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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3009, 2019 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285442

RESUMO

Quantitative genetics theory predicts that X-chromosome dosage compensation (DC) will have a detectable effect on the amount of genetic and therefore phenotypic trait variances at associated loci in males and females. Here, we systematically examine the role of DC in humans in 20 complex traits in a sample of more than 450,000 individuals from the UK Biobank and 1600 gene expression traits from a sample of 2000 individuals as well as across-tissue gene expression from the GTEx resource. We find approximately twice as much X-linked genetic variation across the UK Biobank traits in males (mean h2SNP = 0.63%) compared to females (mean h2SNP = 0.30%), confirming the predicted DC effect. Our DC estimates for complex traits and gene expression are consistent with a small proportion of genes escaping X-inactivation in a trait- and tissue-dependent manner. Finally, we highlight examples of biologically relevant X-linked heterogeneity between the sexes that bias DC estimates if unaccounted for.


Assuntos
Genes Ligados ao Cromossomo X/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Inativação do Cromossomo X/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Fatores Sexuais
2.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 180(6): 439-447, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30708398

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is clinically heterogeneous with prevalence rates twice as high in women as in men. There are many possible sources of heterogeneity in MDD most of which are not measured in a sufficiently comparable way across study samples. Here, we assess genetic heterogeneity based on two fundamental measures, between-cohort and between-sex heterogeneity. First, we used genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics to investigate between-cohort genetic heterogeneity using the 29 research cohorts of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC; N cases = 16,823, N controls = 25,632) and found that some of the cohort heterogeneity can be attributed to ascertainment differences (such as recruitment of cases from hospital vs. community sources). Second, we evaluated between-sex genetic heterogeneity using GWAS summary statistics from the PGC, Kaiser Permanente GERA, UK Biobank, and the Danish iPSYCH studies but did not find convincing evidence for genetic differences between the sexes. We conclude that there is no evidence that the heterogeneity between MDD data sets and between sexes reflects genetic heterogeneity. Larger sample sizes with detailed phenotypic records and genomic data remain the key to overcome heterogeneity inherent in assessment of MDD.

3.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5407, 2018 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573740

RESUMO

Male pattern baldness (MPB) is a sex-limited, age-related, complex trait. We study MPB genetics in 205,327 European males from the UK Biobank. Here we show that MPB is strongly heritable and polygenic, with pedigree-heritability of 0.62 (SE = 0.03) estimated from close relatives, and SNP-heritability of 0.39 (SE = 0.01) from conventionally-unrelated males. We detect 624 near-independent genome-wide loci, contributing SNP-heritability of 0.25 (SE = 0.01), of which 26 X-chromosome loci explain 11.6%. Autosomal genetic variance is enriched for common variants and regions of lower linkage disequilibrium. We identify plausible genetic correlations between MPB and multiple sex-limited markers of earlier puberty, increased bone mineral density (rg = 0.15) and pancreatic ß-cell function (rg = 0.12). Correlations with reproductive traits imply an effect on fitness, consistent with an estimated linear selection gradient of -0.018 per MPB standard deviation. Overall, we provide genetic insights into MPB: a phenotype of interest in its own right, with value as a model sex-limited, complex trait.


Assuntos
Alopecia/genética , Pleiotropia Genética , Variação Genética , Fatores Etários , Densidade Óssea , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Reino Unido
4.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4953, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459399

RESUMO

The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of the author Julia Sidorenko, which was incorrectly given as Julia Sirodenko. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article. Further, the sixth sentence of the second paragraph of the Correspondence and the legend to Fig. 1 incorrectly omitted citation of work by Heilmann-Helmbach, S. et al. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

5.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(20): 3641-3649, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30124842

RESUMO

Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of height and body mass index (BMI) in ∼250000 European participants have led to the discovery of ∼700 and ∼100 nearly independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with these traits, respectively. Here we combine summary statistics from those two studies with GWAS of height and BMI performed in ∼450000 UK Biobank participants of European ancestry. Overall, our combined GWAS meta-analysis reaches N âˆ¼700000 individuals and substantially increases the number of GWAS signals associated with these traits. We identified 3290 and 941 near-independent SNPs associated with height and BMI, respectively (at a revised genome-wide significance threshold of P < 1 × 10-8), including 1185 height-associated SNPs and 751 BMI-associated SNPs located within loci not previously identified by these two GWAS. The near-independent genome-wide significant SNPs explain ∼24.6% of the variance of height and ∼6.0% of the variance of BMI in an independent sample from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Correlations between polygenic scores based upon these SNPs with actual height and BMI in HRS participants were ∼0.44 and ∼0.22, respectively. From analyses of integrating GWAS and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data by summary-data-based Mendelian randomization, we identified an enrichment of eQTLs among lead height and BMI signals, prioritizing 610 and 138 genes, respectively. Our study demonstrates that, as previously predicted, increasing GWAS sample sizes continues to deliver, by the discovery of new loci, increasing prediction accuracy and providing additional data to achieve deeper insight into complex trait biology. All summary statistics are made available for follow-up studies.

6.
Nat Genet ; 50(8): 1112-1121, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30038396

RESUMO

Here we conducted a large-scale genetic association analysis of educational attainment in a sample of approximately 1.1 million individuals and identify 1,271 independent genome-wide-significant SNPs. For the SNPs taken together, we found evidence of heterogeneous effects across environments. The SNPs implicate genes involved in brain-development processes and neuron-to-neuron communication. In a separate analysis of the X chromosome, we identify 10 independent genome-wide-significant SNPs and estimate a SNP heritability of around 0.3% in both men and women, consistent with partial dosage compensation. A joint (multi-phenotype) analysis of educational attainment and three related cognitive phenotypes generates polygenic scores that explain 11-13% of the variance in educational attainment and 7-10% of the variance in cognitive performance. This prediction accuracy substantially increases the utility of polygenic scores as tools in research.

8.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2941, 2018 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054458

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a very common disease in humans. Here we conduct a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with ~16 million genetic variants in 62,892 T2D cases and 596,424 controls of European ancestry. We identify 139 common and 4 rare variants associated with T2D, 42 of which (39 common and 3 rare variants) are independent of the known variants. Integration of the gene expression data from blood (n = 14,115 and 2765) with the GWAS results identifies 33 putative functional genes for T2D, 3 of which were targeted by approved drugs. A further integration of DNA methylation (n = 1980) and epigenomic annotation data highlight 3 genes (CAMK1D, TP53INP1, and ATP5G1) with plausible regulatory mechanisms, whereby a genetic variant exerts an effect on T2D through epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Our study uncovers additional loci, proposes putative genetic regulatory mechanisms for T2D, and provides evidence of purifying selection for T2D-associated variants.

9.
Nat Genet ; 50(5): 746-753, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29662166

RESUMO

We develop a Bayesian mixed linear model that simultaneously estimates single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability, polygenicity (proportion of SNPs with nonzero effects), and the relationship between SNP effect size and minor allele frequency for complex traits in conventionally unrelated individuals using genome-wide SNP data. We apply the method to 28 complex traits in the UK Biobank data (N = 126,752) and show that on average, 6% of SNPs have nonzero effects, which in total explain 22% of phenotypic variance. We detect significant (P < 0.05/28) signatures of natural selection in the genetic architecture of 23 traits, including reproductive, cardiovascular, and anthropometric traits, as well as educational attainment. The significant estimates of the relationship between effect size and minor allele frequency in complex traits are consistent with a model of negative (or purifying) selection, as confirmed by forward simulation. We conclude that negative selection acts pervasively on the genetic variants associated with human complex traits.

10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(1): 151-156, 2018 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29255044

RESUMO

Modern molecular genetic datasets, primarily collected to study the biology of human health and disease, can be used to directly measure the action of natural selection and reveal important features of contemporary human evolution. Here we leverage the UK Biobank data to test for the presence of linear and nonlinear natural selection in a contemporary population of the United Kingdom. We obtain phenotypic and genetic evidence consistent with the action of linear/directional selection. Phenotypic evidence suggests that stabilizing selection, which acts to reduce variance in the population without necessarily modifying the population mean, is widespread and relatively weak in comparison with estimates from other species.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Seleção Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido
11.
Mutat Res ; 797-799: 26-37, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28340408

RESUMO

Sublines of the major P. aeruginosa reference strain PAO1 are derivatives of the original PAO1 isolate, which are maintained in laboratories worldwide. These sublines display substantial genomic and phenotypic variation due to ongoing microevolution. Here, we examined four sublines, MPAO1, PAO1-L, PAO1-DSM and PAO1-UT, originated from different laboratories, and six DNA polymerase-deficient mutants from the P. aeruginosa MPAO1 transposon library for their employment in elucidation of DNA damage repair and tolerance mechanisms in P. aeruginosa. We found that PAO1 subline PAO1-UT carries a large deletion encompassing the DNA damage inducible imuA-imuB-imuC cassette (PA0669-PA0671), which is implied in mutagenesis in several species. Furthermore, the genetic changes leading to variation in the functionality of the MexEF-OprN efflux system contributed largely to the phenotypic discordance between P. aeruginosa PAO1 sublines. Specifically, we identified multiple mutations in the mexT gene, which encodes a transcriptional regulator of the mexEF-oprN genes, mutations in the mexF, and complete absence of these genes. Of the four tested sublines, MPAO1 was the only subline with the functional MexEF-OprN multidrug efflux system. Active efflux through MexEF-OprN rendered MPAO1 highly resistant to chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin. Moreover, the functions of specialized DNA polymerase IV and nucleotide excision repair (NER) in 4-NQO-induced DNA damage tolerance appeared to be masked in MPAO1, while were easily detectable in other sublines. Finally, the frequencies of spontaneous and MMS-induced Rifr mutations were also significantly lower in MPAO1 in comparison to the PAO1 sublines with impaired MexEF-OprN efflux system. The MexEF-OprN-attributed differences were also observed between MPAO1 and MPAO1-derived transposon mutants from the two-allele transposon mutant collection. Thus, the accumulating mutations and discordant phenotypes of the PAO1 derivatives challenge the reproducibility and comparability of the results obtained with different PAO1 sublines and also limit the usage of the MPAO1 transposon library in DNA damage tolerance and mutagenesis studies.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Evolução Molecular , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Mutação , Plasmídeos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0170719, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28118378

RESUMO

Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), facilitated by low-fidelity polymerases, is an important DNA damage tolerance mechanism. Here, we investigated the role and biological function of TLS polymerase ImuC (former DnaE2), generally present in bacteria lacking DNA polymerase V, and TLS polymerase DinB in response to DNA alkylation damage in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and P. putida. We found that TLS DNA polymerases ImuC and DinB ensured a protective role against N- and O-methylation induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in both P. aeruginosa and P. putida. DinB also appeared to be important for the survival of P. aeruginosa and rapidly growing P. putida cells in the presence of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). The role of ImuC in protection against MMS-induced damage was uncovered under DinB-deficient conditions. Apart from this, both ImuC and DinB were critical for the survival of bacteria with impaired base excision repair (BER) functions upon alkylation damage, lacking DNA glycosylases AlkA and/or Tag. Here, the increased sensitivity of imuCdinB double deficient strains in comparison to single mutants suggested that the specificity of alkylated DNA lesion bypass of DinB and ImuC might also be different. Moreover, our results demonstrated that mutagenesis induced by MMS in pseudomonads was largely ImuC-dependent. Unexpectedly, we discovered that the growth temperature of bacteria affected the efficiency of DinB and ImuC in ensuring cell survival upon alkylation damage. Taken together, the results of our study disclosed the involvement of ImuC in DNA alkylation damage tolerance, especially at low temperatures, and its possible contribution to the adaptation of pseudomonads upon DNA alkylation damage via increased mutagenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/fisiologia , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/fisiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Pseudomonas putida/genética , Alquilação , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Adutos de DNA/metabolismo , DNA Glicosilases/deficiência , DNA Glicosilases/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/deficiência , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Genes Reporter , Óperon Lac , Metanossulfonato de Metila/farmacologia , Metilnitronitrosoguanidina/farmacologia , Mutagênicos/farmacologia , Mutação , Fenótipo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzimologia , Pseudomonas putida/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas putida/enzimologia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Rifamicinas/farmacologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura Ambiente
13.
DNA Repair (Amst) ; 25: 15-26, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25463394

RESUMO

In addition to its prominence in producing genetic diversity in bacterial species, homologous recombination (HR) plays a key role in DNA repair and damage tolerance. The frequency of HR depends on several factors, including the efficiency of DNA repair systems as HR is involved in recovery of replication forks perturbed by DNA damage. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is one of the major DNA repair pathways involved in repair of a broad range of DNA lesions generally induced by exogenous chemicals or UV-irradiation and its functions in the cells not exposed to DNA-damaging agents have attracted less attention. In this study we have developed an assay that enables to investigate HR between chromosomal loci of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida both in growing and stationary-phase cells. The present assay detects HR events between two non-functional alleles of phenol degrading genes that produce a functional allele and allow the growth of bacteria on phenol as a sole carbon source. Our results indicate that HR between chromosomal loci takes place mainly in the growing cells and the frequency of HR is reduced during the following starvation in NER-proficient P. putida but not in the case when bacteria lack UvrA or UvrB enzymes. The absence of UvrA or UvrB resulted in a hyper-recombination phenotype in P. putida, the cells were filamented and their growth was impaired even in the absence of exogenous DNA damage. However, NER-deficient derivatives that overcame growth defects emerged rapidly. Such adaptation resulted in the decline of the frequency of HR. Although HR in actively replicating P. putida was still elevated in the adapted variants of the UvrA- and UvrB-deficient strains, the dynamics of emergence of the recombinants in these strains turned similar to NER-proficient bacteria. Additionally, we observed that HR was enhanced in the absence of the transcription repair coupling factor Mfd in growing cells but not during starvation. The frequency of HR was not affected by the UvrA homologue UvrA2 neither in NER-proficient bacteria nor in the absence of UvrA, suggesting a minor role of UvrA2 in NER. Thus, we conclude that NER functions are important also without exogenously induced DNA damage in P. putida and both transcription-coupled and global genome NER act to suppress HR in growing cells, whereas UvrA and UvrB are involved in the maintenance of the genome integrity also in stationary-phase cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Pseudomonas putida/genética , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Dano ao DNA , Instabilidade Genômica , Pseudomonas putida/enzimologia , Pseudomonas putida/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
14.
Mutat Res ; 737(1-2): 12-24, 2012 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22917545

RESUMO

Homologous recombination (HR) has a major impact in bacterial evolution. Most of the knowledge about the mechanisms and control of HR in bacteria has been obtained in fast growing bacteria. However, in their natural environment bacteria frequently meet adverse conditions which restrict the growth of cells. We have constructed a test system to investigate HR between a plasmid and a chromosome in carbon-starved populations of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida restoring the expression of phenol monooxygenase gene pheA. Our results show that prolonged starvation of P. putida in the presence of phenol stimulates HR. The emergence of recombinants on selective plates containing phenol as an only carbon source for the growth of recombinants is facilitated by reactive oxygen species and suppressed by DNA mismatch repair enzymes. Importantly, the chromosomal location of the HR target influences the frequency and dynamics of HR events. In silico analysis of binding sites of nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs) revealed that chromosomal DNA regions which flank the test system in bacteria exhibiting a lower HR frequency are enriched in binding sites for a subset of NAPs compared to those which express a higher frequency of HR. We hypothesize that the binding of these proteins imposes differences in local structural organization of the genome that could affect the accessibility of the chromosomal DNA to HR processes and thereby the frequency of HR.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Cromossomos Bacterianos , Recombinação Homóloga , Pseudomonas putida/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Estresse Oxidativo , Fenol/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
15.
Mutat Res ; 714(1-2): 63-77, 2011 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21763330

RESUMO

The majority of bacteria possess a different set of specialized DNA polymerases than those identified in the most common model organism Escherichia coli. Here, we have studied the ability of specialized DNA polymerases to substitute Pol I in DNA replication in Pseudomonas putida. Our results revealed that P. putida Pol I-deficient cells have severe growth defects in LB medium, which is accompanied by filamentous cell morphology. However, growth of Pol I-deficient bacteria on solid rich medium can be restored by reduction of reactive oxygen species in cells. Also, mutants with improved growth emerge rapidly. Similarly to the initial Pol I-deficient P. putida, its adapted derivatives express a moderate mutator phenotype, which indicates that DNA replication carried out in the absence of Pol I is erroneous both in the original Pol I-deficient bacteria and the adapted derivatives. Analysis of the spectra of spontaneous Rif(r) mutations in P. putida strains lacking different DNA polymerases revealed that the presence of specialized DNA polymerases Pol II and Pol IV influences the frequency of certain base substitutions in Pol I-proficient and Pol I-deficient backgrounds in opposite ways. Involvement of another specialized DNA polymerase DnaE2 in DNA replication in Pol I-deficient bacteria is stimulated by UV irradiation of bacteria, implying that DnaE2-provided translesion synthesis partially substitutes the absence of Pol I in cells containing heavily damaged DNA.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/fisiologia , DNA Polimerase III/metabolismo , DNA Polimerase II/metabolismo , DNA Polimerase I/metabolismo , DNA Polimerase beta/metabolismo , Mutação , Pseudomonas putida/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , DNA Polimerase I/genética , Reparo do DNA , Replicação do DNA , Pseudomonas putida/genética , Pseudomonas putida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pseudomonas putida/efeitos da radiação , Tolerância a Radiação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/farmacologia , Raios Ultravioleta
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