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1.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(10): 1218-1229, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564157

RESUMO

AIMS: Abnormal femoral torsion (FT) is increasingly recognized as an additional cause for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). It is unknown if in-toeing of the foot is a specific diagnostic sign for increased FT in patients with symptomatic FAI. The aims of this study were to determine: 1) the prevalence and diagnostic accuracy of in-toeing to detect increased FT; 2) if foot progression angle (FPA) and tibial torsion (TT) are different among patients with abnormal FT; and 3) if FPA correlates with FT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective, institutional review board (IRB)-approved, controlled study of 85 symptomatic patients (148 hips) with FAI or hip dysplasia was performed in the gait laboratory. All patients had a measurement of FT (pelvic CT scan), TT (CT scan), and FPA (optical motion capture system). We allocated all patients to three groups with decreased FT (< 10°, 37 hips), increased FT (> 25°, 61 hips), and normal FT (10° to 25°, 50 hips). Cluster analysis was performed. RESULTS: We found a specificity of 99%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 93%, and sensitivity of 23% for in-toeing (FPA < 0°) to detect increased FT > 25°. Most of the hips with normal or decreased FT had no in-toeing (false-positive rate of 1%). Patients with increased FT had significantly (p < 0.001) more in-toeing than patients with decreased FT. The majority of the patients (77%) with increased FT walk with a normal foot position. The correlation between FPA and FT was significant (r = 0.404, p < 0.001). Five cluster groups were identified. CONCLUSION: In-toeing has a high specificity and high PPV to detect increased FT, but increased FT can be missed because of the low sensitivity and high false-negative rate. These results can be used for diagnosis of abnormal FT in patients with FAI or hip dysplasia undergoing hip arthroscopy or femoral derotation osteotomy. However, most of the patients with increased FT walk with a normal foot position. This can lead to underestimation or misdiagnosis of abnormal FT. We recommend measuring FT with CT/MRI scans in all patients with FAI. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1218-1229.


Assuntos
Artroscopia/métodos , Impacto Femoroacetabular/cirurgia , Imagem Tridimensional , Metatarso Valgo/diagnóstico por imagem , Metatarso Varo/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteotomia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Impacto Femoroacetabular/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Metatarso Valgo/epidemiologia , Metatarso Varo/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteotomia/métodos , Prevalência , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Anormalidade Torcional/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
2.
Am J Sports Med ; : 363546519873666, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains unclear whether decreased femoral version (FV) causes anterior intra- or extra-articular femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Therefore, we evaluated symptomatic hips with decreased FV, with and without cam and pincer FAI, by using computed tomography (CT)-based virtual 3-dimensional (3D) impingement simulation and compared this group with patients with normal FV and with asymptomatic hips. PURPOSE: To investigate (1) the osseous range of motion, (2) the osseous femoral and acetabular impingement zones, and (3) whether hip impingement is extra- or intra-articular in symptomatic hips with FAI. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: An institutional review board-approved, retrospective comparative analysis was performed on a total of 84 hips in 68 participants. Of these, 37 hips in 24 symptomatic patients with FAI had decreased FV. These hips were compared with 21 hips of 18 symptomatic patients with anterior FAI with normal FV (10°-25°) and 26 asymptomatic hips with no FAI and normal FV. All patients with FAI were symptomatic and had anterior hip pain and a positive anterior impingement test. They underwent pelvic CT scans to measure FV. Decreased FV was defined as FV less than 5°. The 37 hips with decreased FV presented both with and without cam and pincer FAI. All 84 hips were evaluated by use of CT-based 3D models and a validated 3D range of motion and impingement simulation. Asymptomatic hips were contralateral normal hips imaged in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. RESULTS: Hips with FAI combined with decreased FV had a significantly (P < .001) lower mean flexion (114°± 8° vs 125°± 13°) and internal rotation (IR) at 90° of flexion (18°± 6° vs 32°± 9°, P < .001) compared with the asymptomatic control group. Symptomatic patients with FAI and normal FV had flexion of 120°± 16° and IR at 90° of flexion of 23°± 15°. In a subgroup analysis, we found a significantly (P < .001) lower IR in 90° of flexion in hips with FV less than 5° combined with mixed-type FAI compared with hips with FV less than 5° without a cam- or pincer-type deformity. The maximal acetabular impingement zone for hips with decreased FV was located at the 2-o'clock position and ranged from 1 to 3 o'clock. In hips with decreased FV, most of the impingement locations were intra-articular but 32% of hips had combined intra- and extra-articular FAI in internal rotation in 90° of flexion. During the flexion-adduction-IR test performed in 10° and 20° of adduction, extra-articular subspine FAI had significantly (P < .001) higher prevalence (68% and 84%) in hips with decreased FV compared with normal hips. CONCLUSION: Hips with FAI and decreased FV had less flexion and internal rotation in 90° of flexion compared with the asymptomatic control group. The majority of hip impingement due to low FV was intra-articular, but one-third of samples had combined intra- and extra-articular subspine FAI. Anterior extra- and intra-articular hip impingement can be present in patients who have FAI with decreased FV. This could be important for patients undergoing hip arthroscopy.

3.
Am J Sports Med ; 47(12): 2966-2977, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a complex 3-dimensional (3D) hip abnormality that can cause hip pain and osteoarthritis in young and active patients of childbearing age. Imaging is static and based on 2-dimensional radiographs or computed tomography (CT) scans. Recently, CT-based 3D impingement simulation was introduced for patient-specific assessments of hip deformities, whereas magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a radiation-free alternative for surgical planning before hip arthroscopic surgery. PURPOSE: To (1) investigate the difference between 3D models of the hip, (2) correlate the location of hip impingement and range of motion (ROM), and (3) correlate diagnostic parameters while comparing CT- and MRI-based osseous 3D models of the hip in symptomatic patients with FAI. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study (Diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: The authors performed an institutional review board-approved comparative and retrospective study of 31 hips in 26 symptomatic patients with FAI. We compared CT- and MRI-based osseous 3D models of the hip in the same patients. 3D CT scans (slice thickness, 1 mm) of the entire pelvis and the distal femoral condyles were obtained. Preoperative MRI of the hip was performed including an axial-oblique T1 VIBE sequence (slice thickness, 1 mm) and 2 axial anisotropic (1.2 × 1.2 × 1 mm) T1 VIBE Dixon sequences of the entire pelvis and the distal femoral condyles. Threshold-based semiautomatic reconstruction of 3D models was performed using commercial software. CT- and MRI-based 3D models were compared with specifically developed software. RESULTS: (1) The difference between MRI- and CT-based 3D models was less than 1 mm for the proximal femur and the acetabulum (median surface distance, 0.4 ± 0.1 mm and 0.4 ± 0.2 mm, respectively). (2) The correlation for ROM values was excellent (r = 0.99, P < .001) between CT and MRI. The mean absolute difference for flexion and extension was 1.9°± 1.5° and 2.6°± 1.9°, respectively. The location of impingement did not differ between CT- and MRI-based 3D ROM analysis in all 12 of 12 acetabular and 11 of 12 femoral clock-face positions. (3) The correlation for 6 diagnostic parameters was excellent (r = 0.98, P < .001) between CT and MRI. The mean absolute difference for inclination and anteversion was 2.0°± 1.8° and 1.0°± 0.8°, respectively. CONCLUSION: Patient-specific and radiation-free MRI-based dynamic 3D simulation of hip impingement and ROM can replace CT-based 3D simulation for patients with FAI of childbearing age. On the basis of these excellent results, we intend to change our clinical practice, and we will use MRI-based 3D models for future clinical practice instead of CT-based 3D models. This allows radiation-free and patient-specific preoperative 3D impingement simulation for surgical planning and simulation of open hip preservation surgery and hip arthroscopic surgery.

4.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 149: w20107, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340054

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Extra-abdominal desmoid tumours are benign and rare, and lead to a persistent treatment dilemma because of their high recurrence rate and their heterogeneous behaviour. The goal of this retrospective study was to evaluate the results of different treatment modalities for extra-abdominal desmoid tumours at four sarcoma treatment centres. METHODS: The mean follow-up time for the 96 patients included in the study (63.5% female; mean age 38.9 years) was 8.4 years (2.0–40.5 years). The initial treatments were surgery (n = 44), surgery with radiation (n = 16), watchful waiting (n = 15), radiation only (n = 9), or systemic treatment (n = 12). Patient demographics, tumour sites, and the follow-up status of all patients were reviewed and evaluated for each of the treatment modalities. RESULTS: The local recurrence rate was 45.5% in patients with primary surgical treatment and 37.5% following surgery combined with irradiation. Patients who were treated with radiation alone showed regressive (33.3%) or stable disease (66.6%). Systemic treatment alone resulted in disease progression in 41.7% of our patients. In the watchful waiting group, 73.3% showed stable disease, 20.0% showed spontaneous regression, and 6.7% showed progression after a mean follow-up of 4.1 years (2.0–11.5 years). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that a watchful waiting approach should be the first line treatment in asymptomatic desmoid tumours. However, radiation can help improve local control rates in patients who have undergone surgery. Progression and local recurrence rates following systemic treatment were comparable to those observed in surgery combined with radiation.

5.
Hip Int ; : 1120700019856010, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204506

RESUMO

QUESTIONS: Does surgical hip dislocation with drilling or bone grafting, cartilage treatment and femoral osteotomy in avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN) result in: (1) progression of osteonecrosis or osteoarthritis; (2) pain relief and improved function; and (3) subsequent surgery and complications? METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 12 patients (13 hips, mean age 29 ± 9 years) undergoing surgical hip dislocation for AVN. Preoperative ARCO stages were: 1 hip ARCO II, 8 hips ARCO III early, 4 hips ARCO III late. Drilling was performed in 4 hips, 9 hips underwent curettage, drilling and autologous bone grafting. Cartilage was sutured in 5 hips, autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis was performed in 3 hips, an osteochondral autograft was used in 1 hip. Femoral osteotomy was performed in 10 hips. Mean follow-up was 3 ± 2 years. Progression of AVN and osteoarthritis was assessed preoperatively and at latest follow-up using Tönnis and ARCO staging. Pain and function were assessed with the Merle d'Aubigné-Postel score. Complications were graded according to Sink et al. RESULTS: 1 hip had AVN progression and converted to THA. 9 hips showed no AVN- or advanced osteoarthritis progression and 3 hips improved at least 1 ARCO stage. The Merle d'Aubigné-Postel score increased from preoperatively 14.1 ± 3.2 to 16.6 ± 1.2 (p = 0.012). Subsequent surgery were performed in 3 hips, complications occurred in 3 hips. CONCLUSION: Although the first results are promising a longer follow-up with more patients is needed to draw a definite conclusion regarding the joint preserving potential in AVN.

6.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 477(5): 1036-1052, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The time-consuming and user-dependent postprocessing of biochemical cartilage MRI has limited the use of delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC). An automated analysis of biochemical three-dimensional (3-D) images could deliver a more time-efficient and objective evaluation of cartilage composition, and provide comprehensive information about cartilage thickness, surface area, and volume compared with manual two-dimensional (2-D) analysis. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) How does the 3-D analysis of cartilage thickness and dGEMRIC index using both a manual and a new automated method compare with the manual 2-D analysis (gold standard)? (2) How does the manual 3-D analysis of regional patterns of dGEMRIC index, cartilage thickness, surface area and volume compare with a new automatic method? (3) What is the interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility of software-assisted manual 3-D and automated 3-D analysis of dGEMRIC indices, thickness, surface, and volume for two readers on two time points? METHODS: In this IRB-approved, retrospective, diagnostic study, we identified the first 25 symptomatic hips (23 patients) who underwent a contrast-enhanced MRI at 3T including a 3-D dGEMRIC sequence for intraarticular pathology assessment due to structural hip deformities. Of the 23 patients, 10 (43%) were male, 16 (64%) hips had a cam deformity and 16 (64%) hips had either a pincer deformity or acetabular dysplasia. The development of an automated deep-learning-based approach for 3-D segmentation of hip cartilage models was based on two steps: First, one reader (FS) provided a manual 3-D segmentation of hip cartilage, which served as training data for the neural network and was used as input data for the manual 3-D analysis. Next, we developed the deep convolutional neural network to obtain an automated 3-D cartilage segmentation that we used as input data for the automated 3-D analysis. For actual analysis of the manually and automatically generated 3-D cartilage models, a dedicated software was developed. Manual 2-D analysis of dGEMRIC indices and cartilage thickness was performed at each "full-hour" position on radial images and served as the gold standard for comparison with the corresponding measurements of the manual and the automated 3-D analysis. We measured dGEMRIC index, cartilage thickness, surface area, and volume for each of the four joint quadrants and compared the manual and the automated 3-D analyses using mean differences. Agreement between the techniques was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). The overlap between 3-D cartilage volumes was assessed using dice coefficients and means of all distances between surface points of the models were calculated as average surface distance. The interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility of the software-assisted manual 3-D and the automated 3-D analysis of dGEMRIC indices, thickness, surface and volume was assessed for two readers on two different time points using ICCs. RESULTS: Comparable mean overall difference and almost-perfect agreement in dGEMRIC indices was found between the manual 3-D analysis (8 ± 44 ms, p = 0.005; ICC = 0.980), the automated 3-D analysis (7 ± 43 ms, p = 0.015; ICC = 0.982), and the manual 2-D analysis.Agreement for measuring overall cartilage thickness was almost perfect for both 3-D methods (ICC = 0.855 and 0.881) versus the manual 2-D analysis. A mean difference of -0.2 ± 0.5 mm (p < 0.001) was observed for overall cartilage thickness between the automated 3-D analysis and the manual 2-D analysis; no such difference was observed between the manual 3-D and the manual 2-D analysis.Regional patterns were comparable for both 3-D methods. The highest dGEMRIC indices were found posterosuperiorly (manual: 602 ± 158 ms; p = 0.013, automated: 602 ± 158 ms; p = 0.012). The thickest cartilage was found anteroinferiorly (manual: 5.3 ± 0.8 mm, p < 0.001; automated: 4.3 ± 0.6 mm; p < 0.001). The smallest surface area was found anteroinferiorly (manual: 134 ± 60 mm; p < 0.001, automated: 155 ± 60 mm; p < 0.001). The largest volume was found anterosuperiorly (manual: 2343 ± 492 mm; p < 0.001, automated: 2294 ± 467 mm; p < 0.001). Mean average surface distance was 0.26 ± 0.13 mm and mean Dice coefficient was 86% ± 3%. Intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver reliability was near perfect for overall analysis of dGEMRIC indices, thickness, surface area, and volume (ICC range, 0.962-1). CONCLUSIONS: The presented deep learning approach for a fully automatic segmentation of hip cartilage enables an accurate, reliable and reproducible analysis of dGEMRIC indices, thickness, surface area, and volume. This time-efficient and objective analysis of biochemical cartilage composition and morphology yields the potential to improve patient selection in femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) surgery and to aid surgeons with planning of acetabuloplasty and periacetabular osteotomies in pincer FAI and hip dysplasia. In addition, this validation paves way to the large-scale use of this method for prospective trials which longitudinally monitor the effect of reconstructive hip surgery and the natural course of osteoarthritis. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, diagnostic study.

7.
Orthop Traumatol Surg Res ; 105(3): 467-471, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is deemed to be the most serious complication following total hip arthroplasty. Obesity and smoking are known risk factors for PJI. However, the influence of these variables on infection free survival, of septic revision hip arthroplasty, is yet to be explored. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of obesity and smoking on the outcome of two-stage prosthetic exchange surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A consecutive series of 97 hips in 94 patients (69 male, 25 female, mean age 66±12 years), undergoing two-stage revision surgery for hip PJI, were investigated retrospectively, after a mean follow-up of 60 (24-170) months. Survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meyer curves. A multivariate cox-regression model was applied to test for the influence of smoking or obesity (BMI≥30) after adjusting 16 potential patient-dependant variables. HYPOTHESIS: The study hypothesis was that smoking and high BMI are predictors for the failure of septic revision hip arthroplasty. Failure of septic revision hip arthroplasty was defined as failure to eradicate the infection or eradication of the infection but failure to preserve the arthroplasty. RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier showed a cumulative survival proportion of 80.4%(standard error S.E 4%), of the definitive implant, at 5 years. Obese patients (BMI≥30) and smokers had a significantly lower 5-year survival of 60.9% (S.E 1%) and 50.6% (S.E 1.4%), respectively (p=0.001). DISCUSSION: Obesity and smoking are both factors determining infection free survival in two-stage revision hip arthroplasty. Clinicians should be aware of potential complications and anticipate a higher likelihood of conversion to a Girdlestone resection or even amputation in this group of patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III, retrospective cohort study.

8.
Int Orthop ; 2019 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663000

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The acetabular reinforcement ring with a hook (ARRH) has been designed for acetabular total hip arthroplasty (THA) revision. Additionally, the ARRH offers several advantages when used as a primary implant especially in cases with altered acetabular morphology. The implant facilitates anatomic positioning by placing the hook around the teardrop and provides a homogenous base for cementing the polyethylene cup. Therefore, the implant has been widely used in primary total hip arthroplasty at our institution. The present study reports the long-term outcome of the ARRH after a minimum follow-up of 20 years. METHODS: Two hundred and ten patients with 240 primary THAs performed between April 1987 and December 1991 using the ARRH were retrospectively reviewed after a minimum follow-up of 20 years. Twenty-three of 240 hips were lost to follow-up, 110 patients with 124 THAs had deceased without having a revision surgery performed. This left 93 hips for final evaluation. Of those, 75 hips were assessed clinically and radiographically after a mean follow-up of 23.1 years (range 21.1-26.1 years). In 18 cases, clinical and radiographic assessment was omitted because implant revision had been performed prior to the follow-up investigation. The primary endpoint was defined as revision for aseptic loosening. RESULTS: Out of the 93 hips available for final evaluation, 14 hips were revised for aseptic loosening; another four were revised for other reasons (deep infection n = 2, recurrent dislocation n = 2). The survival probability of the cup was 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.93-0.99) after 20 years with aseptic loosening as endpoint. Radiographic analysis of the surviving 75 hips showed at least one sign of radiographic loosening in 24 hips. The mean Merle d'Aubigne score increased from 8 points pre-operatively to 15 points at final follow-up (7.5 ± 1.8 vs 15.0 ± 2.3, p < 0.001). The mean HHS was 85 ± 14 at final follow-up. Radiographic loosening did not correlate with the clinical outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The long-term results of the ARRH in primary THA are comparable to results with standard cemented cups and modern cementless cups. We believe that the ARRH is a versatile implant for primary THA, especially in cases with limited acetabular coverage and altered acetabular bone stock where the ARRH provides sufficient structural support for a cemented cup.

9.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 477(5): 1073-1083, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Correct quantification of femoral torsion is crucial to diagnose torsional deformities, make an indication for surgical treatment, or plan the amount of correction. However, no clear evaluation of different femoral torsion measurement methods for hips with excessive torsion has been performed to date. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) How does CT-based measurement of femoral torsion differ among five commonly used measurement methods? (2) Do differences in femoral torsion among measurement methods increase in hips with excessive femoral torsion? (3) What is the reliability and reproducibility of each of the five torsion measurement methods? METHODS: Between March and August 2016, we saw 86 new patients (95 hips) with hip pain and physical findings suggestive for femoroacetabular impingement at our outpatient tertiary clinic. Of those, 56 patients (62 hips) had a pelvic CT scan including the distal femur for measurement of femoral torsion. We excluded seven patients (seven hips) with previous hip surgery, two patients (two hips) with sequelae of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease, and one patient (one hip) with a posttraumatic deformity. This resulted in 46 patients (52 hips) in the final study group with a mean age of 28 ± 9 years (range, 17-51 years) and 27 female patients (59%). Torsion was compared among five commonly used assessment measures, those of Lee et al., Reikerås et al., Jarrett et al., Tomczak et al., and Murphy et al. They differed regarding the level of the anatomic landmark for the proximal femoral neck axis; the method of Lee had the most proximal definition followed by the methods of Reikerås, Jarrett, and Tomczak at the base of the femoral neck and the method of Murphy with the most distal definition at the level of the lesser trochanter. The definition of the femoral head center and of the distal reference was consistent for all five measurement methods. We used the method described by Murphy et al. as our baseline measurement method for femoral torsion because it reportedly most closely reflects true anatomic femoral torsion. With this method we found a mean femoral torsion of 28 ± 13°. Mean values of femoral torsion were compared among the five methods using multivariate analysis of variance. All differences between two of the measurement methods were plotted over the entire range of femoral torsion to evaluate a possible increase in hips with excessive femoral torsion. All measurements were performed by two blinded orthopaedic residents (FS, TDL) at two different occasions to measure intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). RESULTS: We found increasing values for femoral torsion using measurement methods with a more distal definition of the proximal femoral neck axis: Lee et al. (most proximal definition: 11° ± 11°), Reikerås et al. (15° ± 11°), Jarrett et al. (19° ± 11°), Tomczak et al. (25° ± 12°), and Murphy et al. (most distal definition: 28° ± 13°). The most pronounced difference was found for the comparison between the methods of Lee et al. and Murphy et al. with a mean difference of 17° ± 5° (95% confidence interval, 16°-19°; p < 0.001). For six of 10 possible pairwise comparisons, the difference between two methods increased with increasing femoral torsion and decreased with decreasing femoral torsion. We observed a fair-to-strong linear correlation (R range, 0.306-0.622; all p values < 0.05) for any method compared with the Murphy method and for the Reikerås and Jarrett methods when compared with the Tomczak method. For example, a hip with 10° of femoral antetorsion according Murphy had a torsion of 1° according to Reikerås, which corresponds to a difference of 9°. This difference increased to 20° in hips with excessive torsion; for example, a hip with 60° of torsion according to Murphy had 40° of torsion according to Reikerås. All five methods for measuring femoral torsion showed excellent agreement for both intraobserver reproducibility (ICC, 0.905-0.973) and interobserver reliability (ICC, 0.938-0.969). CONCLUSIONS: Because the quantification of femoral torsion in hips with excessive femoral torsion differs considerably among measurement methods, it is crucial to state the applied methods when reporting femoral torsion and to be consistent regarding the used measurement method. These differences have to be considered for surgical decision-making and planning the degree of correction. Neglecting the differences among measurement methods to quantify femoral torsion can potentially lead to misdiagnosis and surgical planning errors. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, diagnostic study.

10.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg ; 139(1): 147, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30569213

RESUMO

The author would like to correct the errors in the publication of the original article. The corrected details are given below for your reading.

11.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 477(5): 1111-1122, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30550402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prophylactic pinning of the asymptomatic and normal-appearing contralateral hip in patients with unilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) remains controversial. Understanding the minimal 10-year clinical, functional, and radiographic outcomes of the contralateral asymptomatic hip in unilateral SCFE may be helpful in the decision regarding whether the benefits associated with potentially preventing a SCFE are outweighed by the risk of additional surgery. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: Among patients with SCFE treated with prophylactic pinning of the asymptomatic and contralateral hip, we sought (1) to determine the complications and reoperations; (2) to evaluate the development of cam deformities and the frequency and severity of osteoarthritis progression; and (3) to characterize hip pain and function as measured by the Harris hip score (HHS) and the Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) at minimal 10-year followup. METHODS: Between 1998 and 2005 all patients with SCFE seen at our institution were treated with the modified Dunn procedure and all were offered prophylactic pinning of the contralateral asymptomatic hip. Of the 41 patients who underwent the unilateral modified Dunn procedure and who had an asymptomatic contralateral hip, 37 patients (90%) underwent pinning of that contralateral hip. Of those, 33 patients (80%) were available for clinical and radiographic evaluation for this retrospective study at a minimum of 10 years (mean followup 12 ± 2 years) after surgery. Three patients of the 37 patients only had 10-year clinical followup, including questionnaires sent by mail and telephone, because they refused further radiographic followup and one patient was lost to followup. The group included 19 males and 17 females whose age at surgery was a mean of 13 ± 2 years. Medical charts were reviewed and patients were asked about complications and additional surgical procedures. Most recent postoperative radiographs were evaluated for measurement of the alpha angle, head-neck offset, epiphysis orientation, and osteoarthritis grading according to Tönnis classification and minimum joint space width. The presence of a cam deformity was defined by an alpha angle measurement > 60° on the AP radiograph and/or > 55° on the lateral radiograph. Hip function and pain were assessed by the HHS and HOOS outcome measures. RESULTS: No complications with prophylactic in situ pinning were recorded. Four of 36 (11%) patients underwent subsequent surgical treatment for cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), and hardware removal was performed in four hips (11%). The mean alpha angle was 53° ± 8° on the AP radiograph and 49° ± 8° on the lateral view at followup. In total, 10 of 33 hips (30%) had a cam morphology at the femoral head-neck junction and four (12%) were symptomatic and underwent FAI surgery. Six of 33 patients (18%) developed an asymptomatic cam morphology at the femoral head-neck junction; in three of 33 hips (9%), the cam deformity instead of lesion were visible only on the lateral projection, and 9% were visible on both the AP and lateral projections. The preoperative offset of the femoral head-neck junction was 10 ± 3 mm on the AP view and 11 ± 4 mm on the lateral view. At followup, the AP offset was 7 ± 3 mm and the lateral offset was 6 ± 3 mm, and on the lateral view, the offset was < 10 mm in eight hips (22%). No patient had radiographic signs of hip osteoarthritis (Tönnis Grade 0). The mean minimum joint space width was 4 ± 0.4 mm. The mean HHS for the 32 patients who did not undergo subsequent surgery was 97 ± 5 at latest followup. The mean postoperative HOOS was 94 ± 8 for the 32 patients at latest followup. CONCLUSIONS: At a minimum followup of 10 years after prophylactic pinning of a contralateral asymptomatic hip, most patients achieve excellent hip scores; however, a substantial proportion will develop a symptomatic cam deformity despite prophylactic pinning. No patient had signs of osteoarthritis at a minimum of 10 years, but almost one-third of the patients who underwent prophylactic pinning developed a cam deformity. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, therapeutic study.

12.
Hip Int ; : 1120700018781807, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29974796

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The best treatment of acetabular chondral flaps during surgery for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is unknown. We asked if subchondral drilling improves clinical and radiographic outcome and if there are factors predicting failure. METHODS: We treated 79 patients with symptomatic FAI and acetabular chondral flaps with surgical hip dislocation between January 2000 and December 2007. Exclusion of all patients with previous hip pathology or trauma resulted in 62 patients (80 hips). The chondral flap was slightly debrided in 43 patients/51 hips (control group). In 28 patients/29 hips (study group), additional osseous drilling was performed. 4 patients (5 hips, 6%) were lost to follow-up. Mean follow-up was 9 years (5-13 years). The groups did not differ in demographic data, radiographic parameters or follow-up. Clinical outcome was assessed with the Merle d'Aubigné score, modified Harris Hip Score and University of California Los Angeles activity score and progression of osteoarthritis with the Tönnis grade. RESULTS: No patient underwent conversion to total hip arthroplasty (THA) in the drilling group compared to 7 patients (8 hips, 16%) in the control group (p = 0.005); in the remaining hips, clinical scores and progression of Tönnis grade did not differ. Increased acetabular coverage, age and body mass index were univariate predictive factors for conversion to THA. No drilling was as an independent predictive factor for conversion to THA (hazard ratio 58.07, p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Subchondral drilling under acetabular chondral flaps during surgical treatment of FAI is an effective procedure to reduce the rate of conversion to THA.

13.
Am J Sports Med ; 46(1): 122-134, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28937786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variations in femoral and acetabular version are becoming increasingly recognized as contributing factors to the development of hip pain in patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and hip dysplasia. It is still unknown what the true prevalence of these rotational abnormalities is in this patient population. PURPOSE: To determine (1) the prevalence of femoral version abnormalities in symptomatic hips with FAI and hip dysplasia, (2) the prevalence of combined abnormalities of femoral and acetabular version in these patients, and (3) which specific hip morphologies are associated with abnormalities of femoral version. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: A total of 462 symptomatic patients (538 hips) were included who had hip pain attributed to FAI or hip dysplasia and who presented to our tertiary referral center for hip preservation surgery between 2011 and 2015. We retrospectively examined femoral and acetabular version among 11 subgroups with predefined hip morphologies and compared findings with a control group. The allocation to each subgroup was based on morphologic reference values for femoral head coverage, lateral center edge angle, alpha angle, and neck-shaft angle calculated on plain radiographs. RESULTS: Of the 538 hips included, 52% were found to have abnormal femoral version; severe abnormalities were found in 17%. Severely decreased femoral version (<0°) was found in 5%; moderately decreased femoral version (0°-10°), in 17%; moderately increased femoral version (26°-35°), in 18%; and severely increased femoral version (>35°), in 12%. The most frequent abnormal combination was increased femoral version combined with normal acetabular version (22%). We found significantly lower mean femoral version for the cam-type FAI group (15°) and significantly higher mean femoral version for the Perthes hips (32°; ie, Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease) as compared with the control group (22°). The mean femoral version of the study group was 19°; for male patients, 15°; and for female patients, 22°. CONCLUSION: Abnormalities in femoral version are highly prevalent in patients with hip pain who are eligible for hip preservation surgery, and severe abnormalities are prevalent in 1 of 6 patients (17%). Based on these results, the evaluation of young patients with hip pain should always include an assessment of femoral version and acetabular version to best decide what treatment approach should be undertaken to optimize outcomes.

14.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg ; 137(8): 1139-1148, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28623470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large acetabular defects and pelvic discontinuity represent complex problems in revision total hip arthroplasty. This study aimed to investigate whether reconstruction with the Ganz reinforcement ring would provide durable function in large acetabular defects. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 46 hips (45 patients, 19 male, 26 female, mean age 68 years) with AAOS type III and IV defects undergoing acetabular revision with the Ganz reinforcement ring were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 74 months (24-161 months). Fourteen patients died during follow-up. All surviving patients were available for clinical assessment and radiographic studies. Radiographs were evaluated for bone healing and component loosening. A Cox-regression model was performed to identify factors influencing survival of the Ganz-ring. RESULTS: In the group of AAOS III defects, 3 of 26 acetabular reconstructions failed, all due to aseptic loosening. In pelvic discontinuity (AAOS IV), 9 of 20 hips failed due to aseptic loosening (n = 4), deep infection (n = 3), and non-union of the pelvic ring (n = 2). With acetabular revision for any reason as an endpoint, the estimated Kaplan-Meier 5-year survival was 86% in type III defects and 57% in type IV defects, respectively. The presence of pelvic discontinuity was identified as the only independent predictive factor for failure of the Ganz ring acetabular reconstruction (AAOS III vs. IV, Hazard ratio: 0.217, 95%, Confidence interval: 0.054-0.880, p = 0.032). CONCLUSION: The Ganz reinforcement ring remains a favorable implant for combined segmental and cavitary defects. However, defects with pelvic discontinuity demonstrate high failure rates. The indications should therefore be narrowed to acetabular defects not associated with pelvic discontinuity.


Assuntos
Acetábulo , Artroplastia de Quadril , Reoperação , Acetábulo/lesões , Acetábulo/cirurgia , Idoso , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia de Quadril/instrumentação , Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Artroplastia de Quadril/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Reoperação/efeitos adversos , Reoperação/instrumentação , Reoperação/métodos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 475(4): 1212-1228, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28194709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The modified Dunn procedure has the potential to restore the anatomy in hips with slipped capital femoral epiphyses (SCFE) while protecting the blood supply to the femoral head and minimizing secondary impingement deformities. However, there is controversy about the risks associated with the procedure and mid- to long-term data on clinical outcomes, reoperations, and complications are sparse. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: Among patients treated with a modified Dunn procedure for SCFE, we report on (1) hip pain and function as measured by the Merle d'Aubigné and Postel score, Drehmann sign, anterior impingement test, limp, and ROM; (2) the cumulative survivorship at minimum 10-year followup with endpoints of osteoarthritis (OA) progression (at least one Tönnis grade), subsequent THA, or a Merle d'Aubigné and Postel score < 15; (3) radiographic anatomy of the proximal femur measured by slip angle, α angle, Klein line, and sphericity index; and (4) the risk of subsequent surgery and complications. METHODS: Between 1998 and 2005, all patients who presented to our institution with SCFE were treated with a modified Dunn procedure; this approach was applied regardless of whether the slips were mild or severe, acute or chronic, and all were considered potentially eligible here. Of the 43 patients (43 hips) thus treated during that time, 42 (98%) were available for a minimum 10-year followup (mean, 12 years; range, 10-17 years) and complete radiographic and clinical followup was available on 38 hips (88%). The mean age of the patients was 13 years (range, 9-18 years). Ten hips (23%) presented with a mild, 27 hips (63%) with a moderate, and six hips (14%) with a severe slip angle. Pain and function were measured using the Merle d'Aubigné and Postel score, limp, ROM, and the presence of a positive anterior impingement test or Drehmann sign. Cumulative survivorship was calculated according to the method of Kaplan-Meier with three defined endpoints: (1) progression by at least one grade of OA according to Tönnis; (2) subsequent THA; or (3) a Merle d'Aubigné and Postel score < 15. Radiographic anatomy was assessed with the slip angle, Klein line, α angle, and sphericity index. RESULTS: The Merle d'Aubigné and Postel score improved at the latest followup from 13 ± 2 (7-14) to 17 ± 1 (14-18; p < 0.001), the prevalence of limp decreased from 47% (18 of 38 hips) to 0% (none in 38 hips; p < 0.001), the prevalence of a positive Drehmann sign decreased from 50% (nine of 18 hips) to 0% (none in 38 hips; p < 0.001), and both flexion and internal rotation improved meaningfully. Cumulative survivorship was 93% at 10 years (95% confidence interval, 85%-100%). Radiographic anatomy improved, but secondary impingement deformities remained in some patients, and secondary surgical procedures included nine hips (21%) with screw removal and six hips (14%) undergoing open procedures for impingement deformities. Complications occurred in four hips (9%) and no hips demonstrated avascular necrosis on plain radiographs. CONCLUSIONS: In this series, the modified Dunn procedure largely corrected slip deformities with little apparent risk of progression to avascular necrosis or THA and high hip scores at 10 years. However, secondary impingement deformities persisted in some hips and of those some underwent further surgical corrections. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, therapeutic study.


Assuntos
Articulação do Quadril/cirurgia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Osteoartrite do Quadril/etiologia , Escorregamento das Epífises Proximais do Fêmur/cirurgia , Adolescente , Artroplastia de Quadril , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Avaliação da Deficiência , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur/etiologia , Marcha , Luxação do Quadril , Articulação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/métodos , Osteoartrite do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite do Quadril/cirurgia , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Escorregamento das Epífises Proximais do Fêmur/complicações , Escorregamento das Epífises Proximais do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Escorregamento das Epífises Proximais do Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 475(4): 1192-1207, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27580735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance arthrogram (MRA) with radial cuts is presently the best available preoperative imaging study to evaluate chondrolabral lesions in the setting of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Existing followup studies for surgical treatment of FAI have evaluated predictors of treatment failure based on preoperative clinical examination, intraoperative findings, and conventional radiography. However, to our knowledge, no study has examined whether any preoperative findings on MRA images might be associated with failure of surgical treatment of FAI in the long term. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: The purposes of this study were (1) to identify the preoperative MRA findings that are associated with conversion to THA, any progression of osteoarthritis, and/or a Harris hip score of < 80 points after acetabuloplasty and/or osteochondroplasty of the femoral head-neck junction through a surgical hip dislocation (SHD) for FAI at a minimum 10-year followup; and (2) identify the age of patients with symptomatic FAI when these secondary degenerative findings were detected on preoperative radial MRAs. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 121 patients (146 hips) who underwent acetabuloplasty and/or osteochondroplasty of the femoral head-neck junction through SHD for symptomatic anterior FAI between July 2001 and March 2003. We excluded 35 patients (37 hips) with secondary FAI after previous surgery and 11 patients (12 hips) with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. All patients underwent preoperative MRA to further specify chondrolabral lesions except in 19 patients (32 hips) including 17 patients (20 hips) who presented with an MRI from an external institution taken with a different protocol, 10 patients with no preoperative MRA because the patients had already been operated on the contralateral side with a similar appearance, and two patients (two hips) refused MRA because of claustrophobia. This resulted in 56 patients (65 hips) with idiopathic FAI and a preoperative MRA. Of those, three patients (three hips) did not have minimal 10-year followup (one patient died; two hips with followup between 5 and 6 years). The remaining patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically at a mean followup of 11 years (range, 10-13 years). Thirteen pathologic radiographic findings on the preoperative MRA were evaluated for an association with the following endpoints using Cox regression analysis: conversion to THA, radiographic evidence of any progression of osteoarthritis, and/or a Harris hip score of < 80. The age of the patient when each degenerative pattern was found on the preoperative MRA was recorded. RESULTS: The following MRI findings were associated with one or more of our predefined failure endpoints: cartilage damage exceeding 60° of the circumference had a hazard ratio (HR) of 4.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.6-5.6; p = 0.003) compared with a damage of less than 60°, presence of an acetabular rim cyst had a HR of 4.1 (95% CI, 3.1-5.2; p = 0.008) compared with hips without these cysts, and presence of a sabertooth osteophyte had a HR of 3.2 (95% CI, 2.3-4.2; p = 0.013) compared with hips without a sabertooth osteophyte. The degenerative pattern associated with the youngest patient age when detected on preoperative MRA was the sabertooth osteophyte (lower quartile 27 years) followed by cartilage damage exceeding 60° of the circumference (28 years) and the presence of an acetabular rim bone cyst (31 years). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative MRAs with radial cuts reveal important findings that may be associated with future failure of surgical treatment for FAI. Most of these factors are not visible on conventional radiographs or standard hip MRIs. Preoperative MRA evaluation is therefore strongly recommended on a routine basis for patients undergoing these procedures. Findings associated with conversion to arthroplasty, radiographic evidence of any progression of osteoarthritis, and/or a Harris hip score of < 80 points should be incorporated into the decision-making process in patients being evaluated for joint-preserving hip surgery. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, therapeutic study.


Assuntos
Acetabuloplastia/efeitos adversos , Acetábulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Acetábulo/cirurgia , Impacto Femoroacetabular/diagnóstico por imagem , Impacto Femoroacetabular/cirurgia , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/cirurgia , Articulação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Quadril/cirurgia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Acetábulo/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Artroplastia de Quadril , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cartilagem Articular/diagnóstico por imagem , Cartilagem Articular/fisiopatologia , Cartilagem Articular/cirurgia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Impacto Femoroacetabular/complicações , Impacto Femoroacetabular/fisiopatologia , Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Articulação do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite do Quadril/etiologia , Osteoartrite do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite do Quadril/cirurgia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Falha de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 475(4): 1138-1150, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27921206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acetabular retroversion can cause impaction-type femoroacetabular impingement leading to hip pain and osteoarthritis. It can be treated by anteverting periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) or acetabular rim trimming with refixation of the labrum. There is increasing evidence that acetabular retroversion is a rotational abnormality of the entire hemipelvis and not a focal overgrowth of the anterior acetabular wall, which favors an anteverting PAO. However, it is unknown if this larger procedure would be beneficial in terms of survivorship and Merle d'Aubigné scores in a midterm followup compared with rim trimming. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We asked if anteverting PAO results in increased survivorship of the hip compared with rim trimming through a surgical hip dislocation in patients with symptomatic acetabular retroversion. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, comparative study evaluating the midterm survivorship of two matched patient groups with symptomatic acetabular retroversion undergoing either anteverting PAO or acetabular rim trimming through a surgical hip dislocation. Acetabular retroversion was defined by a concomitantly present positive crossover, posterior wall, and ischial spine sign. A total of 279 hips underwent a surgical intervention for acetabular retroversion at our center between 1997 and 2012 (166 periacetabular osteotomies, 113 rim trimmings through surgical hip dislocation). A total of 99 patients (60%) were excluded from the PAO group and 56 patients (50%) from the rim trimming group because they had any of several prespecified conditions (eg, dysplasia or pediatric conditions 61 [37%] for the PAO group and two [2%] for the rim trimming group), matching (10 [6%]/10 [9%] hips), deficient records (10 [6%]/13 [12%] hips), or the patient declined or was lost to followup (18 [11%]/31 [27%] hips). This left 67 hips (57 patients) that underwent anteverting PAO and 57 hips (52 patients) that had acetabular rim trimming. The two groups did not differ in terms of age, sex, body mass index, preoperative ROM, preoperative Merle d'Aubigné-Postel score, radiographic morphology of the acetabulum (except total and anterior acetabular coverage), alpha angle, Tönnis grade of osteoarthritis, and labral and chondral lesions on the preoperative MRI. During the period in question, we generally performed PAO from 1997 to 2003. With the availability of surgical hip dislocation and labral refixation, we generally performed rim trimming from 2004 to 2010. With growing knowledge of the underlying pathomorphology, anteverting PAOs became more common again around 2007 to 2008. A minimum followup of 2 years was required for this study. Failures were included at any time. The median followup for the anteverting PAO group was 9.5 years (range, 2-17.4 years) and 6.8 years (range, 2.2-10.5 years) for the rim trimming group (p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis was performed using the following endpoints at 5 and 10 years: THA, radiographic progression of osteoarthritis by one Tönnis grade, and/or Merle d'Aubigné-Postel score < 15 points. RESULTS: Although the 5-year survivorship of the two groups was not different with the numbers available (86% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 76%-94%] for anteverting PAO versus 86% [95% CI, 76%-96%] for acetabular rim trimming), we found increased survivorship at 10 years in hips undergoing anteverting PAO for acetabular retroversion (79% [95% CI, 68%-90%]) compared with acetabular rim trimming (23% [95% CI, 6%-40%]) at 10 years (p < 0.001). The drop in the survivorship curve for the acetabular rim trimming through surgical hip dislocation group started at Year 6. The main reason for failure was a decreased Merle d'Aubigné score. CONCLUSIONS: Anteverting PAO may be the more appropriate treatment for hips with substantial acetabular retroversion. This may be the result of reduction of an already smaller lunate surface of hips with acetabular retroversion through rim trimming. However, rim trimming may still benefit hips with acetabular retroversion in which only one or two of the three signs are positive. Future randomized studies should compare these treatments. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, therapeutic study.


Assuntos
Acetábulo/cirurgia , Retroversão Óssea/cirurgia , Articulação do Quadril/cirurgia , Osteoartrite do Quadril/cirurgia , Osteotomia/métodos , Acetábulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Acetábulo/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Artroplastia de Quadril , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Retroversão Óssea/diagnóstico por imagem , Retroversão Óssea/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Luxação do Quadril , Articulação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Osteotomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 475(4): 1178-1188, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27744594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the importance of an intact labrum for normal hip function has been shown, labral reattachment has become the standard method for open or arthroscopic treatment of hips with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). However, no long-term clinical results exist evaluating the effect of labral reattachment. A 2-year followup comparing open surgical treatment of FAI with labral resection versus reattachment was previously performed at our clinic. The goal of this study was to report a concise followup of these patients at a minimum of 10 years. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We asked if patients undergoing surgical hip dislocation for the treatment of mixed-type FAI with labral reattachment compared with labral resection had (1) improved hip pain and function based on the Merle d'Aubigné-Postel score; and (2) improved survival at 10-year followup. METHODS: Between June 1999 and July 2002, we performed surgical hip dislocation with femoral neck osteoplasty and acetabular rim trimming in 52 patients (60 hips) with mixed-type FAI. In the first 20 patients (25 hips) until June 2001, a torn labrum or a detached labrum in the area of acetabular rim resection was resected. In the next 32 patients (35 hips), reattachment of the labrum was performed. The same indications were used to perform both procedures during the periods in question. Of the 20 patients (25 hips) in the first group, 19 patients (95%) (24 hips [96%]) were available for clinical and/or radiographic followup at a minimum of 10 years (mean, 13 years; range, 12-14 years). Of the 32 patients (35 hips) in the second group, 29 patients (91%) (32 hips [91%]) were available for clinical and/or radiographic followup at a minimum of 10 years (mean, 12 years; range, 10-13 years). We used the anterior impingement test to assess pain. Function was assessed using the Merle d'Aubigné- Postel score and ROM. Survivorship calculation was performed using the method of Kaplan-Meier with failure defined as conversion to THA, progression of osteoarthritis (of one grade or more on the Tönnis score), and a Merle d'Aubigné-Postel score < 15. RESULTS: At the 10-year followup, hip pain in hips with labral reattachment was slightly improved for the postoperative Merle d'Aubigné-Postel pain subscore (5.0 ± 1.0 [3-6] versus 3.9 ± 1.7 [0-6]; p = 0.017). No difference existed for the prevalence of hip pain assessed using the anterior impingement test with the numbers available (resection group 52% [11 of 21 hips] versus reattachment group 27% [eight of 30 hips]; odds ratio, 3.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-9.83; p = 0.062). Function was slightly better in the reattachment group for the overall Merle d'Aubigné-Postel score (16.7 ± 1.5 [13-18] versus 15.3 ± 2.4 [9-18]; p = 0.028) and hip abduction (45° ± 13° [range, 30°-70°] versus 38° ± 8° [range, 25°-45°]; p = 0.001). Hips with labral reattachment showed a better survival rate at 10 years than did hips that underwent labral resection (78%; 95% CI, 64%-92% versus 46%, 95% CI, 26%-66%; p = 0.009) with the endpoints defined as conversion to THA, progression of osteoarthritis, and a Merle d'Aubigné-Postel score < 15. With isolated endpoints, survival at 10 years was increased for labral reattachment and the endpoint Merle d'Aubigné score < 15 (83%, 95% CI, 70%-97% versus 48%, 95% CI, 28%-69%; p = 0.009) but did not differ for progression of osteoarthritis (83%, 95% CI, 68%-97% versus 81%, 95% CI, 63%-98%; p = 0.957) or conversion to THA (94%, 95% CI, 86%-100% versus 87%, 95% CI, 74%-100%; p = 0.366). CONCLUSIONS: The current results suggest the importance of preserving the labrum and show that resection may put the hip at risk for early deterioration. At 10-year followup, hips with labral reattachment less frequently had a decreased Merle d'Aubigné score but no effect on progression of osteoarthritis or conversion to THA could be shown. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, therapeutic study.


Assuntos
Acetábulo/cirurgia , Impacto Femoroacetabular/cirurgia , Colo do Fêmur/cirurgia , Articulação do Quadril/cirurgia , Osteotomia/métodos , Acetábulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Acetábulo/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Artralgia/etiologia , Artroplastia de Quadril , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Avaliação da Deficiência , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Impacto Femoroacetabular/complicações , Impacto Femoroacetabular/diagnóstico por imagem , Impacto Femoroacetabular/fisiopatologia , Colo do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Colo do Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Luxação do Quadril , Articulação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Osteoartrite/etiologia , Osteoartrite/cirurgia , Osteotomia/efeitos adversos , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 475(4): 1080-1099, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27709422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) allows an objective, noninvasive, and longitudinal quantification of biochemical cartilage properties. Although dGEMRIC has been used to monitor the course of cartilage degeneration after periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) for correction of hip dysplasia, such longitudinal data are currently lacking for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) How does the mean acetabular and femoral dGEMRIC index change after surgery for FAI at 1-year followup compared with a similar group of patients with FAI treated without surgery? (2) Does the regional distribution of the acetabular and femoral dGEMRIC index change for the two groups over time? (3) Is there a correlation between the baseline dGEMRIC index and the change of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) at 1-year followup? (4) Among those treated surgically, can dGEMRIC indices distinguish between intact and degenerated cartilage? METHODS: We performed a prospective, comparative, nonrandomized, longitudinal study. At the time of enrollment, the patients' decision whether to undergo surgery or choose nonoperative treatment was not made yet. Thirty-nine patients (40 hips) who underwent either joint-preserving surgery for FAI (20 hips) or nonoperative treatment (20 hips) were included. The two groups did not differ regarding Tönnis osteoarthritis score, preoperative PROMs, or baseline dGEMRIC indices. There were more women (60% versus 30%, p = 0.003) in the nonoperative group and patients were older (36 ± 8 years versus 30 ± 8 years, p = 0.026) and had lower alpha angles (65° ± 10° versus 73° ± 12°, p = 0.022) compared with the operative group. We used a 3.0-T scanner and a three-dimensional dual flip-angle gradient-echo technique for the dGEMRIC technique for the baseline and the 1-year followup measurements. dGEMRIC indices of femoral and acetabular cartilage were measured separately on the initial and followup radial dGEMRIC reformats in direct comparison with morphologic radial images. Regions of interest were placed manually peripherally and centrally within the cartilage based on anatomic landmarks at the clockface positions. The WOMAC, the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, and the modified Harris hip score were used as PROMs. Among those treated surgically, the intraoperative damage according to the Beck grading was recorded and compared with the baseline dGEMRIC indices. RESULTS: Although both the operative and the nonoperative groups experienced decreased dGEMRIC indices, the declines were more pronounced in the operative group (-96 ± 112 ms versus -16 ± 101 ms on the acetabular side and -96 ± 123 ms versus -21 ± 83 ms on the femoral side in the operative and nonoperative groups, respectively; p < 0.001 for both). Patients undergoing hip arthroscopy and surgical hip dislocation experienced decreased dGEMRIC indices; the decline in femoral dGEMRIC indices was more pronounced in hips after surgical hip dislocation (-120 ± 137 ms versus -61 ± 89 ms, p = 0.002). In the operative group a decline in dGEMRIC indices was observed in 43 of 44 regions over time. In the nonoperative group a decline in dGEMRIC indices was observed in four of 44 regions over time. The strongest correlation among patients treated surgically was found between the change in WOMAC and baseline dGEMRIC indices for the entire joint (R = 0.788, p < 0.001). Among those treated nonoperatively, no correlation between baseline dGEMRIC indices and change in PROMs was found. In the posterosuperior quadrant, the dGEMRIC index was higher for patients with intact cartilage compared with hips with chondral lesions (592 ± 203 ms versus 444 ± 205 ms, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We found a decline in acetabular, femoral, and regional dGEMRIC indices for the surgically treated group at 1-year followup despite an improvement in all PROMs. We observed a similar but less pronounced decrease in the dGEMRIC index in symptomatic patients without surgical treatment indicating continuous cartilage degeneration. Although treatment of FAI is intended to alter the forces acting across the hip by eliminating impingement, its effects on cartilage biology are not clear. dGEMRIC provides a noninvasive method of assessing these effects. Longer term studies will be needed to determine whether the matrix changes of the bradytrophic cartilage seen here are permanent or clinically important. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, therapeutic study.


Assuntos
Acetábulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Acetábulo/cirurgia , Cartilagem Articular/diagnóstico por imagem , Cartilagem Articular/cirurgia , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Impacto Femoroacetabular/diagnóstico por imagem , Impacto Femoroacetabular/cirurgia , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/cirurgia , Gadolínio DTPA/administração & dosagem , Articulação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Quadril/cirurgia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Acetábulo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cartilagem Articular/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Impacto Femoroacetabular/fisiopatologia , Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Articulação do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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