p=0.001), lower C-reactive protein levels (p=0.009), and a lower left ventricular...


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Bartonella henselae , Bartonella quintana , Coxiella burnetii , Endocardite , Endocardite/epidemiologia , Endocardite/etiologia , Prognóstico , Sorologia
20.
J Trop Med ; 2012: 853562, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23209479

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii primary infection/reactivation after solid organ transplantation is a serious complication, due to the high mortality rate following disseminated disease. We performed a retrospective study of all cases of T. gondii infections in 436 adult patients who had received an orthotopic cardiac transplant at our Institution from May 1968 to January 2011. Six patients (1.3%) developed T. gondii infection/reactivation in the post-operative period. All infections/reactivations occurred before 1996, when no standardized toxoplasmosis prophylactic regimen or co-trimoxazole prophylaxis was used. Starting with the 112th heart transplant, oral pyrimethamine 75 mg/day was used for seronegative transplant recipients whose donors were seropositive or unknown. Two patients (33.3%) presented with disseminated toxoplasmosis infection, and all patients (100%) had myocarditis. Five patients (83.3%) were seronegative before transplant and one patient did not have pre-transplant serology available. Median time for infection onset was 131 days following transplantation. Three patients (50%) died due to toxoplasmosis infection. After 1996, we did not observe any additional cases of T. gondii infection/reactivation. In conclusion, toxoplasmosis in heart allographs was more frequent among seronegative heart recipients, and oral pyrimethamine was highly effective for the prevention of T. gondii infection in this population.

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