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1.
Blood ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484648

RESUMO

Germline DDX41 mutations are involved in familial myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemias (AML). We analyzed the prevalence and characteristics of DDX41-related myeloid malignancies in an unselected cohort of 1385 patients with MDS or AML. Using targeted next-generation sequencing, we identified 28 different germline DDX41 variants in 43 unrelated patients which we classified as causal (n=21) or unknown significance (n=7) variants. We focused on the 33 patients having causal variants, representing 2.4% of our cohort. Median age was 69 years, most patients were males (79%). Only 9 patients (27%) had a family history of hematological malignancy, while 15 (46%) had personal history of cytopenias years prior to MDS/AML diagnosis. Most patients had normal karyotype (85%) and the most frequent somatic alteration was a second DDX41 mutation (79%). High-risk DDX41 MDS/AML patients treated with intensive chemotherapy (n=9) or azacitidine (n=11) had an overall response rate of 100% and 73%, respectively, with a median overall survival of 5.2 years. Our study highlights that germline DDX41 mutations are relatively common in adult MDS/AML, often without known family history, arguing for systematic screening. Salient features of DDX41-related myeloid malignancies include male preponderance, frequent pre-existing cytopenias, additional somatic DDX41 mutation and relatively good outcome.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413313

RESUMO

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. No consensus exists on the best second-line treatment of steroid-refractory acute GVHD (SR-aGVHD). Previously published smaller studies on the use of sirolimus in SR-aGVHD treatment report a response rate of 57 to 86%, with 40% overall survival. The association of tacrolimus and mTOR inhibitor is supported by pre-clinical data and has been used as GVHD prophylaxis. We report 42 patients who received tacrolimus and mTOR inhibitor as a second- or third-line treatment of SR-aGVHD. Thirty-one patients were treated in second-line, with an overall response rate of 48.5% (complete response: 42%). Eleven patients were treated in third-line, with an overall response rate of 27%. Thirty-eight patients had at least one episode of infection, due to bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites in 61, 42, 12 and two episodes, respectively. For patients treated in second-line, six-month and one-year survival were 61% and 42%, respectively. None of the patients treated in third-line survived. These results were not promising enough to initiate a phase three randomized clinical trial, but tacrolimus and mTOR inhibitor can be discussed among other options for patients with SR-aGVHD.

3.
Blood Adv ; 3(15): 2424-2435, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409584

RESUMO

Endothelial cell (EC) activation has been suspected of triggering a group of rare and dismal complications that can occur after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Capillary leak syndrome, engraftment syndrome, transplant-associated microangiopathy, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome are the main nosological entities. Post-HSCT endotheliitis can be triggered by chemotherapy, infections, and calcineurin inhibitors, but allogeneic reactivity is claimed to be the common denominator. Endothelial damages are thought to activate several deleterious pathways (proapoptotic, procoagulant, proinflammatory) and can lead to multiorgan failure; however, clinical manifestations of each syndrome overlap, and their relationship with graft-versus-host disease could be minimal. The lack of well-defined diagnostic criteria does not allow for a clear-cut comparison in the current literature. Therapeutic efforts have been made to intercept the pathogenic mechanisms leading to EC dysfunction, but remission rates and survival remain mostly unsatisfactory. In this article, we have reviewed the incidence, clinical features, and treatment approaches of EC activation syndromes, and we plead for the development of internationally accepted standard definitions.

6.
Blood ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510080

RESUMO

Ravulizumab (ALXN1210), a new complement C5 inhibitor, provides immediate, complete, and sustained C5 inhibition. This phase 3, open-label study assessed the noninferiority of ravulizumab to eculizumab in complement inhibitor-naive adults with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). Patients with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) ≥1.5 times the upper limit of normal and at least one PNH symptom were randomized 1:1 to receive ravulizumab or eculizumab for 183 days (N=246). Coprimary efficacy endpoints were proportion of patients remaining transfusion-free and LDH normalization. Secondary endpoints were percent change from baseline in LDH, change from baseline in Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT)-Fatigue score, proportion of patients with breakthrough hemolysis, stabilized hemoglobin, and change in serum free C5. Ravulizumab was noninferior to eculizumab for both coprimary and all key secondary endpoints (Pinf < .0001): transfusion avoidance (73.6% versus 66.1%; difference of 6.8% [95% confidence interval (CI), -4.66, 18.14]), LDH normalization (53.6% versus 49.4%, odds ratio [1.19 (0.80, 1.77)]), percent reduction in LDH (-76.8% versus -76.0%; difference [95% CI], -0.83% [-5.21, 3.56]), change in FACIT-Fatigue score (7.07 versus 6.40; difference [95% CI], 0.67 [-1.21, 2.55]), breakthrough hemolysis (4.0% versus 10.7%; difference [95% CI], -6.7% [-14.21, 0.18]), and stabilized hemoglobin (68.0% versus 64.5%; difference [95% CI], 2.9 [-8.80, 14.64]). The safety and tolerability of ravulizumab and eculizumab were similar; no meningococcal infections occurred. In conclusion, ravulizumab given every 8 weeks achieved noninferiority compared with eculizumab given every 2 weeks for all efficacy endpoints, with a similar safety profile. This trial was registered at https://ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02946463.

8.
Haematologica ; 2018 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30262561

RESUMO

Aplastic anemia is a rare but potentially life-threatening disease that may affect older patients. Data regarding the treatment of aplastic anemia in this ageing population remains scarce. We conducted a retrospective nationwide multicenter study in France to examine current treatments for aplastic anemia patients over 60 years old. Our aims were to evaluate efficacy and tolerance, and to analyze predictive factors for response and survival. Over the course of a decade, 88 patients (median age 68.5) were identified in 19 centers, with a median follow-up of 2.7 years; 21% had very severe and 36% severe aplastic anemia. We analyzed 184 treatment lines, mostly involving the standard combination of anti-thymocyte globulin and cyclosporine-A (33%), which was also the most frequent first-line treatment (50%). After first-line therapy, 32% of patients achieved a complete response, and 15% a partial response. Responses were significantly better in first line and in patients with good performance status, as well as in those that had followed an anti-thymocyte globulin and cyclosporine-A regimen (overall response rate of 70% after first-line treatment). All treatments were well tolerated by patients, including over the age of 70. Three-year survival was 74.7% (median 7.36 years). Age, Charlson comorbidity index and very severe aplastic anemia were independently associated with mortality. Age per se is not a limiting factor to aplastic anemia treatment with anti-thymocyte globulin and cyclosporine-A; this regimen should be used as a first-line treatment in elderly patients if they have a good performance status and low comorbidity index score.

9.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 24(12): 2523-2531, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071321

RESUMO

Liver blood test anomalies are common after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), but their cause often remains difficult to identify. Our objective was to evaluate the safety and utility of liver biopsies in patients who underwent allo-HSCT. In a retrospective single-center cohort study, we reviewed all cases of patients who underwent liver biopsy between June 2005 and July 2017. During this period, 54 biopsies were performed in 45 patients, in which 38 patients underwent allo-HSCT for malignant and 7 for nonmalignant hematological disorders. Median time between allo-HSCT and liver biopsy was 213 days. Seven biopsies were percutaneous, and 47 were transjugular. No adverse event related to the biopsy procedure occurred; 94.5% biopsies (51 of 54) led to a histological diagnosis. Cholestatic graft-versus-host disease was histologically demonstrated in 16 biopsies (30%); hepatitis-like graft-versus-host disease in 9 biopsies (17%); nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in 6 biopsies (9%); regenerative nodular hyperplasia in 4 biopsies (5%); and drug-induced liver injury, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, and viral hepatitis each in 3 biopsies (5%). Association between clinical, laboratory, imaging and pathological features was poor. Only 34% of physicians' prebiopsy hypotheses were confirmed by pathological findings. Patient management was influenced by liver biopsy results in 65% of cases, allowing us to identify a new diagnosis (n = 13), rule out a differential diagnosis (n = 14), or confirm the main hypothesis (n = 6). In conclusion, liver biopsy is a safe and useful technique to investigate liver blood test anomalies following allo-HSCT.

10.
Semin Hematol ; 55(3): 124-129, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30032748

RESUMO

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) arises from a somatic mutation in the phosphatidylinositol glycan class A, X-linked gene, responsible for a deficiency in glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins. The absence of one of the glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored protein complement regulatory proteins (CD59) leads to hemolysis. Clinical manifestations include chronic hemolysis, thromboembolic disease, infectious complications, chronic kidney injury, pulmonary hypertension, and smooth muscle dysfunction. Until 10 years ago, treatment was mainly supportive, with most patients suffering from significant morbidity and shortened survival compared with age-matched controls. The development of eculizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the terminal complement protein C5, has led to dramatic improvements in survival and reduced complications. In this article, we review 10 years of clinical experience with eculizumab in PNH along with specific related situations. Extravascular hemolysis and the use of eculizumab in pregnant patients with PNH are also addressed.

11.
Blood ; 132(7): 750-754, 2018 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29760162

RESUMO

Outcomes remain poor for refractory severe aplastic anemia (SAA) patients. Alternative donor transplantation may be considered, but results from previous studies are not encouraging. We conducted a prospective nationwide phase 2 study to assess unrelated cord blood (CB) transplantation (CBT) efficacy and safety in refractory SAA patients (Aplastic Anemia and Cord Blood Transplantation protocol). To demonstrate a significant difference in 1-year survival from 20% (null hypothesis) to 50% (alternative hypothesis), we needed to include 25 transplanted patients and therefore included 26 (median age, 16 years). Eligibility criteria required 1 or 2 unrelated CB units, containing separately or together >4 × 107 frozen nucleated cells (NCs) per kilogram of recipient body weight. Conditioning regimen comprised fludarabine (FLU), cyclophosphamide (CY), antithymocyte globulin (ATG), and 2-Gy total body irradiation (TBI). With a median follow-up of 38.8 months, engraftment occurred in 23 patients (88%); cumulative incidences of grade II-IV acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease were 45.8% and 36%, respectively. Twenty-three patients were alive at 1 year, with an 88.5% overall survival (OS) rate, differing significantly from the expected 20% (P < .0001; 84% OS at 2 years). CBT with units containing ≥4 × 107 frozen NCs per kilogram is therefore a valuable curative option for young adults with refractory SAA and no available matched unrelated donors. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01343953.

12.
Eur J Haematol ; 101(4): 466-474, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29714032

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Relapse and graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) are still the main complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, especially in the setting of reduced intensity regimen (RIC) and unrelated donor. We compared here anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) or alemtuzumab as GVHD prophylaxis in patients with myeloid disease transplanted after RIC and from an unrelated donor. METHOD: ATG and alemtuzumab patients have been matched by age, gender, HLA matching, comorbidities and cytogenetics risk (119 patients in each group). RESULTS: After matching, we found that ATG decreased the risk of relapse (HR: 0.55, P = .0049) and improved relapse-free survival (RFS, HR: 0.70, P = .042). The improved RFS with ATG was more pronounced in CMV-positive patients but was not influenced by disease risk. Regarding overall survival, GVHD-free relapse-free survival and transplant-related mortality, the risk was similar using ATG or alemtuzumab. CONCLUSION: Even if GVHD risk is lowered by alemtuzumab use, it does not translate in better outcome due to higher risk of relapse.

13.
J Infect Dis ; 217(11): 1845-1846, 2018 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547947
14.
Am J Hematol ; 93(5): 635-642, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29377260

RESUMO

Antithymocyte globulins (ATG) plus cyclosporine (CSA) is the gold standard immunosuppressive treatment (IST) for patients with aplastic anemia. A prospective randomized trial showed in 2011 that hATG was superior to rabbit ATG for first-line treatment of severe AA. The French Health Agency (ANSM) permitted a patient-named authorization for temporary use (ATU) program of hATG (ATGAM, Pfizer) in patients with AA in 2011 since commercial access to hATG is not approved. We took advantage of this program to analyze the outcomes of 465 patients who received antithymocyte globulins (ATGAM) plus CSA as first line treatment (n = 379; 81.5%), or for refractory (n = 26) or relapsed disease (n = 33), from September 2011 to March 2017. In the entire cohort one year, 72% of the patients had partial and 13% had complete response, with worse response for patients with severe AA and a longer interval between diagnosis and IST (more than 6 months). Severe adverse events were mainly linked to infections (24%), hemorrhages (6%), and elevated liver function tests (5%). Overall at 12 months, 9.7% of patients required second line IST and 15.6% received transplantation. Fifty-five patients died during the study mainly because of infections (53%). Factors predicting independently worse survival were age over 40 years, neutrophils less than 0.5 × 109 /L, male gender and longer delay between diagnosis and hATG (>6 months period). This study does illustrate the results of ATGAM with CSA in a true-life perspective and confirms ATGAM as standard of care IST to treat patients with AA not eligible for HSCT.

15.
J Infect Dis ; 217(3): 494-497, 2018 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29087520

RESUMO

As a live attenuated vaccine, yellow fever vaccine (YFV) is not routinely performed after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) despite it being the only efficient preventive therapy. We retrospectively identified 21 HSCT recipients immunized with YFV at a median of 39 months after HSCT and a median of 33 months after withdrawal of immunosuppression without any side effects. Eighteen evaluable patients had protective immunity after YFV. We also observed that a third of the recipients vaccinated with YFV before HSCT had persistent protective immunity after HSCT.

16.
Blood ; 131(7): 717-732, 2018 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29146883

RESUMO

Bone marrow (BM) failure (BMF) in children and young adults is often suspected to be inherited, but in many cases diagnosis remains uncertain. We studied a cohort of 179 patients (from 173 families) with BMF of suspected inherited origin but unresolved diagnosis after medical evaluation and Fanconi anemia exclusion. All patients had cytopenias, and 12.0% presented ≥5% BM blast cells. Median age at genetic evaluation was 11 years; 20.7% of patients were aged ≤2 years and 36.9% were ≥18 years. We analyzed genomic DNA from skin fibroblasts using whole-exome sequencing, and were able to assign a causal or likely causal germ line mutation in 86 patients (48.0%), involving a total of 28 genes. These included genes in familial hematopoietic disorders (GATA2, RUNX1), telomeropathies (TERC, TERT, RTEL1), ribosome disorders (SBDS, DNAJC21, RPL5), and DNA repair deficiency (LIG4). Many patients had an atypical presentation, and the mutated gene was often not clinically suspected. We also found mutations in genes seldom reported in inherited BMF (IBMF), such as SAMD9 and SAMD9L (N = 16 of the 86 patients, 18.6%), MECOM/EVI1 (N = 6, 7.0%), and ERCC6L2 (N = 7, 8.1%), each of which was associated with a distinct natural history; SAMD9 and SAMD9L patients often experienced transient aplasia and monosomy 7, whereas MECOM patients presented early-onset severe aplastic anemia, and ERCC6L2 patients, mild pancytopenia with myelodysplasia. This study broadens the molecular and clinical portrait of IBMF syndromes and sheds light on newly recognized disease entities. Using a high-throughput sequencing screen to implement precision medicine at diagnosis can improve patient management and family counseling.

18.
Eur Respir Rev ; 26(144)2017 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28446600

RESUMO

At least 10% of patients with interstitial lung disease present monogenic lung fibrosis suspected on familial aggregation of pulmonary fibrosis, specific syndromes or early age of diagnosis. Approximately 25% of families have an identified mutation in genes mostly involved in telomere homeostasis, and more rarely in surfactant homeostasis.Beyond pathophysiological knowledge, detection of these mutations has practical consequence for patients. For instance, mutations involved in telomere homeostasis are associated with haematological complications after lung transplantation and may require adapted immunosuppression. Moreover, relatives may benefit from a clinical and genetic evaluation that should be specifically managed.The field of genetics of pulmonary fibrosis has made great progress in the last 10 years, raising specific problems that should be addressed by a specialised team.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/métodos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/genética , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/terapia , Mutação , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/terapia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Especialização , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/fisiopatologia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fibrose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Fibrose Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 23(6): 958-964, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28263921

RESUMO

Performing a pretransplantation splenectomy in patients with myelofibrosis (MF) is a matter of debate, as while the procedure improves hematological recovery, it may lead to severe morbidities. We retrospectively analyzed data from 85 consecutive patients who underwent transplantation in our center for MF, including 39 patients who underwent splenectomy before their transplantation. A majority of them had primary MF (78%), were considered high-risk patients (84% dynamic international prognostic scoring system intermediate-2 or higher), and had received transplants from HLA-matched sibling donors (56%) after a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen (82%). One-half of all splenectomized patients presented surgical or postsurgical morbidities, most frequently thrombosis and hemorrhage. After adjustment using Cox models, pretransplantation splenectomy was not associated with nonrelapse mortality or post-transplantation relapse but with an improved overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS). We conclude that some patients with huge splenomegaly may undergo pretransplantation splenectomy without a deleterious impact on post-transplantation outcomes. OS and EFS improvement should in confirmed in controlled study.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Mielofibrose Primária/cirurgia , Esplenectomia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mielofibrose Primária/mortalidade , Mielofibrose Primária/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Irmãos , Esplenectomia/mortalidade , Esplenomegalia/cirurgia , Análise de Sobrevida , Trombose/etiologia , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
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