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1.
CMAJ ; 193(9): E304-E309, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on resuming oral anticoagulants (OACs) after bleeding are primarily from studies involving patients given warfarin, with few data on direct OACs (DOACs). We aimed to characterize prescribing patterns for OACs after OAC-related bleeding and compare the rates of bleeding, thrombosis and mortality in patients who resumed either type of OAC with those who did not. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study of adults aged 66 years or older who were admitted to hospital for bleeding while receiving OACs from Apr. 1, 2012, to Mar. 31, 2017, using linked administrative health databases from Ontario. We used competing risk methods to calculate cause-specific adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for thrombosis, bleeding and mortality with resumption of OACs adjusted as a time-varying covariate. We determined time to OAC resumption using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: We included 6793 patients with gastrointestinal (n = 4297, 63.3%), intracranial (n = 805, 11.9%) or other bleeding (n = 1691, 25.0%). At cohort entry, 3874 patients (57.0%) were prescribed warfarin and 2919 patients (43.0%) were prescribed a DOAC. The most common indication for OAC was atrial fibrillation (n = 5557, 81.8%), followed by venous thromboembolism (n = 1367, 20.1%). Oral anticoagulants were resumed in 4792 patients (70.5%) within 365 days of the index bleed. The median time to resumption was 46 (interquartile range 6-550) days. We found that resuming OAC was associated with reduced rates of thrombosis (adjusted HR 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50-0.72) and mortality (adjusted HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.48-0.60), and an increased rate of rebleeding (adjusted HR 1.88, 95% CI 1.64-2.17). INTERPRETATION: We found that resuming OAC is associated with a reduction in thrombosis and mortality but an increase in bleeding. Randomized controlled trials that evaluate the net benefit of strategies for resumption of OAC after a bleeding event are warranted.

2.
Thromb Res ; 201: 30-49, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631520

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Oral anticoagulant (OAC) intervention trials have typically included clinical event outcomes. However, there is no standard list of outcomes to be used in OAC research. This study aimed to describe and classify the outcomes used in recent prospective clinical studies involving OACs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases from January 2009 to July 2019 for prospective studies with an intervention or control group that included one or more oral anticoagulants. We abstracted details about each included study and the outcomes used from the study report and its accompanying protocol. Using the Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) Initiative recommendations, we categorised each outcome into one of five domains (mortality/survival, physiological/clinical, life impact, resource use, and adverse events). Our primary outcome was the prevalence of use of an outcome domain across studies. RESULTS: We included 70 prospective studies, including 52 randomized controlled trials and 18 prospective cohort studies. A total of 121 different outcomes were reported. The COMET domains were represented in the 70 studies as follows: mortality (63/70, 90.0%); physiological/clinical domain (70/70, 100%), life impact domain (43/70, 61.4%), resource use domain (26/70, 37.1%), and adverse events domain (55/70, 78.6%). CONCLUSION: Outcome reporting in prospective studies of OACs more frequently concentrates on mortality, physiological/clinical domains, and adverse events compared to life impact and resource utilization domains, the latter uncommonly used. A priority for future research includes developing a core outcome set (COS) for OAC research that represents all domains.

3.
Thromb Haemost ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lack of data on balancing bleeding and thrombosis risk causes uncertainty about restarting anticoagulants after major bleeding. Anticoagulant reversal trials offer prospectively gathered data after major bleeding with well-documented safety events and restarting behavior. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship of restarting anticoagulation with thrombosis, rebleeding and death. PATIENTS/METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of a prospective factor Xa inhibitor reversal study at 63 centers in North America and Europe. We compared outcomes of restarted patients with those not restarted using landmark and time-dependent Cox Proportional Hazards models. Outcomes included thrombotic and bleeding events and death and a composite of all three. RESULTS: Of 352 patients enrolled, oral anticoagulation was restarted in 100 (28%) during 30-day follow-up. Thirty-four (9.7%) had thrombotic events, 15 (4.3%) had bleeding events (after day 3) and 49 (14%) died. In the landmark analysis comparing patients restarted within 14 days to those not, restarting was associated with decreased thrombotic events (hazard ratio [HR]=0.112; 95% CI, 0.001 to 0.944; P=0.043) and increased rebleeding (HR=8.39; 95% CI, 1.13 to 62.29; P=0.037). The time-dependent Cox model showed evidence for a reduction in a composite (thrombotic events, bleeding and death) attempting to capture net benefit (HR=0.384; 95% CI, 0.161 to 0.915; P=0.031). CONCLUSIONS: This analysis provides modest evidence that restarting anticoagulation in factor Xa inhibitor-associated major bleeding patients is correlated with reduced risk of thrombotic events and increased risk of re-bleeding. There is low-level evidence of net benefit for re-starting. A randomized trial of re-starting would be appropriate.

4.
Blood Adv ; 5(3): 872-888, 2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related critical illness and acute illness are associated with a risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). OBJECTIVE: These evidence-based guidelines of the American Society of Hematology (ASH) are intended to support patients, clinicians, and other health care professionals in decisions about the use of anticoagulation for thromboprophylaxis for patients with COVID-19-related critical illness and acute illness who do not have confirmed or suspected VTE. METHODS: ASH formed a multidisciplinary guideline panel and applied strict management strategies to minimize potential bias from conflicts of interest. The panel included 3 patient representatives. The McMaster University GRADE Centre supported the guideline-development process, including performing systematic evidence reviews (up to 19 August 2020). The panel prioritized clinical questions and outcomes according to their importance for clinicians and patients. The panel used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, including GRADE Evidence-to-Decision frameworks, to assess evidence and make recommendations, which were subject to public comment. RESULTS: The panel agreed on 2 recommendations. The panel issued conditional recommendations in favor of prophylactic-intensity anticoagulation over intermediate-intensity or therapeutic-intensity anticoagulation for patients with COVID-19-related critical illness or acute illness who do not have confirmed or suspected VTE. CONCLUSIONS: These recommendations were based on very low certainty in the evidence, underscoring the need for high-quality, randomized controlled trials comparing different intensities of anticoagulation. They will be updated using a living recommendation approach as new evidence becomes available.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , /complicações , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Sociedades Médicas , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações
5.
Heart ; 107(8): 667-673, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419879

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: (1) Describe how the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in individuals with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) has evolved; (2) evaluate the risk of MACE associated with the prescription of different CML tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). METHODS: A population-based retrospective study including all patients (n=4238) diagnosed with CML in Ontario, Canada between 1986 and 2017 and and age-matched and sex-matched individuals who received healthcare but who did not have CML (controls: n=42 380). The cohort was divided into those entering before 2001 vs from 2001 onwards (when TKIs were introduced). We developed competing risks models to compare time-to-event in CML cases versus controls. We adjusted for baseline comorbidities and present subdistribution HRs and 95% CIs. The relationship between TKI use and MACE was assessed by logistic regression. RESULTS: Before 2001 and from 2001 on, patients with CML had a higher crude incidence of MACE than patients without CML (19.8 vs 15.3 and 20.3 vs 12.6 per 1000 person-years, respectively). After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, patients with CML had a lower subdistribution hazard for MACE (0.59, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.76) before 2001; but from 2001, the adjusted subdistribution HR for MACE (1.27, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.43) was similar to age-matched and sex-matched patients. The incidence (9.3 vs 13.8 per 1000 person-years) and subdistribution hazard for cardiovascular death (0.43, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.52) were lower in patients with CML than controls before 2001. From 2001 on, the incidence (6.3 vs 5.4 per 1000 person-years) and subdistribution hazard for cardiovascular death (0.99, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.18) were similar to age-matched and sex-matched patients without CML with a higher risk of cerebrovascular events (8.6 vs 5.6 per 1000 person-years; 1.35, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.83) and peripheral arterial events (6.9 vs 3.0 per 1000 person-years; 1.66 95% CI, 1.15 to 2.39) in patients with CML than patients without CML. Compared with imatinib, there was no difference in the risk of MACE among those prescribed dasatinib (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.10) or nilotinib (OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.97). CONCLUSIONS: In a contemporary CML population, the risk of MACE and cardiovascular death is at least as high as among age-matched and sex-matched patients without CML and may be higher for cerebrovascular and peripheral arterial events. No difference in the risk of MACE between imatinib, dasatinib and nilotinib was observed.

6.
Blood ; 137(1): 10-11, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410903
7.
Blood Adv ; 4(24): 6259-6273, 2020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351119

RESUMO

Thrombosis has emerged as an important complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), particularly among individuals with severe illness. However, the precise incidence of thrombotic events remains uncertain due to differences in study design, patient populations, outcome ascertainment, event definitions, and reporting. In an effort to overcome some of these challenges and promote standardized data collection and reporting in clinical studies, the American Society of Hematology Research Collaborative COVID-19 Non-Malignant Hematology Task Force, in collaboration with the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis COVID-19 Task Force, developed sets of data elements in the following domains: venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, stroke/transient ischemic attack, peripheral arterial thrombosis, bleeding, laboratory investigations, and antithrombotic therapy. Data elements in each of these domains were developed with 3 levels of detail to facilitate their incorporation into studies evaluating a range of interventions and outcomes. Previously published data elements were included where possible. The use of standardized variables in a range of clinical studies can enhance the quality of data collection, create efficiency, enhance comparison of results across studies, and facilitate future pooling of data sets.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Trombose/epidemiologia , Interface Usuário-Computador , Navegador , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , /virologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/terapia
8.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral anticoagulants (OACs) are permanently discontinued in up to 50% of patients after gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding despite evidence of benefit to restarting. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify factors influencing health-care provider decision making regarding resuming OAC after GI bleeding and to identify preference groups. PATIENTS/METHODS: We conducted focus group discussions (FGDs) with health-care providers. Themes identified and ranked through a dot voting exercise became the attributes for a discrete choice experiment survey of health-care providers developed using Sawtooth (Sawtooth Software, Provo, UT, USA). Hierarchical Bayes analysis was used to estimate preference coefficients (utilities) for each attribute. Preference groups were identified using latent class analysis. RESULTS: We conducted four FGDs involving 29 participants. The five most important factors identified in the FGDs were included in the survey. There were 250 survey respondents (mean age 45 years, 53% male). The most important factor was re-bleeding risk followed by thrombosis risk, index bleed severity, indication for OAC, and patient characteristics. Two preference groups were identified, a majority group (87% of respondents) placed the highest utility on re-bleeding risk followed by thrombosis risk, while a minority group (13% of respondents) placed the highest utility on OAC indication. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the most important factor influencing provider decision making was re-bleeding risk followed closely by thrombosis risk, although the indication for OAC was most important for a minority of respondents. This highlights variability among providers in an area lacking high-quality data to guide practice. Further research is needed to determine absolute rates of outcomes and patient values and preferences.

9.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078911

RESUMO

Despite decades of improvement in its diagnosis and management, venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains a significant cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Clinically relevant differences exist in the risk of symptomatic VTE among ethnoracial groups. Underlying these differences in rates of VTE are patterns of known genetic thrombophilias, which may also influence the risks of major bleeding related to vitamin K antagonists or direct oral anticoagulants. In addition, social factors, differential access to care, and disease awareness differ between ethnoracial groups, which contributes to disparities in VTE outcomes that include higher fatal events. The vast majority of participants included in clinical trials for the prevention and treatment of VTE have been White Caucasian, which limits our understanding of the differential impact of these agents in non-White ethnoracial groups. Increasing the participation in clinical trials of diverse ethnoracial groups should be a priority, especially those groups who are disproportionately affected by the burden of VTE, or possible bleeding complications when exposed to anticoagulants. Advocacy by patients, researchers, and regulatory bodies is crucial to ensure adequate enrolment of diverse ethnoracial groups in order to best inform clinical decisions to optimize VTE prevention and treatment for non-White populations.

10.
Blood Adv ; 4(15): 3639-3647, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766854

RESUMO

Iron deficiency is a common consequence of bariatric surgery and frequently leads to anemia. Our study reports the incidence and predictors of iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and IV iron use after bariatric surgery. We conducted a retrospective study of all adult patients who underwent bariatric surgery from January to December 2012 at the regional bariatric surgery center in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, and were followed for at least 6 months. Time-to-event data were presented as Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox regression analysis was used to identify outcome predictors. A total of 388 patients met the inclusion criteria. Iron deficiency, IDA, and the use of IV iron were reported in 43%, 16%, and 6% of patients, respectively, with a mean follow-up of 31 months. The cumulative incidence of iron deficiency and IDA increased with longer follow-up, and there was a significant increase in IV iron use starting 3 years after surgery. Malabsorptive procedures (hazard ratio [HR], 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-3.06; P = .006) and low baseline ferritin (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.95-0.97; P < .001) were associated with an increased risk of iron deficiency. Young age (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.99; P = .028), baseline anemia (HR, 19.6; 95% CI, 7.85-48.9; P < .001), and low baseline ferritin (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.95-0.98; P < .001) were associated with an increased risk of IDA. Our results suggest that IDA is a delayed consequence of bariatric surgery and that preoperative assessment of patient risk may be possible.

12.
Br J Anaesth ; 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to establish diagnostic criteria for bleeding independently associated with mortality after noncardiac surgery (BIMS) defined as bleeding during or within 30 days after noncardiac surgery that is independently associated with mortality within 30 days of surgery, and to estimate the proportion of 30-day postoperative mortality potentially attributable to BIMS. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of participants ≥45 yr old having inpatient noncardiac surgery at 12 academic hospitals in eight countries between 2007 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the adjusted relationship between candidate diagnostic criteria for BIMS and all-cause mortality within 30 days of surgery. RESULTS: Of 16 079 participants, 2.0% (315) died and 36.1% (5810) met predefined screening criteria for bleeding. Based on independent association with 30-day mortality, BIMS was identified as bleeding leading to a postoperative haemoglobin <70 g L-1, transfusion of ≥1 unit of red blood cells, or that was judged to be the cause of death. Bleeding independently associated with mortality after noncardiac surgery occurred in 17.3% of patients (2782). Death occurred in 5.8% of patients with BIMS (161/2782), 1.3% (39/3028) who met bleeding screening criteria but not BIMS criteria, and 1.1% (115/10 269) without bleeding. BIMS was associated with mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.87; 95% confidence interval: 1.42-2.47). We estimated the proportion of 30-day postoperative deaths potentially attributable to BIMS to be 20.1-31.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Bleeding independently associated with mortality after noncardiac surgery (BIMS), defined as bleeding that leads to a postoperative haemoglobin <70 g L-1, blood transfusion, or that is judged to be the cause of death, is common and may account for a quarter of deaths after noncardiac surgery. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00512109.

13.
Br J Anaesth ; 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnostic criteria for Bleeding Independently associated with Mortality after noncardiac Surgery (BIMS) have been defined as bleeding that leads to a postoperative haemoglobin <70 g L-1, leads to blood transfusion, or is judged to be the direct cause of death. Preoperative prediction guides for BIMS can facilitate informed consent and planning of perioperative care. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study of 16 079 participants aged ≥45 yr having inpatient noncardiac surgery at 12 academic hospitals in eight countries between 2007 and 2011, 17.3% (2782) experienced BIMS. An electronic risk calculator for BIMS was developed and internally validated by logistic regression with bootstrapping, and further simplified to a risk index. Decision curve analysis assessed the potential utility of each prediction guide compared with a strategy of identifying risk of BIMS based on preoperative haemoglobin <120 g L-1. RESULTS: With information about the type of surgery, preoperative haemoglobin, age, sex, functional status, kidney function, history of high-risk coronary artery disease, and active cancer, the risk calculator accurately predicted BIMS (bias-corrected C-statistic, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.837-0.852). A simplified index based on preoperative haemoglobin <120 g L-1, open surgery, and high-risk surgery also predicted BIMS, but less accurately (C-statistic, 0.787; 95% confidence interval, 0.779-0.796). Both prediction guides could improve decision making compared with knowledge of haemoglobin <120 g L-1 alone. CONCLUSIONS: BIMS, defined as bleeding that leads to a postoperative haemoglobin <70 g L-1, leads to blood transfusion, or that is judged to be the direct cause of death, can be predicted by a simple risk index before surgery. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00512109.

14.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 31(2): 141-151, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32642775

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The benefits of preoperative intravenous (IV) iron treatment in cardiac surgery patients with preoperative anaemia or iron deficiency have not been well-established. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effects of treating preoperative anaemia or iron deficiency with IV iron in adult cardiac surgery patients. METHODS: We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval Systems Online and Excerpta Medica Database for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies comparing IV iron to oral iron or no iron. We performed title and abstract, full-text screening, data extraction and risk of bias assessment independently and in duplicate. We pooled data using a random effects model and evaluated the overall quality of evidence. RESULTS: We identified 4 RCTs and 7 observational studies. Pooled data from observational studies suggested a benefit of IV iron compared to no iron on mortality [relative risk 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23-0.65; P < 0.001, very low quality], units transfused per patient (mean difference -1.22, 95% CI -1.85 to -0.60; P < 0.001, very low quality), renal injury (relative risk 0.50, 95% CI 0.36-0.69; P < 0.001, very low quality) and hospital length of stay (mean difference -4.24 days, 95% CI -6.86 to -1.63; P = 0.001, very low quality). Pooled data from RCTs demonstrated a reduction in the number of patients transfused with IV iron compared to oral or no iron (relative risk 0.81, 95% CI 0.70-0.94; P = 0.005, moderate quality). The pooled estimates of effect from RCTs for mortality, hospital length of stay, units transfused per patient and renal injury were consistent in direction with observational studies. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that IV iron improves postoperative morbidity in adult cardiac surgery patients with preoperative anaemia or iron deficiency. A large, rigorous, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, multicentre trial is needed to clarify the role of IV iron in this patient population. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: International prospective register of systematic reviews ID Number CRD42019122844.

18.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142099

RESUMO

AIM: To examine the rates of VTE in high-income, upper middle-income and lower middle/low-income countries (World Bank Classification). METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the rates of VTE in high-income, upper middle-income and lower middle/low-income countries (World Bank Classification) in a cohort derived from four prospective international studies (PURE, HOPE-3, ORIGIN, COMPASS). The primary outcome was a composite of pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis and thrombophlebitis. We calculated age- and sex- standardized incidence rates (per 1000 person-years) and used a Cox frailty model adjusted for covariates to examine associations between the incidence of VTE and country income level. A total of 215,307 individuals (1·5 million person-years of follow-up) from high-income (n = 60,403), upper middle-income (n = 42,066) and lower middle/low-income (n = 112,838) countries were included. The age- and sex-standardized incidence rates of VTE per 1000 person-years in high-, upper middle- and lower middle/low-income countries were 0·87, 0·25 and 0·06, respectively. After adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking, antiplatelet therapy, anticoagulant therapy, education level, ethnicity, and incident cancer diagnosis or hospitalization, individuals from high-income and upper middle-income countries had a significantly higher risk of VTE than those from lower middle/low-income countries (hazard ratio [HR] 3·57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2·40-5·30 and HR 2·27, 95%CI 1·59-3·23, respectively). The effect of country income level on VTE risk was markedly stronger in people with a lower BMI, hypertension, diabetes, non-white ethnicity and higher education. CONCLUSION: The rates of VTE are substantially higher in high-income than low-income countries. The factors underlying the increased VTE risk in higher income countries remain unknown. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: We investigated the burden of VTE by country income by combining information from 4 large prospective studies (215,307 individuals from 53 countries). This is the largest study on the global incidence of VTE published to date. We observed a higher incidence of VTE in richer compared to poorer countries. We also demonstrated that differences in rates of VTE are not explained by risk factors commonly associated with VTE. Further study is needed to understand whether these findings can be explained by differences in genetic or other markers, or whether they are due to differences in access to health care.

19.
Heart ; 106(11): 845-851, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806700

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate reasons for and impact of oral anticoagulation (OAC) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) at very low thromboembolic risk. METHODS: Individuals with CHA2DS2-VASc score 0 (men) or 1 (women) from the Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD-Atrial Fibrillation (GARFIELD-AF) were studied. Baseline characteristics according to OAC use were evaluated by logistic regression analysis. Non-haemorrhagic stroke or systemic embolism, major bleeding, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were compared. RESULTS: From 2224 low CHA2DS2-VASc patients in GARFIELD-AF, 44% received OAC. In an adjusted model, increasing age up to 65 years (OR (95% CI)=1.31 (1.19 to 1.44)) and persistent AF (OR (95% CI)=3.25 (2.44 to 4.34)) or permanent AF (OR (95% CI)=2.29 (1.59 to 3.30)) versus paroxysmal/unclassified AF were associated with OAC use. Concomitant antiplatelet therapy (OR (95% CI)=0.21 (0.17 to 0.27)) was inversely associated. Crude incidence rates per 100 person-years over 2 years in patients on OAC versus not on OAC were 0.32 (95% CI 0.14 to 0.71) vs 0.30 (95% CI 0.14 to 0.63) for non-haemorrhagic stroke or systemic embolism, 0.21 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.57) vs 0.17 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.46) for major bleeding, 0.26 (95% CI 0.11 to 0.64) vs 0.26 (95% CI 0.12 to 0.57) for cardiovascular mortality and 0.74 (95% CI 0.44 to 1.25) vs 0.99 (95% CI 0.66 to 1.49) for all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to guideline recommendations, almost half of real-world patients with AF at a very low thromboembolic risk according to the CHA2DS2-VASc score receive OAC. Persistent or permanent AF and increasing age up to 65 years are associated with OAC use, while concomitant antiplatelet therapy shows an inverse association. Regardless whether patients received OAC therapy, few thromboembolic and bleeding events occur, highlighting the low risk of this population.

20.
Transfusion ; 60(2): 256-261, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anemia is common in critically ill patients and associated with adverse outcomes. Phlebotomy associated with laboratory testing is a potentially modifiable contributor. This study aims to 1) characterize the blood volume taken for laboratory testing, and 2) explore the effect of blood loss on red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and anemia in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: Using a transfusion research database, we retrospectively reviewed consecutively admitted patients to four medical-surgical ICUs in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The primary outcome was estimated blood loss for laboratory testing during ICU admission. Secondary outcomes were hemoglobin (Hb) of 90 g/L or less and RBC transfusion. RESULTS: Among the 7273 patients included, the median blood volume per patient taken for laboratory testing during their ICU stay was 213 mL (interquartile range [IQR], 133-382 mL). On ICU admission, median Hb was 97 g/L (IQR, 82-116 g/L). An Hb of 90 g/L or less occurred in 67.0% of patients during their ICU stay. Median Hb on ICU discharge adjusted for RBC transfusion was 84 g/L (IQR, 58-105 g/L). RBC transfusion was administered to 47.5% of patients, who received a median of 3 units (IQR, 2-7 units). Cumulative blood loss due to laboratory testing from Day 2 to Day 7 of ICU admission was independently associated with RBC transfusion (hazard ratio, 2.28 for each 150-mL increment; 95% confidence interval, 2.02-2.59). CONCLUSIONS: Blood loss for laboratory testing is substantial in ICU patients and significantly associated with RBC transfusion. Strategies to reduce blood loss from laboratory testing represents an area for further investigation.


Assuntos
Anemia/terapia , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/métodos , Hemorragia/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Estudos Retrospectivos
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