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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 457, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has the potential to alleviate salt stress in host plants through the mitigation of ionic imbalance. However, inoculation effects vary, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Two maize genotypes (JD52, salt-tolerant with large root system, and FSY1, salt-sensitive with small root system) inoculated with or without AM fungus Funneliformis mosseae were grown in pots containing soil amended with 0 or 100 mM NaCl (incrementally added 32 days after sowing, DAS) in a greenhouse. Plants were assessed 59 DAS for plant growth, tissue Na+ and K+ contents, the expression of plant transporter genes responsible for Na+ and/or K+ uptake, translocation or compartmentation, and chloroplast ultrastructure alterations. RESULTS: Under 100 mM NaCl, AM plants of both genotypes grew better with denser root systems than non-AM plants. Relative to non-AM plants, the accumulation of Na+ and K+ was decreased in AM plant shoots but increased in AM roots with a decrease in the shoot: root Na+ ratio particularly in FSY1, accompanied by differential regulation of ion transporter genes (i.e., ZmSOS1, ZmHKT1, and ZmNHX). This induced a relatively higher Na+ efflux (recirculating) rate than K+ in AM shoots while the converse outcoming (higher Na+ influx rate than K+) in AM roots. The higher K+: Na+ ratio in AM shoots contributed to the maintenance of structural and functional integrity of chloroplasts in mesophyll cells. CONCLUSION: AM symbiosis improved maize salt tolerance by accelerating Na+ shoot-to-root translocation rate and mediating Na+/K+ distribution between shoots and roots.

2.
Environ Int ; 158: 106908, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619530

RESUMO

Antimony (Sb) is introduced into soils, sediments, and aquatic environments from various sources such as weathering of sulfide ores, leaching of mining wastes, and anthropogenic activities. High Sb concentrations are toxic to ecosystems and potentially to public health via the accumulation in food chain. Although Sb is poisonous and carcinogenic to humans, the exact mechanisms causing toxicity still remain unclear. Most studies concerning the remediation of soils and aquatic environments contaminated with Sb have evaluated various amendments that reduce Sb bioavailability and toxicity. However, there is no comprehensive review on the biogeochemistry and transformation of Sb related to its remediation. Therefore, the present review summarizes: (1) the sources of Sb and its geochemical distribution and speciation in soils and aquatic environments, (2) the biogeochemical processes that govern Sb mobilization, bioavailability, toxicity in soils and aquatic environments, and possible threats to human and ecosystem health, and (3) the approaches used to remediate Sb-contaminated soils and water and mitigate potential environmental and health risks. Knowledge gaps and future research needs also are discussed. The review presents up-to-date knowledge about the fate of Sb in soils and aquatic environments and contributes to an important insight into the environmental hazards of Sb. The findings from the review should help to develop innovative and appropriate technologies for controlling Sb bioavailability and toxicity and sustainably managing Sb-polluted soils and water, subsequently minimizing its environmental and human health risks.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502020

RESUMO

Metabolic regulation is the key mechanism implicated in plants maintaining cell osmotic potential under drought stress. Understanding drought stress tolerance in plants will have a significant impact on food security in the face of increasingly harsh climatic conditions. Plant primary and secondary metabolites and metabolic genes are key factors in drought tolerance through their involvement in diverse metabolic pathways. Physio-biochemical and molecular strategies involved in plant tolerance mechanisms could be exploited to increase plant survival under drought stress. This review summarizes the most updated findings on primary and secondary metabolites involved in drought stress. We also examine the application of useful metabolic genes and their molecular responses to drought tolerance in plants and discuss possible strategies to help plants to counteract unfavorable drought periods.

4.
Trends Genet ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531040

RESUMO

Crop production systems need to expand their outputs sustainably to feed a burgeoning human population. Advances in genome sequencing technologies combined with efficient trait mapping procedures accelerate the availability of beneficial alleles for breeding and research. Enhanced interoperability between different omics and phenotyping platforms, leveraged by evolving machine learning tools, will help provide mechanistic explanations for complex plant traits. Targeted and rapid assembly of beneficial alleles using optimized breeding strategies and precise genome editing techniques could deliver ideal crops for the future. Realizing desired productivity gains in the field is imperative for securing an adequate future food supply for 10 billion people.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(38)2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518225

RESUMO

Food security has been a significant issue for the livelihood of smallholder family farms in highly populated regions and countries. Industrialized farming in more developed countries has increased global food supply to meet the demand, but the excessive use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides has negative environmental impacts. Finding sustainable ways to grow more food with a smaller environmental footprint is critical. We developed an integrated cropping system that incorporates four key components: 1) intensified cropping through relay planting or intercropping, 2) within-field strip rotation, 3) soil mulching with available means, such as crop straw, and 4) no-till or reduced tillage. Sixteen field experiments, conducted with a wide range of crop inputs over 12 consecutive years (2006 to 2017), showed that the integrated system with intercropping generates significant synergies-increasing annual crop yields by 15.6 to 49.9% and farm net returns by 39.2% and decreasing the environmental footprint by 17.3%-when compared with traditional monoculture cropping. We conclude that smallholder farmers can achieve the dual goals of growing more food and lowering the environmental footprint by adopting integrated farming systems.

7.
Environ Pollut ; 290: 118067, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488156

RESUMO

With the ever-increasing demand for lithium (Li) for portable energy storage devices, there is a global concern associated with environmental contamination of Li, via the production, use, and disposal of Li-containing products, including mobile phones and mood-stabilizing drugs. While geogenic Li is sparingly soluble, Li added to soil is one of the most mobile cations in soil, which can leach to groundwater and reach surface water through runoff. Lithium is readily taken up by plants and has relatively high plant accumulation coefficient, albeit the underlying mechanisms have not been well described. Therefore, soil contamination with Li could reach the food chain due to its mobility in surface- and ground-waters and uptake into plants. High environmental Li levels adversely affect the health of humans, animals, and plants. Lithium toxicity can be considerably managed through various remediation approaches such as immobilization using clay-like amendments and/or chelate-enhanced phytoremediation. This review integrates fundamental aspects of Li distribution and behaviour in terrestrial and aquatic environments in an effort to efficiently remediate Li-contaminated ecosystems. As research to date has not provided a clear picture of how the increased production and disposal of Li-based products adversely impact human and ecosystem health, there is an urgent need for further studies on this field.

8.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359842

RESUMO

Noncoding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), small interference RNAs (siRNAs), circular RNA (circRNA), and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), control gene expression at the transcription, post-transcription, and translation levels. Apart from protein-coding genes, accumulating evidence supports ncRNAs playing a critical role in shaping plant growth and development and biotic and abiotic stress responses in various species, including legume crops. Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) interact with DNA, RNA, and proteins, modulating their target genes. However, the regulatory mechanisms controlling these cellular processes are not well understood. Here, we discuss the features of various ncRNAs, including their emerging role in contributing to biotic/abiotic stress response and plant growth and development, in addition to the molecular mechanisms involved, focusing on legume crops. Unravelling the underlying molecular mechanisms and functional implications of ncRNAs will enhance our understanding of the coordinated regulation of plant defences against various biotic and abiotic stresses and for key growth and development processes to better design various legume crops for global food security.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 794: 148704, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218153

RESUMO

Local natural resources, (e.g., precipitation, solar radiation) are important for developing environmentally and scientifically sound management practices in dryland agroecosystem. Maximizing water use efficiency (WUE) in dryland farming systems remains a challenge. The objectives of this study were to assessing the robustness of radiation use efficiency (RUE) during different periods and investigate the interaction between RUE and WUE from water loss pattern and canopy development during wheat growth under different agricultural practices (non-mulched control, CK; transparent film mulching, TF; and black film mulching, BF) from 2013 to 2016 on the Loess Plateau, Northwest China. Results showed that RUE was mainly improved during post-anthesis under PM treatments. PM treatments contributed to elevated canopy photosynthesis and a delayed RUE peak during the reproductive period. Due to the increased spike number and ratio of plant transpiration to soil evaporation, TF and BF treatments had relatively stable photosynthetic activity relative to the CK treatment even those during dry periods. Initially, no relationship was found between WUE and RUE under the CK treatment. On the other hand, RUE and WUE were positively related in TF and BF treatments following a power function. RUE values increased with WUE rapidly to stabilize at a plateau value of 5.5 g MJ-1 under TF and BF treatments, and thus, the wheat WUE had a higher improvement potential than RUE as it did not have an apparent plateau value. PM treatments enhanced the wheat production by taking full advantage of local solar radiation and precipitation (improving RUE and WUE). This higher use efficiency of resources produced more photoassimilates for wheat than that under the CK management, increased source size (LAI) and sink size (spike number) during wheat growth seasons, and thus increased the final grain yield.


Assuntos
Triticum , Água , Plásticos , Estações do Ano , Solo , Água/análise
10.
Plant Cell Environ ; 44(10): 3347-3357, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327717

RESUMO

It has been suggested that a trade-off between hydraulic efficiency and safety is related to drought adaptation across species. However, whether leaf hydraulic efficiency is sacrificed for safety during woody resprout regrowth after crown removal is not well understood. We measured leaf water potential (ψleaf ) at predawn (ψpd ) and midday (ψmid ), leaf maximum hydraulic conductance (Kleaf-max ), ψleaf at induction 50% loss of Kleaf-max (Kleaf P50 ), leaf area-specific whole-plant hydraulic conductance (LSC), leaf vein structure and turgor loss point (πtlp ) in 1- to 13-year-old resprouts of the aridland shrub (Caragana korshinskii). ψpd was similar, ψmid and Kleaf P50 became more negative, and Kleaf-max decreased in resprouts with the increasing age; thus, leaf hydraulic efficiency clearly traded off against safety. The difference between ψmid and Kleaf P50 , leaf hydraulic safety margin, increased gradually with increasing resprout age. More negative ψmid and Kleaf P50 were closely related to decreasing LSC and more negative πtlp , respectively, and the decreasing Kleaf-max arose from the lower minor vein density and the narrower midrib xylem vessels. Our results showed that a clear trade-off between leaf hydraulic efficiency and safety helps C. korshinskii resprouts adapt to increasing water stress as they approach final size.

11.
Plant Cell Rep ; 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34223931

RESUMO

Global climate change will significantly increase the intensity and frequency of hot, dry days. The simultaneous occurrence of drought and heat stress is also likely to increase, influencing various agronomic characteristics, such as biomass and other growth traits, phenology, and yield-contributing traits, of various crops. At the same time, vital physiological traits will be seriously disrupted, including leaf water content, canopy temperature depression, membrane stability, photosynthesis, and related attributes such as chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, and chlorophyll fluorescence. Several metabolic processes contributing to general growth and development will be restricted, along with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that negatively affect cellular homeostasis. Plants have adaptive defense strategies, such as ROS-scavenging mechanisms, osmolyte production, secondary metabolite modulation, and different phytohormones, which can help distinguish tolerant crop genotypes. Understanding plant responses to combined drought/heat stress at various organizational levels is vital for developing stress-resilient crops. Elucidating the genomic, proteomic, and metabolic responses of various crops, particularly tolerant genotypes, to identify tolerance mechanisms will markedly enhance the continuing efforts to introduce combined drought/heat stress tolerance. Besides agronomic management, genetic engineering and molecular breeding approaches have great potential in this direction.

12.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 166: 605-620, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil salinization is a major constraint limiting agricultural development and affecting crop growth and productivity, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Understanding the molecular mechanism of the adaptability of canola to salt stress is very important to improve the salt tolerance of canola and promote its cultivation in saline alkali soil. RESULTS: To identify the metabolomic and transcriptomic mechanisms of canola under alkaline salt stress, we collected roots of control (no salt treatment) and 72 h Na2CO3-stressed canola seedlings (hydroponics) for metabolic profiling of metabolites, supplemented with RNA-Seq analysis and real-time quantitative PCR validation. Metabolomic analysis showed that the metabolites of amino acids and fatty acids were higher accumulated under alkaline salt stress, including L-proline, L-glutamate, L-histidine, L-phenylalanine, L-citrulline, L-tyrosine, L-saccharopine, L-tryptophan, linoleic acid, dihomo gamma linolenic acid, alpha linolenic acid, Eric acid, oleic acid and neuronic acid, while the metabolism of carbohydrate (sucrase, alpha, alpha trehalose), polyol (ribitol), UDP-D-galactose, D-mannose, D-fructose and D-glucose 6-phosphate decreased. Transcriptomic and metabolomic pathway analysis indicated that carbohydrate metabolism may not play an important role in the resistance of canola to alkaline salt stress. Organic acid metabolism (fatty acid accumulation) and amino acid metabolism are important metabolic pathways in the root of canola under alkaline salt stress. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the genes and metabolites involved in fatty acid metabolism and amino acids metabolism in roots of canola may regulate salt tolerance of canola seedlings under alkaline salt stress, which improves our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance in canola.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Álcalis , Brassica napus/genética , Metabolômica , Raízes de Plantas , Transcriptoma
13.
J Environ Manage ; 294: 112997, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111599

RESUMO

As the abundance of microplastics and nanoplastics (MPs/NPs) increases in the environment, their presence in agricultural soil has become of interest. MPs/NPs can affect soil physical and chemical properties and be absorbed by plants and soil animals, causing physical and chemical damage. Soil MPs exceeding a certain concentration cause significant harm. Therefore, the extraction and identification of MPs in soil are vital for determining soil pollution. However, soils contain many other particles of similar size to MPs/NPs, making it more difficult to distinguish them than in water bodies. No standardized extraction and identification method is available to quantify MPs/NPs in soil. Various methods have been described in the literature, but they involve many different procedures for sampling, purification, digestion, and identification. This paper reviews extraction and identification methods for MPs/NPs in soil, sediment, and water and summarizes agricultural soil sampling and preservation, MPs/NPs separation, organic matter removal, and MPs/NPs identification. We also compare the advantages and disadvantages of existing methods and propose future research topics.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Agricultura , Animais , Plásticos , Solo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072403

RESUMO

Gradually increasing temperatures at global and local scales are causing heat stress for cool and summer-season food legumes, such as lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.), which is highly susceptible to heat stress, especially during its reproductive stages of development. Hence, suitable strategies are needed to develop heat tolerance in this legume. In the present study, we tested the effectiveness of heat priming (HPr; 6 h at 35 °C) the lentil seeds and a foliar treatment of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA; 1 mM; applied twice at different times), singly or in combination (HPr+GABA), under heat stress (32/20 °C) in two heat-tolerant (HT; IG2507, IG3263) and two heat-sensitive (HS; IG2821, IG2849) genotypes to mitigate heat stress. The three treatments significantly reduced heat injury to leaves and flowers, particularly when applied in combination, including leaf damage assessed as membrane injury, cellular oxidizing ability, leaf water status, and stomatal conductance. The combined HPr+GABA treatment significantly improved the photosynthetic function, measured as photosynthetic efficiency, chlorophyll concentration, and sucrose synthesis; and significantly reduced the oxidative damage, which was associated with a marked up-regulation in the activities of enzymatic antioxidants. The combined treatment also facilitated the synthesis of osmolytes, such as proline and glycine betaine, by upregulating the expression of their biosynthesizing enzymes (pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase; betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase) under heat stress. The HPr+GABA treatment caused a considerable enhancement in endogenous levels of GABA in leaves, more so in the two heat-sensitive genotypes. The reproductive function, measured as germination and viability of pollen grains, receptivity of stigma, and viability of ovules, was significantly improved with combined treatment, resulting in enhanced pod number (21-23% in HT and 35-38% in HS genotypes, compared to heat stress alone) and seed yield per plant (22-24% in HT and 37-40% in HS genotypes, in comparison to heat stress alone). The combined treatment (HPr+GABA) was more effective and pronounced in heat-sensitive than heat-tolerant genotypes for all the traits tested. This study offers a potential solution for tackling and protecting heat stress injury in lentil plants.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Lens (Planta)/fisiologia , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Sementes/fisiologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Lens (Planta)/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Reprodução , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/farmacologia
16.
J Environ Manage ; 292: 112747, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965684

RESUMO

The global land area devoted to rubber plantations has now reached 13 million hectares, and the further expansion of these rubber plantations at the expense of tropical forests will have significant adverse effects on the ecological environment. Rubber-based agroforestry systems are considered a preferable approach for ameliorating the ecological environment. Many researchers have focused on the positive effects of rubber-based agroforestry systems on the ecological environment, while ignoring the risks involved in the establishment of rubber-based agroforestry systems. The present study investigated the effects of different-aged rubber-based agroforestry systems on the abundance and diversity of ground arthropods. It has been observed that the abundance and taxon richness of ground arthropods generally showed no difference when comparing young and mature rubber plantations. The rubber-based agroforestry systems significantly decreased the understory vegetation species, along with the abundance and taxon richness of ground arthropods compared to the same aged-rubber monoculture plantations. In addition, the change in the abundance and taxon richness of ground arthropods was greatly affected by the understory vegetation species and soil temperature. The abundance and taxon richness of ground arthropods decreased with the decrease in number of species of understory vegetation. The study results indicate that the establishment of rubber-based agroforestry systems have adversely affected the abundance and richness of ground arthropods to an extant greater than expected. Therefore, single, large rubber-based agroforestry systems are not recommended, and the intercropping of rubber and rubber-based agroforestry systems must be designed to promote the migration of ground arthropods between different systems.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Animais , Biodiversidade , Florestas , Borracha , Solo
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808237

RESUMO

Global wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production is constrained by different biotic and abiotic stresses, which are increasing with climate change. An improved root system is essential for adaptability and sustainable wheat production. In this study, 10 pairs of near-isogenic lines (NILs)-targeting four genomic regions (GRs) on chromosome arms 4BS, 4BL, 4AS, and 7AL of hexaploid wheat-were used to phenotype root traits in a semi-hydroponic system. Seven of the 10 NIL pairs significantly differed between their isolines for 11 root traits. The NIL pairs targeting qDSI.4B.1 GR varied the most, followed by the NIL pair targeting qDT.4A.1 and QHtscc.ksu-7A GRs. For pairs 5-7 targeting qDT.4A.1 GR, pair 6 significantly differed in the most root traits. Of the 4 NIL pairs targeting qDSI.4B.1 GR, pairs 2 and 4 significantly differed in 3 and 4 root traits, respectively. Pairs 9 and 10 targeting QHtscc.ksu-7A GR significantly differed in 1 and 4 root traits, respectively. Using the wheat 90K Illumina iSelect array, we identified 15 putative candidate genes associated with different root traits in the contrasting isolines, in which two UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT)-encoding genes, TraesCS4A02G185300 and TraesCS4A02G442700, and a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase (LRR-RLK)-encoding gene, TraesCS4A02G330900, also showed important functions for root trait control in other crops. This study characterized, for the first time, that these GRs control root traits in wheat, and identified candidate genes, although the candidate genes will need further confirmation and validation for marker-assisted wheat breeding.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673022

RESUMO

Grain legumes are important crops, but they are salt sensitive. This research dissected the responses of four (sub)tropical grain legumes to ionic components (Na+ and/or Cl-) of salt stress. Soybean, mungbean, cowpea, and common bean were subjected to NaCl, Na+ salts (without Cl-), Cl- salts (without Na+), and a "high cation" negative control for 57 days. Growth, leaf gas exchange, and tissue ion concentrations were assessed at different growing stages. For soybean, NaCl and Na+ salts impaired seed dry mass (30% of control), more so than Cl- salts (60% of control). All treatments impaired mungbean growth, with NaCl and Cl- salt treatments affecting seed dry mass the most (2% of control). For cowpea, NaCl had the greatest adverse impact on seed dry mass (20% of control), while Na+ salts and Cl- salts had similar intermediate effects (~45% of control). For common bean, NaCl had the greatest adverse effect on seed dry mass (4% of control), while Na+ salts and Cl- salts impaired seed dry mass to a lesser extent (~45% of control). NaCl and Na+ salts (without Cl-) affected the photosynthesis (Pn) of soybean more than Cl- salts (without Na+) (50% of control), while the reverse was true for mungbean. Na+ salts (without Cl-), Cl- salts (without Na+), and NaCl had similar adverse effects on Pn of cowpea and common bean (~70% of control). In conclusion, salt sensitivity is predominantly determined by Na+ toxicity in soybean, Cl- toxicity in mungbean, and both Na+ and Cl- toxicity in cowpea and common bean.


Assuntos
Cloretos/toxicidade , Phaseolus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio/toxicidade , Sódio/toxicidade , Soja/efeitos dos fármacos , Vigna/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomassa , Phaseolus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/efeitos dos fármacos , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade da Espécie , Vigna/classificação , Vigna/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525517

RESUMO

Plants are regularly exposed to biotic and abiotic stresses that adversely affect agricultural production. Omics has gained momentum in the last two decades, fueled by statistical methodologies, computational capabilities, mass spectrometry, nucleic-acid sequencing, and peptide-sequencing platforms. Functional genomics-especially metabolomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics-have contributed substantially to plant molecular responses to stress. Recent progress in reverse and forward genetics approaches have mediated high-throughput techniques for identifying stress-related genes. Furthermore, web-based genetic databases have mediated bioinformatics techniques for detecting families of stress-tolerant genes. Gene ontology (GO) databases provide information on the gene product's functional features and help with the computational estimation of gene function. Functional omics data from multiple platforms are useful for positional cloning. Stress-tolerant plants have been engineered using stress response genes, regulatory networks, and pathways. The genome-editing tool, CRISPR-Cas9, reveals the functional features of several parts of the plant genome. Current developments in CRISPR, such as de novo meristem induction genome-engineering in dicots and temperature-tolerant LbCas12a/CRISPR, enable greater DNA insertion precision. This review discusses functional omics for molecular insight and CRISPR-Cas9-based validation of gene function in crop plants. Omics and CRISPR-Cas9 are expected to garner knowledge on molecular systems and gene function and stress-tolerant crop production.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Edição de Genes/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genômica , Metabolômica , Genética Reversa , Estresse Fisiológico
20.
Nat Plants ; 7(2): 116-122, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594263

RESUMO

Asia has a rich variety of nutritious 'neglected crops', domesticated since ancient times but mostly forgotten or underutilized today. These crops, including cereals, roots, nuts, pulses, fruits and vegetables, are adapted to their land, resilient to environmental challenges and rich in micronutrients. Changing current agricultural practices from a near monoculture to a diverse cropping portfolio that uses these forgotten crops is a viable and promising approach to closing the current gaps in production and nutrition in Asia. Such an approach was proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization's Zero Hunger initiative in Asia, which aims to end hunger by 2030. The Zero Hunger initiative is a promising approach to help increase access to nutritious food; however, it faces substantial challenges, such as the lack of farmer willingness to switch crops and adequate governmental support for implementation. Countries such as Nepal have started using these neglected crops, implementing various approaches to overcome challenges and start a new agricultural pathway.


Assuntos
Agricultura/organização & administração , Produtos Agrícolas/provisão & distribuição , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fome , Política Nutricional , Ásia , Humanos
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