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1.
Nat Genet ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578528

RESUMO

Elevated serum urate levels cause gout and correlate with cardiometabolic diseases via poorly understood mechanisms. We performed a trans-ancestry genome-wide association study of serum urate in 457,690 individuals, identifying 183 loci (147 previously unknown) that improve the prediction of gout in an independent cohort of 334,880 individuals. Serum urate showed significant genetic correlations with many cardiometabolic traits, with genetic causality analyses supporting a substantial role for pleiotropy. Enrichment analysis, fine-mapping of urate-associated loci and colocalization with gene expression in 47 tissues implicated the kidney and liver as the main target organs and prioritized potentially causal genes and variants, including the transcriptional master regulators in the liver and kidney, HNF1A and HNF4A. Experimental validation showed that HNF4A transactivated the promoter of ABCG2, encoding a major urate transporter, in kidney cells, and that HNF4A p.Thr139Ile is a functional variant. Transcriptional coregulation within and across organs may be a general mechanism underlying the observed pleiotropy between urate and cardiometabolic traits.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4130, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511532

RESUMO

Increased levels of the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) are associated with higher risk of kidney disease progression and cardiovascular events, but underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we conduct trans-ethnic (n = 564,257) and European-ancestry specific meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies of UACR, including ancestry- and diabetes-specific analyses, and identify 68 UACR-associated loci. Genetic correlation analyses and risk score associations in an independent electronic medical records database (n = 192,868) reveal connections with proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, gout, and hypertension. Fine-mapping and trans-Omics analyses with gene expression in 47 tissues and plasma protein levels implicate genes potentially operating through differential expression in kidney (including TGFB1, MUC1, PRKCI, and OAF), and allow coupling of UACR associations to altered plasma OAF concentrations. Knockdown of OAF and PRKCI orthologs in Drosophila nephrocytes reduces albumin endocytosis. Silencing fly PRKCI further impairs slit diaphragm formation. These results generate a priority list of genes and pathways for translational research to reduce albuminuria.

3.
Nat Genet ; 51(6): 957-972, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152163

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is responsible for a public health burden with multi-systemic complications. Through trans-ancestry meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and independent replication (n = 1,046,070), we identified 264 associated loci (166 new). Of these, 147 were likely to be relevant for kidney function on the basis of associations with the alternative kidney function marker blood urea nitrogen (n = 416,178). Pathway and enrichment analyses, including mouse models with renal phenotypes, support the kidney as the main target organ. A genetic risk score for lower eGFR was associated with clinically diagnosed CKD in 452,264 independent individuals. Colocalization analyses of associations with eGFR among 783,978 European-ancestry individuals and gene expression across 46 human tissues, including tubulo-interstitial and glomerular kidney compartments, identified 17 genes differentially expressed in kidney. Fine-mapping highlighted missense driver variants in 11 genes and kidney-specific regulatory variants. These results provide a comprehensive priority list of molecular targets for translational research.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Testes de Função Renal , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Uromodulina/urina
4.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2019 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Linking genetic risk loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to their causal genes remains a major challenge. Disease-associated genetic variants are concentrated in regions containing regulatory DNA elements, such as promoters and enhancers. Although researchers have previously published DNA maps of these regulatory regions for kidney tubule cells and glomerular endothelial cells, maps for podocytes and mesangial cells have not been available. METHODS: We generated regulatory DNA maps (DNase-seq) and paired gene expression profiles (RNA-seq) from primary outgrowth cultures of human glomeruli that were composed mainly of podocytes and mesangial cells. We generated similar datasets from renal cortex cultures, to compare with those of the glomerular cultures. Because regulatory DNA elements can act on target genes across large genomic distances, we also generated a chromatin conformation map from freshly isolated human glomeruli. RESULTS: We identified thousands of unique regulatory DNA elements, many located close to transcription factor genes, which the glomerular and cortex samples expressed at different levels. We found that genetic variants associated with kidney diseases (GWAS) and kidney expression quantitative trait loci were enriched in regulatory DNA regions. By combining GWAS, epigenomic, and chromatin conformation data, we functionally annotated 46 kidney disease genes. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate a powerful approach to functionally connect kidney disease-/trait-associated loci to their target genes by leveraging unique regulatory DNA maps and integrated epigenomic and genetic analysis. This process can be applied to other kidney cell types and will enhance our understanding of genome regulation and its effects on gene expression in kidney disease.

5.
Exp Cell Res ; 358(2): 421-426, 2017 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28189637

RESUMO

Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is an all-encompassing term for the movement of DNA between diverse organisms. LGT is synonymous with horizontal gene transfer, and the terms are used interchangeably throughout the scientific literature. While LGT has been recognized within the bacteria domain of life for decades, inter-domain LGTs are being increasingly described. LGTs between bacteria and complex multicellular organisms are of interest because they challenge the long-held dogma that such transfers could only occur in closely-related, single-celled organisms. Scientists will continue to challenge our understanding of LGT as we sequence more, diverse organisms, as we sequence more endosymbiont-colonized arthropods, and as we continue to appreciate LGT events, both young and old.


Assuntos
Eucariotos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Transferência Genética Horizontal/genética , Células Procarióticas/citologia , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Transferência Genética Horizontal/fisiologia , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo
6.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 17: 134, 2016 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27001685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer is a disease driven by the accumulation of genomic alterations, including the integration of exogenous DNA into the human somatic genome. We previously identified in silico evidence of DNA fragments from a Pseudomonas-like bacteria integrating into the 5'-UTR of four proto-oncogenes in stomach cancer sequencing data. The functional and biological consequences of these bacterial DNA integrations remain unknown. RESULTS: Modeling of these integrations suggests that the previously identified sequences cover most of the sequence flanking the junction between the bacterial and human DNA. Further examination of these reads reveals that these integrations are rich in guanine nucleotides and the integrated bacterial DNA may have complex transcript secondary structures. CONCLUSIONS: The models presented here lay the foundation for future experiments to test if bacterial DNA integrations alter the transcription of the human genes.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Neoplasias/genética , Pseudomonas/genética , RNA Ribossômico/metabolismo , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos B/genética , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias/patologia , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico/química , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Recombinação Genética
7.
PLoS Genet ; 9(10): e1003877, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24146634

RESUMO

Lateral gene transfer (LGT) from bacteria to animals occurs more frequently than was appreciated prior to the advent of genome sequencing. In 2007, LGT from bacterial Wolbachia endosymbionts was detected in ~33% of the sequenced arthropod genomes using a bioinformatic approach. Today, Wolbachia/host LGT is thought to be widespread and many other cases of bacteria-animal LGT have been described. In insects, LGT may be more frequently associated with endosymbionts that colonize germ cells and germ stem cells, like Wolbachia endosymbionts. We speculate that LGT may occur from bacteria to a wide variety of eukaryotes, but only becomes vertically inherited when it occurs in germ cells. As such, LGT may happen routinely in somatic cells but never become inherited or fixed in the population. Lack of inheritance of such mutations greatly decreases our ability to detect them. In this review, we propose that such noninherited bacterial DNA integration into chromosomes in human somatic cells could induce mutations leading to cancer or autoimmune diseases in a manner analogous to mobile elements and viral integrations.


Assuntos
DNA Bacteriano/genética , Transferência Genética Horizontal/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Wolbachia/genética , Animais , Cromossomos/genética , Cromossomos/microbiologia , Humanos , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas , Neoplasias/microbiologia , Neoplasias/virologia , Filogenia , Simbiose/genética
8.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 9(6): e1003107, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23840181

RESUMO

There are 10× more bacterial cells in our bodies from the microbiome than human cells. Viral DNA is known to integrate in the human genome, but the integration of bacterial DNA has not been described. Using publicly available sequence data from the human genome project, the 1000 Genomes Project, and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we examined bacterial DNA integration into the human somatic genome. Here we present evidence that bacterial DNA integrates into the human somatic genome through an RNA intermediate, and that such integrations are detected more frequently in (a) tumors than normal samples, (b) RNA than DNA samples, and (c) the mitochondrial genome than the nuclear genome. Hundreds of thousands of paired reads support random integration of Acinetobacter-like DNA in the human mitochondrial genome in acute myeloid leukemia samples. Numerous read pairs across multiple stomach adenocarcinoma samples support specific integration of Pseudomonas-like DNA in the 5'-UTR and 3'-UTR of four proto-oncogenes that are up-regulated in their transcription, consistent with conversion to an oncogene. These data support our hypothesis that bacterial integrations occur in the human somatic genome and may play a role in carcinogenesis. We anticipate that the application of our approach to additional cancer genome projects will lead to the more frequent detection of bacterial DNA integrations in tumors that are in close proximity to the human microbiome.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Neoplasias/genética , Bactérias/genética , Sequência de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico
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