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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Instantaneous wave-free ratios (iFRs) are functional measures of arterial stenosis that have become essential to interventional cardiology procedures. Their use for intracranial submaximal angioplasty (angioplasty with an undersized balloon) has not been studied extensively. OBJECTIVE: To describe the feasibility and technique of iFR measurement for stenosis assessment during intracranial angioplasty. METHODS: We present a series of consecutive patients treated between January 1, 2017 and June 30, 2018 with submaximal intracranial angioplasty in whom pre- and postprocedure iFR measurements were obtained with a Verrata-Volcano pressure wire (Philips, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). We collected patient data on age, sex, comorbid conditions, presenting complaints, modified Rankin scale (mRS) score at admission, neurological findings, procedure duration, fluoroscopy time, intraprocedural complications, length of hospital stay, and mRS score at last clinical follow-up (favorable outcome, 0-2). Angiographic stenosis severity and iFR values were recorded before and after angioplasty. RESULTS: A total of 12 patients underwent iFR-guided angioplasty during the study period. The median patient age was 69.5 yr (range 48-81 yr). All patients had symptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis (3-basilar, 2-vertebral, 6-middle cerebral, 1-internal carotid). Preangioplasty stenosis ranged from 55% to 90%. The median postangioplasty reduction in stenosis was 17% (range 9%-30%). Preangioplasty values ranged from 0.30 to 0.40 (n = 4). Postangioplasty values ranged from 0.6 to 0.9 (n = 5). iFR values improved considerably in all patients. No procedure-related complications occurred. The median follow-up was 8.9 mo (range 3-25 mo). Follow-up outcomes were favorable in 10 patients. CONCLUSION: iFR measurement before and after intracranial angioplasty is feasible. It may be used to assess the adequacy of intracranial angioplasty.

2.
Neurosurgery ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D) printing has revolutionized training, education, and device testing. Understanding the design and physical properties of 3D-printed models is important. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the design, physical properties, accuracy, and experimental outcomes of 3D-printed vascular models used in neurointervention. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature between January 1, 2000 and September 30, 2018. Public/Publisher MEDLINE (PubMed), Web of Science, Compendex, Cochrane, and Inspec databases were searched using Medical Subject Heading terms for design and physical attributes of 3D-printed models for neurointervention. Information on design and physical properties like compliance, lubricity, flow system, accuracy, and outcome measures were collected. RESULTS: A total of 23 articles were included. Nine studies described 3D-printed models for stroke intervention. Tango Plus (Stratasys) was the most common material used to develop these models. Four studies described a population-representative geometry model. All other studies reported patient-specific vascular geometry. Eight studies reported complete reconstruction of the circle of Willis, anterior, and posterior circulation. Four studies reported a model with extracranial vasculature. One prototype study reported compliance and lubricity. Reported circulation systems included manual flushing, programmable pistons, peristaltic, and pulsatile pumps. Outcomes included thrombolysis in cerebral infarction, post-thrombectomy flow restoration, surgical performance, and qualitative feedback. CONCLUSION: Variations exist in the material, design, and extent of reconstruction of vasculature of 3D-printed models. There is a need for objective characterization of 3D-printed vascular models. We propose the development of population representative 3D-printed models for skill improvement or device testing.

3.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; : 104836, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414581

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Effectiveness of mechanical thrombectomy for mild-deficit stroke due to large-vessel occlusion is controversial. We present a single-center consecutive case series on thrombectomy for large-vessel occlusion mild stroke. We evaluated various thrombectomy parameters to better understand disagreement in the literature. METHODS: Data from a retrospective cohort of large-vessel occlusion mild stroke patients (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale <6) treated with mechanical thrombectomy over 6 years and 2 months were analyzed. Patients were divided into 2 groups: successful reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2b or 3) and failed reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 0,1, or 2a). Ninety-day modified Rankin Scale in-hospital mortality, and symptomatic hemorrhage rates were compared between groups. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate reperfusion status as a predictor of 90-day favorable (modified Rankin Scale 0-2) and excellent (modified Rankin Scale 0-1) outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 61 patients with large-vessel occlusion mild stroke who underwent thrombectomy. Reperfusion was successful in 49 patients and a failure in 12. The successful group exhibited significantly higher rates of favorable outcome (83.7% vs. 25.0%; p < 0.001) and excellent outcome (69.4% vs.16.7%; p = 0.002) at 90 days. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in the failure group (41.7% vs.10.2%; p = 0.019). Multivariate logistic regression identified successful reperfusion as a significant predictor (p = 0.001) of 90-day favorable outcome. CONCLUSION: Reperfusion success was significantly associated with improved functional outcomes in large-vessel occlusion mild stroke mechanical thrombectomy. Future studies should consider reperfusion rates when evaluating the effectiveness of thrombectomy against that of medical management in these patients.

4.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection from the SARS-CoV-2 virus has led to the covid-19 pandemic. Given the large number of patients affected, healthcare personnel and facility resources are stretched to the limit; however, the need for urgent and emergent neurosurgical care continues. This article describes best practices when performing neurosurgical procedures on patients with covid-19 based on multi-institutional experiences. METHODS: We assembled neurosurgical practitioners from 13 different health systems from across the USA, including those in hot spots, to describe their practices in managing neurosurgical emergencies within the covid-19 environment. RESULTS: Patients presenting with neurosurgical emergencies should be considered as persons under investigation (PUI) and thus maximal personal protective equipment (PPE) should be donned during interaction and transfer. Intubations and extubations should be done with only anesthesia staff donning maximal PPE in a negative pressure environment. Operating room (OR) staff should enter the room once the air has been cleared of particulate matter. Certain OR suites should be designated as covid ORs, thus allowing for all neurosurgical cases on covid/PUI patients to be performed in these rooms, which will require a terminal clean post procedure. Each covid OR suite should be attached to an anteroom which is a negative pressure room with a HEPA filter, thus allowing for donning and doffing of PPE without risking contamination of clean areas. CONCLUSION: Based on a multi-institutional collaborative effort, we describe best practices when providing neurosurgical treatment for patients with covid-19 in order to optimize clinical care and minimize the exposure of patients and staff.

5.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CT perfusion (CTP) infarct and penumbra estimations determine the eligibility of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) for endovascular intervention. This study aimed to determine volumetric and spatial agreement of predicted RAPID, Vitrea, and Sphere CTP infarct with follow-up fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI infarct. METHODS: 108 consecutive patients with AIS and large vessel occlusion were included in the study between April 2019 and January 2020 . Patients were divided into two groups: endovascular intervention (n=58) and conservative treatment (n=50). Intervention patients were treated with mechanical thrombectomy and achieved successful reperfusion (Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2b/2 c/3) while patients in the conservative treatment group did not receive mechanical thrombectomy or intravenous thrombolysis. Intervention and conservative treatment patients were included to assess infarct and penumbra estimations, respectively. It was assumed that in all patients treated conservatively, penumbra converted to infarct. CTP infarct and penumbra volumes were segmented from RAPID, Vitrea, and Sphere to assess volumetric and spatial agreement with follow-up FLAIR MRI. RESULTS: Mean infarct differences (95% CIs) between each CTP software and FLAIR MRI for each cohort were: intervention cohort: RAPID=9.0±7.7 mL, Sphere=-0.2±8.7 mL, Vitrea=-7.9±8.9 mL; conservative treatment cohort: RAPID=-31.9±21.6 mL, Sphere=-26.8±17.4 mL, Vitrea=-15.3±13.7 mL. Overlap and Dice coefficients for predicted infarct were (overlap, Dice): intervention cohort: RAPID=(0.57, 0.44), Sphere=(0.68, 0.60), Vitrea=(0.70, 0.60); conservative treatment cohort: RAPID=(0.71, 0.56), Sphere=(0.73, 0.60), Vitrea=(0.72, 0.64). CONCLUSIONS: Sphere proved the most accurate in patients who had intervention infarct assessment as Vitrea and RAPID overestimated and underestimated infarct, respectively. Vitrea proved the most accurate in penumbra assessment for patients treated conservatively although all software overestimated penumbra.

8.
Stroke ; 51(5): 1522-1529, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188367

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Antiplatelet agents could be used in the setting of endovascular therapy for tandem occlusions to reduce the risk of de novo intracranial embolic migration, reocclusion of the extracranial internal carotid artery lesion, or in-stent thrombosis in case of carotid stent placement but have to be balanced with the intracerebral hemorrhagic transformation risk. In this study, we aim to investigate the impact of acute antiplatelet therapy administration on outcomes during endovascular therapy for anterior circulation tandem occlusions. Methods- This is a retrospective analysis of a collaborative pooled analysis of 11 prospective databases from the multicenter observational TITAN registry (Thrombectomy in Tandem Lesions). Patients were divided into groups based on the number of antiplatelet administered during endovascular therapy. The primary outcome was favorable outcome, defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 0 to 2 at 90 days. Results- This study included a total of 369 patients; 145 (39.3%) did not receive any antiplatelet agent and 224 (60.7%) received at least 1 antiplatelet agent during the procedure. Rate of favorable outcome was nonsignificantly higher in patients treated with antiplatelet therapy (58.3%) compared with those treated without antiplatelet (46.0%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.38 [95% CI, 0.78-2.43]; P=0.26). Rate of 90-day mortality was significantly lower in patients treated with antiplatelet therapy (11.2% versus 18.7%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.47 [95% CI, 0.22-0.98]; P=0.042), without increasing the risk of any intracerebral hemorrhage. Successful reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Ischemia score 2b-3) rate was significantly better in the antiplatelet therapy group (83.9% versus 71.0%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.89 [95% CI, 1.01-3.64]; P=0.045). Conclusions- Administration of antiplatelet therapy during endovascular therapy for anterior circulation tandem occlusions was safe and was associated with a lower 90-day mortality. Optimal antiplatelet therapy remains to be assessed, especially when emergent carotid artery stenting is performed. Further randomized controlled trials are needed.

9.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 162(6): 1353-1362, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is wide variation in the reported size of ruptured intracranial aneurysms and methods of size estimation. There is widespread belief that small aneurysms < 7 mm do not rupture. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to determine the size of ruptured aneurysms according to aneurysm locations and methods of size estimation. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases using a combination of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. We included articles that reported mean aneurysm size in consecutive series of ruptured intracranial. We excluded studies limited to a specific aneurysm location or type. The random-effects model was used to calculate overall mean size and location-specific mean size. We performed meta-regression to explain observed heterogeneity and variation in reported size. RESULTS: The systematic review included 36 studies and 12,609 ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Overall mean aneurysm size was 7.0 mm (95% confidence interval [CI 6.2-7.4]). Pooled mean size varied with location. Overall mean size of 2145 ruptured anterior circulation aneurysms was 6.0 mm (95% CI 5.6-6.4, residual I2 = 86%). Overall mean size of 743 ruptured posterior circulation aneurysms was 6.2 mm (95% CI 5.3-7.0, residual I2 = 93%). Meta-regression identified aneurysm location and definition of size (i.e., maximum dimension vs. aneurysm height) as significant determinants of aneurysm size reported in the studies. CONCLUSIONS: The mean size of ruptured aneurysms in most studies was approximately 7 mm. The general wisdom that aneurysms of this size do not rupture is incorrect. Location and size definition were significant determinants of aneurysm size.

10.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-10, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217800

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Coverage of the anterior spinal artery (ASA) ostia is a source of considerable consternation regarding flow diversion (FD) in vertebral artery (VA) aneurysms due to cord supply. The authors sought to assess the association between coverage of the ASA, posterior spinal artery (PSA), or lateral spinal artery (LSA) ostia when placing flow diverters in distal VAs and clinical outcomes, with emphasis on cord infarction. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study of 7 institutions in which VA aneurysms were treated with FD between 2011 and 2019 was performed. The authors evaluated the risk of ASA and PSA/LSA occlusion, associated thromboembolic complication, complications overall, aneurysm occlusion status, and functional outcome. RESULTS: Sixty patients with 63 VA and posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms treated with FD were identified. The median aneurysm diameter was 7 mm and fusiform type was the commonest morphology (42.9%). During a procedure, 1 (61.7%) or 2 (33.3%) flow diverters were placed. Complete occlusion was achieved in 71.9%. Symptomatic thromboembolic complications occurred in 7.4% of cases and intracranial hemorrhage in 10.0% of cases. The ASA and PSA/LSA were identified in 51 (80.9%) and 35 (55.6%) complications and covered by the flow diverter in 29 (56.9%) and 13 (37.1%) of the procedures, respectively. Patency after flow diverter coverage on last follow-up was 89.2% for ASA and 100% for PSA/LSA, not significantly different between covered and noncovered groups (p = 0.5 and p > 0.99, respectively). No complications arose from coverage. CONCLUSIONS: FD aneurysm treatment in the posterior circulation with coverage of ASA or PSA/LSA was not associated with higher rates of occlusion of these branches or any instances of cord infarction.

11.
World Neurosurg ; 137: e454-e461, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite an increasing focus on endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms, microsurgical clipping remains an integral part of management. We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of microsurgical clipping performed by dual-trained neurosurgeons at our institute, which has adopted an endovascular first approach. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed clinical and radiographic data of 412 aneurysms in 375 patients treated with microsurgical clipping. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictive outcome factors. We defined favorable outcome as a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0-2 at last clinical follow-up; unfavorable outcome was an mRS score of 3-6. We compared outcomes in our series with those of seminal aneurysm clipping series. RESULTS: Clipping of 330 of 351 unruptured aneurysms (94.01%) was associated with favorable outcome during the follow-up period (mean, 26.5 months). On univariate analysis, older patient age, intraoperative rupture, and higher baseline mRS scores were associated with unfavorable outcome in the unruptured cohort. On multivariate analysis, older age, higher baseline mRS scores, and posterior circulation aneurysm location were predictive of unfavorable outcome. Clipping of 46 of 61 ruptured aneurysms (75.4%) was associated with favorable outcome during the follow-up period (mean, 23.1 months). On univariate analysis, left-sided aneurysms, intraoperative rupture, and large aneurysm size were associated with unfavorable outcome in the ruptured cohort. On multivariate analysis, female sex was predictive of unfavorable outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our ruptured and unruptured cohort results compared favorably with those in seminal series. Treatment by neurosurgeons adept at both endovascular and microsurgical techniques may improve clinical outcomes.

12.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A new dual resolution imaging x-ray detector system (Canon Medical Systems Corporation, Tochigi, Japan) has a standard resolution 194 µm pixel conventional flat-panel detector (FPD) mode and a high-resolution 76 µm high-definition (Hi-Def) mode in a single unit. The Hi-Def mode enhances the visualization of the intravascular devices. OBJECTIVE: We report the clinical experience and physician evaluation of this new detector system with Hi-Def mode for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms using a Pipeline embolization device (PED). METHODS: During intervention at our institute, under large field of view (FOV) regular resolution FPD mode imaging, the catheter systems and devices were first guided to the proximity of the treatment area. Final placement and deployment of the PED was performed under Hi-Def mode guidance. A post-procedure 9-question physician survey was conducted to qualitatively assess the impact of Hi-Def mode visualization on physicians' intraoperative decision-making. One-sample t-test was performed on the responses from the survey. Dose values reported by the x-ray unit were also recorded. RESULTS: Twenty-five cases were included in our study. The survey results indicated that, for each of the nine questions, the physicians in all cases indicated that the Hi-Def mode improved visualization compared with the FPD mode. For the 25 cases, the mean cumulative entrance air kerma was 2.35 Gy, the mean dose area product (DAP) was 173.71 Gy.cm2, and the mean x-ray exposure time was 39.30 min. CONCLUSIONS: The Hi-Def mode improves visualization of flow diverters and may help in achieving more accurate placement and deployment of devices.

13.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-6, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978888

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The mortality rates for stroke are decreasing, yet it remains a leading cause of disability and the principal neurological diagnosis in patients discharged to nursing homes. The societal and economic burdens of stroke are substantial, with the total annual health care costs of stroke expected to reach $240.7 billion by 2030. Mechanical thrombectomy has been shown to improve functional outcomes compared to medical therapy alone. Despite an incremental cost of $10,840 compared to medical therapy, the improvement in functional outcomes and decreased disability have contributed to the cost-effectiveness of the procedure. In this study the authors describe a physician-led device bundle purchase program implemented for the delivery of stroke care. METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiographic data and device-associated charges of 45 consecutive patients in whom a virtual "stroke bundle" model was used to purchase mechanical thrombectomy devices. RESULTS: Use of the stroke bundle to purchase mechanical thrombectomy devices resulted in an average savings per case of $2900.93. Compared to the traditional model of charging for devices à la carte, this represented an average savings of 25.2% per case. The total amount of savings for these initial 45 cases was $130,542.00. Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction scale grade 2b or 3 recanalization occurred in 38 patients (84.4%) using these devices. CONCLUSIONS: Purchasing devices through a bundled model resulted in substantial cost savings while maintaining the therapeutic efficacy of the procedure, further pushing the already beneficial long-term cost-benefit curve in favor of thrombectomy.

14.
Curr Neurovasc Res ; 17(1): 58-70, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) by flow diverter (FD) stents depends on flow modification. Patient-specific modeling of FD deployment and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) could enable a priori endovascular strategy optimization. We developed a fast, simplistic, expansion-free balls-weeping algorithm to model FDs in patientspecific aneurysm geometry. However, since such strong simplification could result in less accurate simulations, we also developed a fast virtual stenting workflow (VSW) that explicitly models stent expansion using pseudo-physical forces. METHODS: To test which of these two fast algorithms more accurately simulates real FDs, we applied them to virtually treat three representative patient-specific IAs. We deployed Pipeline Embolization Device into 3 patient-specific silicone aneurysm phantoms and simulated the treatments using both balls-weeping and VSW algorithms in computational aneurysm models. We then compared the virtually deployed FD stents against experimental results in terms of geometry and post-treatment flow fields. For stent geometry, we evaluated gross configurations and porosity. For post-treatment aneurysmal flow, we compared CFD results against experimental measurements by particle image velocimetry. RESULTS: We found that VSW created more realistic FD deployments than balls-weeping in terms of stent geometry, porosity and pore density. In particular, balls-weeping produced unrealistic FD bulging at the aneurysm neck, and this artifact drastically increased with neck size. Both FD deployment methods resulted in similar flow patterns, but the VSW had less error in flow velocity and inflow rate. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, modeling stent expansion is critical for preventing unrealistic bulging effects and thus should be considered in virtual FD deployment algorithms. Also endowed with its high computational efficiency and superior accuracy, the VSW algorithm is a better candidate for implementation into a bedside clinical tool for FD deployment simulation.

15.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 12(6): 585-590, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A Pipeline embolization device (PED; Medtronic, Dublin, Ireland) can be deployed using either a biaxial or a triaxial catheter delivery system. OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of these two catheter delivery systems for intracranial aneurysm treatment with the PED. METHODS: A retrospective study of patients undergoing PED deployment with biaxial or triaxial catheter systems between 2014 and 2016 was conducted. Experienced neurointerventionalists performed the procedures. Patients who received multiple PEDs or adjunctive coils were excluded. The two groups were compared for PED deployment time, total fluoroscopy time, patient radiation exposure, complications, and cost. RESULTS: Eighty-two patients with 89 intracranial aneurysms were treated with one PED each. In 49 cases, PEDs were deployed using biaxial access; triaxial access was used in 33 cases. Time (min) from guide catheter run to PED deployment was significantly shorter in the biaxial group (24.0±18.7 vs 38.4±31.1, P=0.006) as was fluoroscopy time (28.8±23.0 vs 50.3±27.1, P=0.001). Peak radiation skin exposure (mGy) in the biaxial group was less than in the triaxial group (1243.7±808.2 vs 2074.6±1505.6, P=0.003). No statistically significant differences were observed in transient and permanent complication rates or modified Rankin Scale scores at 30 days. The triaxial access system cost more than the biaxial access system (average $3285 vs $1790, respectively). Occlusion rates at last follow-up (mean 6 months) were similar between the two systems (average 88.1%: biaxial, 89.2%: triaxial). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate near-equivalent safety and effectiveness between biaxial and triaxial approaches. Some reductions in cost and procedure time were noted with the biaxial system.

18.
Neurosurgery ; 86(2): 266-271, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Pipeline Embolization Device (PED; Medtronic, Dublin, Ireland) has become an important tool for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms. Since FDA approval, there are ongoing efforts to increase aneurysm occlusion rates and reduce the incidence of complications. OBJECTIVE: To assess aneurysm occlusion and complication rates over time. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of consecutive anterior circulation aneurysms treated with a single PED between 2011 and 2016 at 3 academic institutions in the US was performed. Factors contributing to changes in aneurysm occlusion and complication rates over time were identified and evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 284 procedures were performed on 321 anterior circulation aneurysms in 284 patients. At a median follow-up of 13 mo (mean 18 mo), complete or near complete occlusion (>90%) was achieved in 85.9% of aneurysms. There was no significant change in aneurysm occlusion rate or procedure length over time. Thromboembolic complication occurred in 8.1% of procedures, and there was a trend toward decreased incidence from 16.3% in 2011/2012 to 3.3% in 2016 (P = .14). Hemorrhagic complications significantly decreased from 8.2% in 2011/2012 to 0 to 1.0% in 2014-2016 (P = .1). CONCLUSION: We report a notable drop in the rate of hemorrhagic and to a lesser extent thromboembolic complications with increased experience with PED in a multicenter cohort. Multiple factors are believed to contribute to this drop, including the evolved interpretation of platelet function testing, the switching of clopidogrel nonresponders to ticagrelor, and the reduced use of adjunctive coiling.

19.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 12(3): 260-265, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444289

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Accurate estimation of the incidence of large vessel occlusion (LVO) is critical for planning stroke systems of care and approximating workforce requirements. This systematic review aimed to estimate the prevalence of LVO among patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS), with emphasis on definitions and methods used by different studies. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed to search for articles on the prevalence of LVO and AIS. All articles describing the frequency of LVO frequency among AIS patients were included. Studies without consecutive recruitment or confirmation of LVO with CT angiography or MR angiography were excluded. Heterogeneity of the studies was assessed; meta-regression was performed to estimate the effect of LVO definition and study methods on LVO prevalence. RESULTS: 18 articles met the inclusion criteria: 5 studies presented population based estimates; 13 provided single hospital experiences (5 prospective, 8 retrospective). The AIS denominator (number of all AIS) from which LVO rates were generated was variable. Nine different definitions were used, based on occlusion site. Significant heterogeneity existed among the studies (I2=99%, P<0.001). The prevalence of LVO among patients with suspected AIS ranged from 13% to 52%. Overall prevalence was 30.0% (95% CI 25.0% to 35.0%). Pooled prevalence of LVO among suspected AIS patients was 21% (95% CI 19% to 30%). Based on meta-regression, the method of AIS denominator determination significantly influenced heterogeneity (P=0.018). CONCLUSION: The heterogeneity of LVO estimates was remarkably high. The method of AIS denominator determination was the most significant predictor of LVO estimates. Studies with a standardized LVO definition and methods of AIS estimation are necessary to estimate the true prevalence of LVO among patients with AIS.

20.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 12(2): 115-121, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thrombectomy is an efficacious treatment for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). However, relatively few studies to date have specifically examined the impact and clinical implications of age on outcomes for thrombectomy in anterior AIS. OBJECTIVE: To provide a snapshot of patient metrics and outcomes with respect to age following thrombectomy for anterior AIS to supplement the current body of data for predictors of clinical outcomes in a real-world setting. METHODS: Data were collected for 20 consecutive patients with AIS treated with thrombectomy at 15 high-volume stroke centers across North America between 2015 and 2016. Patients with anterior occlusions were dichotomized based on whether they were older or younger than 80 years. Ordinal logistic regression analyzed how clinical variables impacted disability using 90-day modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores. RESULTS: Adequate revascularization (TICI ≥2B) was achieved in 92.3% of patients aged <80 years with an average 1.7±0.1 passes taken with the primary technique and in 88.0% of patients aged ≥80 years with an average 1.7±0.2 passes. Despite similar baseline characteristics, mRS scores were significantly higher in older patients postoperatively and at 90 days after intervention. Age was a significant predictor of 90-day mRS across the study population. CONCLUSION: This analysis affirms age is a significant determinant of 90-day mRS scores following thrombectomy for large vessel anterior AIS. Further investigation into risks faced by elderly patients during thrombectomy may provide actionable information to help refine patient selection and improve outcomes.

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