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Toxicon ; 157: 18-24, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448287


The aim of this study was to obtain the first data on the occurrence and distribution of potentially toxic cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in the Russian Easternmost part of the Gulf of Finland of the Baltic Sea. Studied samples were collected from 2012 to 2017 and three independent approaches - HPLC-HRMS, PCR and light microscopy were applied for cyanotoxins analysis and detection of toxigenic cyanobacteria. Aphanizomenon flos-aquae Ralfs ex Born. et Flah., Planktothrix agardhii (Gom.) Anag. et Kom., Microcystis aeruginosa (Kütz.) Kütz. and Dolichospermum spp. dominated among cyanobacteria in collected samples. In 2012-2013 during research cruises, microcystins concentrations varied from below detection levels to low (0.01-0.6 µg L-1) values. In the autumn of 2015 and 2017, during cyanobacterial bloom events very high concentrations of microcystins (dissolved up to 49 µg L-1, intracellular up to 466 µg g-1) and dissolved anatoxin-a (1.4 µg L-1) were detected. The evaluated toxin profile was represented by most common arginine-containing variants of microcystins (MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-YR) and their desmethylated forms. Leucine-containing congeners (MC-LF; MC-LY; MC-LW for the biomass sample from the coast of Komarovo, 2015) were found at low concentrations. In environmental DNA from bloom samples, we identified mcy genes regions responsible for MC biosynthesis that are specific for Dolichospermum, Microcystis, and Planktothrix. This study is the first molecular evidence the ability of Microcystis aeruginosa and Planktothrix agardhii from the Gulf of Finland to produce microcystins. On the basis of the obtained data of genus-specific PCR and microscopy, we suppose the presence of anatoxin-a-producing Apanizomenon flos-aquae population in the phytoplankton of Russian part of the Gulf of Finland.

Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microcistinas/análise , Água do Mar/química , Tropanos/análise , Cianobactérias/classificação , Cianobactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Eutrofização , Oceanos e Mares , Federação Russa
Toxicon ; 130: 47-55, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28235579


Last decades, cyanobacterial blooms have been commonly reported in Russia. Among the boom-forming species, potential toxin producers have been identified. The aim of this paper was to study the presence of neurotoxic compounds - saxitoxins and anatoxin-a - in water bodies from different regions of Russia. We also made attempts to identify the neurotoxin-producing genera. The good convergence of the results obtained by light microscopy, PCR and LC-MS/MS analyses indicated the presence of active neurotoxin producing species in all investigated water bodies. Saxitoxin was detected in phytoplankton from 4 water bodies in Central European Russia and West Siberia, including lake and reservoirs used as a source for potable water. The water bodies differed with the respect of saxitoxin producers which belonged to Aphanizomenon and/or Dolichospermum genera. For the first time, we obtained quantitative data on the intracellular saxitoxin concentration in Russian freshwaters using LC-MS/MS. Anatoxin-a was detected only in lakes of Northwestern Russia. In the eutrophic shallow Lower Suzdal Lake, Aphanizomenon was the stated anatoxin-a-producing genus. In the large shallow artificial hypertrophic Sestroretskij Razliv Lake, it was very likely that both dominant species - Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Dolichospermum planctonicum - were anatoxin-a producers.

Aphanizomenon/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Água Doce/química , Neurotoxinas/metabolismo , Aphanizomenon/genética , Aphanizomenon/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida , Cianobactérias/genética , Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas , Neurotoxinas/química , Neurotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Federação Russa , Saxitoxina/química , Saxitoxina/isolamento & purificação , Saxitoxina/metabolismo , Tropanos/química , Tropanos/isolamento & purificação , Tropanos/metabolismo
Aquat Biosyst ; 9(1): 18, 2013 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24079446


BACKGROUND: The permanent dominance of Planktothrix-like сyanobacteria has been often reported for shallow eutrophic\hypertrophic lakes in central Europe in summer\autumn. However studies on phytoplankton growth under ice cover in nutrient-rich lakes are very scarce. Lake Nero provides a good example of the contrasting seasonal extremes in environmental conditions. Moreover, the ecosystem underwent a catastrophic transition from eutrophic to hypertrophic 2003-05, with dominance of filamentous cyanobacteria in summer\autumn. Towards the end of the period of ice cover, there is an almost complete lack of light and oxygen but abundance in nutrients, especially ammonium nitrogen, soluble reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus in lake Nero. The aim of the present study was to describe species composition and abundance of the phytoplankton, in relation to the abiotic properties of the habitat to the end of winters 1999-2010. We were interested if Planktothrix-like сyanobacteria kept their dominant role under the ice conditions or only survived, and how did the under-ice phytoplankton community differ from year to year. RESULTS: Samples collected contained 172 algal taxa of sub-generic rank. Abundance of phytoplankton varied widely from very low to the bloom level. Cyanobacteria (Limnothrix, Pseudanabaena, Planktothrix) were present in all winter samples but did not always dominate. Favourable conditions included low winter temperature, thicker ice, almost complete lack of oxygen and high ammonium concentration. Flagellates belonging to Euglenophyta and Cryptophyta dominated in warmer winters, when phosphorus concentrations increased. CONCLUSION: A full picture of algal succession in the lake may be obtained only if systematic winter observations are taken into account. Nearly anoxic conditions, severe light deficiency and high concentration of biogenic elements present a highly selective environment for phytoplankton. Hypertrophic water bodies of moderate zone covered by ice in winter and dominated by Planktothrix - like сyanobacteria in summer/autumn may follow several scenarios in the end of winter. It may be intense proliferation сyanobacteria normally dominating in summer, or the switch to the other species like the euglenoids and cryptomonads flagellates, or almost total depletion of phytoplankton.