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1.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 44, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental intercrosses between outbred founder populations are powerful resources for mapping loci that contribute to complex traits i.e. quantitative trait loci (QTL). Here, we present an approach and its accompanying software for high-resolution reconstruction of founder mosaic genotypes in the intercross offspring from such populations using whole-genome high-coverage sequence data on founder individuals (~ 30×) and very low-coverage sequence data on intercross individuals (< 0.5×). Sets of founder-line informative markers were selected for each full-sib family and used to infer the founder mosaic genotypes of the intercross individuals. The application of this approach and the quality of the estimated genome-wide genotypes are illustrated in a large F2 pedigree between two divergently selected lines of chickens. RESULTS: We describe how we obtained whole-genome genotype data for hundreds of individuals in a cost- and time-efficient manner by using a Tn5-based library preparation protocol and an imputation algorithm that was optimized for this application. In total, 7.6 million markers segregated in this pedigree and, within each full-sib family, between 10.0 and 13.7% of these were fully informative, i.e. fixed for alternative alleles in the founders from the divergent lines, and were used for reconstruction of the offspring mosaic genotypes. The genotypes that were estimated based on the low-coverage sequence data were highly consistent (> 95% agreement) with those obtained using individual single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. The estimated resolution of the inferred recombination breakpoints was relatively high, with 50% of them being defined on regions shorter than 10 kb. CONCLUSIONS: A method and software for inferring founder mosaic genotypes in intercross offspring from low-coverage whole-genome sequencing in pedigrees from heterozygous founders are described. They provide high-quality, high-resolution genotypes in a time- and cost-efficient manner. The software is freely available at https://github.com/CarlborgGenomics/Stripes .


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Animais , Cruzamento , Custos e Análise de Custo , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Técnicas de Genotipagem/economia , Masculino , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Software , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/economia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446069

RESUMO

The body weight-selected lines of chickens are a model for understanding factors that predispose an individual to anorexia or obesity. The high body weight-selected (HWS) individuals are compulsive eaters that become obese whereas the low body weight-selected (LWS) are relatively lean and hypophagic. The objective of this study was to measure gene expression of various preadipocyte, proliferation, metabolic, and apoptotic markers in the stromal-vascular fraction and adipocytes from LWS and HWS adipose tissue. Although preadipocyte and proliferation markers were more highly expressed in the stromal-vascular fraction of LWS than HWS chicks, greater expression of granzyme-A and the presence of more annexin V-positive cells suggests that apoptosis may limit the adipogenic potential of adipocyte precursor cells and represent a novel mechanism that regulates the expansion of adipose tissue. Results provide insights on cellular mechanisms associated with adipose tissue development in the lean and obese state.

3.
Nutr Diabetes ; 9(1): 13, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The hypothalamus is the ultimate modulator of appetite and energy balance and therefore sensitive to changes in nutritional state. Chicks from lines selected for low (LWS) and high (HWS) body weight are hypophagic and compulsive eaters, respectively, and differ in their propensity to become obese and in their hypothalamic mRNA response to fasting. METHODS: As fasting-induced changes in hypothalamic proteins are unknown, we investigated the hypothalamic proteomes of 5-day old LWS and HWS chicks in the fed and fasted states using a label-free liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approach. RESULTS: A total of 744 proteins were identified in the chicken hypothalamus, and 268 differentially abundant proteins were identified among four pairwise comparisons. Ninety-five proteins were associated with the response to fasting in HWS chicks, and 23 proteins were associated with the response to fasting in LWS chicks. Fasting-responsive proteins in HWS chicks were significantly enriched in ATP metabolic processes, glyoxylate/dicarboxylate metabolism, and ribosome function. There was no enrichment for any pathways in LWS chicks in response to fasting. In the fasted and fed states, 159 and 119 proteins differed between HWS and LWS, respectively. Oxidative phosphorylation, citric acid cycle, and carbon metabolism were the main pathways associated with differences between the two lines of chicks. Enzymes associated with metabolic pathways differed between HWS and LWS in both nutritional states, including fumarase, aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial GOT2, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase, chondrogenesis associated lipocalin, sialic acid synthase, arylamine N-acetyltransferase, pineal gland isozyme NAT-3, and succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein subunit, mitochondrial. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide insights into the hypothalamic metabolic pathways that are affected by nutritional status and the regulation of appetite and eating behavior.

4.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 316(6): R802-R818, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969842

RESUMO

Chickens from lines selected for low (LWS) or high (HWS) body weight (BW) differ in appetite and adiposity. Mechanisms associated with the predisposition to becoming obese are unclear. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate developmental changes in depot-specific adipose tissue during the first 2 wk posthatch. Subcutaneous (SQ), clavicular (CL), and abdominal (AB) depots were collected at hatch (DOH) and days 4 (D4) and 14 (D14) posthatch for histological and mRNA measurements. LWS chicks had decreased SQ fat mass on a BW basis with reduced adipocyte size from DOH to D4 and increased BW and fat mass with unchanged adipocyte size from D4 to D14. HWS chicks increased in BW from DOH to D14 and increased in fat mass in all three depots with enlarged adipocytes in the AB depot from D4 to D14. Meanwhile, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α, neuropeptide Y, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase mRNAs differed among depots between lines at different ages. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids were greater in LWS than HWS at D4 and D14. From DOH to D4, LWS chicks mobilized SQ fat and replenished the reservoir through hyperplasia, whereas HWS chicks were dependent on hyperplasia and hypertrophy to maintain adipocyte size and depot mass. From D4 to D14, adipose tissue catabolism and adipogenesis slowed. Whereas LWS fat depots and adipocyte sizes remained stable, HWS chicks rapidly accumulated fat in CL and AB depots. Chicks predisposed to be anorexic or obese have different fat development patterns during the first 2 wk posthatch.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885832

RESUMO

Mesotocin (MT) decreases food intake and induces hyperthermia in chicks although hypothalamic mechanisms are unknown. The purpose of this study was thus to investigate effects of receptor antagonists and MT on feeding behavior and hypothalamic physiology. Intracerebroventricular injection of 2.5 nmol into broiler chicks was associated with decreased food intake for 180 min and water intake from 60 to 180 min. Cloacal temperatures were elevated in chicks injected with 0.156 and 0.625 nmol at 30 and 60 min, and up to 180 min in those injected with 2.5 nmol. MT also increased temperatures and decreased food and water intake in chicks from lines selected for low (LWS) or high (HWS) body weight with a higher dose threshold but longer food intake response in HWS chicks. An oxytocin receptor antagonist prevented MT-mediated changes in food intake but not water intake or temperature. Yohimbine, an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, did not affect food intake, temperature, or MT-mediated effects. MT increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and lateral hypothalamus (LH). Hypothalamic agouti-related peptide, corticotropin-releasing factor receptor sub-type 1, and melanocortin receptor 3 mRNAs increased in response to MT. There was increased MT mRNA in the LH and L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase mRNA in the PVN of MT-injected chicks. In conclusion, MT induced anorexia and hyperthermia and reduced water intake. MT was associated with activation of the PVN and LH and differences in the mRNA abundance of some appetite-associated factors, thus implicating these nuclei and several signaling pathways in the effects observed.

6.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 9(4): 1165-1173, 2019 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737239

RESUMO

Experimental populations of model organisms provide valuable opportunities to unravel the genomic impact of selection in a controlled system. The Virginia body weight chicken lines represent a unique resource to investigate signatures of selection in a system where long-term, single-trait, bidirectional selection has been carried out for more than 60 generations. At 55 generations of divergent selection, earlier analyses of pooled genome resequencing data from these lines revealed that 14.2% of the genome showed extreme differentiation between the selected lines, contained within 395 genomic regions. Here, we report more detailed analyses of these data exploring the regions displaying within- and between-line genomic signatures of the bidirectional selection applied in these lines. Despite the strict selection regime for opposite extremes in body weight, this did not result in opposite genomic signatures between the lines. The lines often displayed a duality of the sweep signatures, where an extended region of homozygosity in one line, in contrast to mosaic pattern of heterozygosity in the other line. These haplotype mosaics consisted of short, distinct haploblocks of variable between-line divergence, likely the results of a complex demographic history involving bottlenecks, introgressions and moderate inbreeding. We demonstrate this using the example of complex haplotype mosaicism in the growth1 QTL. These mosaics represent the standing genetic variation available at the onset of selection in the founder population. Selection on standing genetic variation can thus result in different signatures depending on the intensity and direction of selection.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/genética , Galinhas/genética , Seleção Genética , Animais , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Variação Genética , Mosaicismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas
7.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 67: 11-20, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660023

RESUMO

Oxytocin (OT) is a well-characterized neurotransmitter that participates in a wide range of physiological processes including the inhibition of food intake. The avian ortholog, mesotocin (MT), differs from OT by a single amino acid. Little is known regarding the function of OT in regulating energy balance in birds; thus, this study was designed to determine the effects of central OT injection on food intake and adipose tissue physiology in chicks. At 4-d post-hatch, broiler chicks were fasted for 3 h and injected intracerebroventricularly with 0 (vehicle), 0.63, 2.5, 5.0, or 10 nmol OT. Oxytocin decreased food and water intake during the entire 180-min observation period. The reduction in water intake was likely not prandial because chicks that were food restricted after OT injection also drank less. There was increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in several appetite-associated hypothalamic nuclei in OT-injected chicks at 1 h, including the arcuate (ARC), dorsomedial nucleus (DMN), lateral hypothalamus (LH), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH). OT treatment was associated with reduced hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and increased cloacal temperature at 1 h post-injection. We then investigated appetite- and adipose tissue-associated effects of OT in chicks from lines that have undergone long-term selection for either low (LWS) or high (HWS) juvenile body weight. Central injection of OT decreased food intake in both lines with the magnitude of response greater in the HWS than LWS chicks. Adipose tissue abundance of fatty acid-binding protein 4, monoglyceride lipase (MGLL), MT, and perilipin-1 mRNA was greater in LWS than HWS chicks. Lipoprotein lipase, MGLL, and MT mRNAs increased in response to OT injection in LWS but not HWS chicks. In conclusion, central injection of OT induced anorexia, reduced water intake, increased body temperature, and was associated with activation of the ARC, DMN, LH, PVN, and VMH in the hypothalamus. The effects on appetite and body temperature may involve CRF signaling in the hypothalamus and lipolysis in the adipose tissue, respectively. There were differences in the appetite, and adipose tissue response to OT in body weight-selected lines of chicks supports that MT plays a role in energy balance regulation in chickens.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Apetite/fisiologia , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/genética , Ingestão de Líquidos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Jejum , Hipotálamo/química , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Injeções Intraventriculares/veterinária , Ocitocina/análogos & derivados , Ocitocina/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/análise , RNA Mensageiro/análise
8.
J Anim Breed Genet ; 2018 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29926987

RESUMO

Growth is a complex and dynamic process that may be measured at a specific point or over a period of time. Compared was the growth of male and female chickens over a three-generation period. Involved were red junglefowl (RJF; Gallus gallus), a line of White Plymouth Rock chickens (LWS; Gallus gallus domesticus) selected for low body weight, and their reciprocal F1 and F2 crosses. In both sexes, Gompertz's description of growth showed that RJF had significantly lower asymptotes, earlier inflection points, and faster growth rates than LWS. Heterosis for these measures was positive for asymptote and negative for growth rate and inflection point. The RJF commenced egg production at a significantly younger age and lower body weight than LWS. Although F1 and F2 reciprocal crosses were similar for body weight and for age at first egg, the F1 reciprocal crosses began lay at significantly younger ages than the F2 crosses and parental lines. When viewed on a physiological basis where age and body weight were simultaneously standardized, both parental lines and reciprocal F1 and F2 crosses had differing rapid and lag growth phases. Overall, sexual dimorphism increased in all populations from hatch to sexual maturity. The LWS males had a longer growth period consistent with their female counterparts who became sexually mature at older ages. Comprehensively, these results indicate additive and nonadditive genetic variation for distinct growth patterns and changes in resource allocation strategies over time.

9.
Mol Biol Evol ; 34(10): 2678-2689, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28957504

RESUMO

The ability of a population to adapt to changes in their living conditions, whether in nature or captivity, often depends on polymorphisms in multiple genes across the genome. In-depth studies of such polygenic adaptations are difficult in natural populations, but can be approached using the resources provided by artificial selection experiments. Here, we dissect the genetic mechanisms involved in long-term selection responses of the Virginia chicken lines, populations that after 40 generations of divergent selection for 56-day body weight display a 9-fold difference in the selected trait. In the F15 generation of an intercross between the divergent lines, 20 loci explained >60% of the additive genetic variance for the selected trait. We focused particularly on fine-mapping seven major QTL that replicated in this population and found that only two fine-mapped to single, bi-allelic loci; the other five contained linked loci, multiple alleles or were epistatic. This detailed dissection of the polygenic adaptations in the Virginia lines provides a deeper understanding of the range of different genome-wide mechanisms that have been involved in these long-term selection responses. The results illustrate that the genetic architecture of a highly polygenic trait can involve a broad range of genetic mechanisms, and that this can be the case even in a small population bred from founders with limited genetic diversity.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Aclimatação/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Alelos , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Epistasia Genética/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Seleção Genética/genética
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28789975

RESUMO

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) stimulates appetite and promotes lipid deposition. We demonstrated a differential sensitivity in the food intake response to central NPY in chicks from lines selected for low (LWS) or high (HWS) body weight, but have not reported whether such differences exist in the periphery. At 5days, LWS and HWS chicks were intraperitoneally injected with 0 (vehicle), 60, or 120µg/kg BW NPY and subcutaneous adipose tissue and plasma were collected at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24h (n=12). NPY injection increased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) activity at 1 and 3h and reduced plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) at 1 and 12h. G3PDH activity was greater in HWS than LWS while NEFAs were greater in LWS. At 1h, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)α, and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) mRNAs were reduced in NPY-injected chicks whereas NPY receptor 1 (NPYR1) was increased. Expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) was increased by NPY at 1h in HWS but not LWS. PPARγ (3 and 6h), C/EBPß (3h), C/EBPα (6h) and NPYR1 and 2 (24h) mRNAs were greater in NPY- than vehicle-injected chicks. At several times, adipose triglyceride lipase, MTTP, perilipin 1, NPYR1, and NPYR2 mRNAs were greater in LWS than HWS, while expression of SCD1, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 3 and lipoprotein lipase was greater in HWS than LWS. Thus, NPY promotes fat deposition and inhibits lipolysis in chicks, with line differences indicative of greater rates of lipolysis in LWS and adipogenesis in HWS.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuropeptídeo Y/farmacologia , Animais , Galinhas , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Comportamento Alimentar , Glicerolfosfato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , PPAR gama/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
11.
BMC Genomics ; 18(1): 99, 2017 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28100171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term selection experiments provide a powerful approach to gain empirical insights into adaptation, allowing researchers to uncover the targets of selection and infer their contributions to the mode and tempo of adaptation. Here we implement a pooled genome re-sequencing approach to investigate the consequences of 39 generations of bidirectional selection in White Leghorn chickens on a humoral immune trait: antibody response to sheep red blood cells. RESULTS: We observed wide genome involvement in response to this selection regime. Many genomic regions were highly differentiated resulting from this experimental selection regime, an involvement of up to 20% of the chicken genome (208.8 Mb). While genetic drift has certainly contributed to this, we implement gene ontology, association analysis and population simulations to increase our confidence in candidate selective sweeps. Three strong candidate genes, MHC, SEMA5A and TGFBR2, are also presented. CONCLUSIONS: The extensive genomic changes highlight the polygenic genetic architecture of antibody response in these chicken populations, which are derived from a common founder population, demonstrating the extent of standing immunogenetic variation available at the onset of selection.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Variação Genética , Genômica , Imunidade Humoral/genética , Seleção Genética , Alelos , Animais , Eritrócitos/imunologia , Evolução Molecular , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/genética , Ovinos/sangue
12.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 7(1): 119-128, 2017 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27799342

RESUMO

The Virginia chicken lines have been divergently selected for juvenile body weight for more than 50 generations. Today, the high- and low-weight lines show a >12-fold difference for the selected trait, 56-d body weight. These lines provide unique opportunities to study the genetic architecture of long-term, single-trait selection. Previously, several quantitative trait loci (QTL) contributing to weight differences between the lines were mapped in an F2-cross between them, and these were later replicated and fine-mapped in a nine-generation advanced intercross of them. Here, we explore the possibility to further increase the fine-mapping resolution of these QTL via a pedigree-based imputation strategy that aims to better capture the genetic diversity in the divergently selected, but outbred, founder lines. The founders of the intercross were high-density genotyped, and then pedigree-based imputation was used to assign genotypes throughout the pedigree. Imputation increased the marker density 20-fold in the selected QTL, providing 6911 markers for the subsequent analysis. Both single-marker association and multi-marker backward-elimination analyses were used to explore regions associated with 56-d body weight. The approach revealed several statistically and population structure independent associations and increased the mapping resolution. Further, most QTL were also found to contain multiple independent associations to markers that were not fixed in the founder populations, implying a complex underlying architecture due to the combined effects of multiple, linked loci perhaps located on independent haplotypes that still segregate in the selected lines.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/genética , Galinhas/genética , Variação Genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Linhagem , Fenótipo
13.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 232: 96-100, 2016 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26764213

RESUMO

Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), first isolated from the brain of the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), when centrally administered exerts orexigenic effects in birds. However, the precise mechanisms mediating this effect are poorly understood and limited information is available on this effect in models of body weight dysfunction. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate appetite-associated effects of GnIH in chicks from lines that have been selected for either low or high body weight, and are anorexic or become obese, respectively. Central GnIH injection increased food intake in both lines with a similar magnitude of response. There was no effect on water intake. Hypothalamic GnIH mRNA was greater in the low than high weight lines and was greater in the fasted than fed chicks. GnIH receptor mRNA was similarly expressed in both lines, and was greater in fed than fasted chicks. Thus, although selection for body weight did not alter the effect of GnIH on feeding, fasting increased GnIH mRNA in both lines implying that it is an innate hunger factor.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Doenças das Aves/genética , Peso Corporal/genética , Galinhas/genética , Coturnix/genética , Hormônios Hipotalâmicos/genética , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Gonadotropinas/farmacologia
14.
Dev Growth Differ ; 57(9): 614-24, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26660844

RESUMO

The impact of divergent selection for body size on embryogenesis is poorly understood. The objective of this experiment was to document skeletal muscle development during embryogenesis in two lines of chickens that display divergent growth as adults. Results reveal that after 54 generations of opposing selection from a common founder population, the embryos from the low weight select (LWS) line develop more rapidly during early embryogenesis than those from the high weight select (HWS) line. Muscle formation during the late embryonic period is more rapid and extensive in the HWS embryo than in the LWS contemporary. Isolated muscle progenitors from embryonic day 10 HWS embryos proliferated more rapidly, forming fibers sooner with a larger size than the LWS cells. The limited myogenic capacity of the LWS progenitor cells is not attributed to altered patterns of expression of Pax7, Pax3 or the myogenic regulatory factor genes. Members of the fibroblast growth factor family are potent mitogens and inhibitors of myoblast differentiation. Transcript abundance of FGF2 and FGF4 was measured in cultures of HWS and LWS progenitors as a function of time. The pattern of expression of FGF4 was similar between HWS and LWS with a large increase between days 1 and 3 followed by a reduction at day 5 of culture. Expression of FGF2 in LWS muscle cells did not change while a significant reduction in FGF2 expression was observed by day 5 in the HWS. Our results indicate that divergent selection for postnatal growth has altered embryonic development.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Músculo Esquelético/embriologia , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
15.
Genome Biol ; 16: 219, 2015 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26438066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Artificial selection provides a powerful approach to study the genetics of adaptation. Using selective-sweep mapping, it is possible to identify genomic regions where allele-frequencies have diverged during selection. To avoid false positive signatures of selection, it is necessary to show that a sweep affects a selected trait before it can be considered adaptive. Here, we confirm candidate, genome-wide distributed selective sweeps originating from the standing genetic variation in a long-term selection experiment on high and low body weight of chickens. RESULTS: Using an intercross between the two divergent chicken lines, 16 adaptive selective sweeps were confirmed based on their association with the body weight at 56 days of age. Although individual additive effects were small, the fixation for alternative alleles across the loci contributed at least 40 % of the phenotypic difference for the selected trait between these lines. The sweeps contributed about half of the additive genetic variance present within and between the lines after 40 generations of selection, corresponding to a considerable portion of the additive genetic variance of the base population. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term, single-trait, bi-directional selection in the Virginia chicken lines has resulted in a gradual response to selection for extreme phenotypes without a drastic reduction in the genetic variation. We find that fixation of several standing genetic variants across a highly polygenic genetic architecture made a considerable contribution to long-term selection response. This provides new fundamental insights into the dynamics of standing genetic variation during long-term selection and adaptation.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Variação Genética , Alelos , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Galinhas/genética , Cruzamentos Genéticos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26260898

RESUMO

Chickens selected for low (LWS) and high (HWS) juvenile body weight (BW) for 55 generations differ in BW by 10-fold at selection age. High (HWR) and low (LWR) body weight-relaxed lines have been random-bred since the 46th generation. Our objective was to evaluate the developmental and nutritional regulation of pancreatic mRNA abundance of pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1), preproinsulin (PPI), preproglucagon (PPG), and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). At day of hatch (DOH) and days 1, 3, 7, and 15 (D1, 3, 7 and 15, respectively), pancreas was collected and real time PCR was performed in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, HWS and LWS were fed or delayed access to food for 72 h post-hatch, and pancreas collected at D15. There was an interaction of line and age for GLUT2 (P=0.001), PPI (P<0.0001), PPG (P=0.034), and PDX1 (P<0.0001). Expression was greater in chicks from LWR and LWS than HWR and HWS. There was an interaction of line and nutrition on PPG (P<0.0001) and GLUT2 (P=0.001) mRNA, where expression was similar among chicks that were fed but greater in LWS than HWS when chicks were delayed access to food. Thus, the first two weeks is important for maturation of pancreatic endocrine function. Long-term selection for BW is associated with differences in pancreas development, and delaying access to food at hatch may have persisting effects on glucose regulatory function.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Peso Corporal/genética , Galinhas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Glucagon/genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 2/genética , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Cruzamento , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Alimentos , Masculino , Pâncreas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Seleção Genética , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima/genética
17.
Poult Sci ; 94(7): 1711-7, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26009754

RESUMO

Housing systems used in the production of poultry meat vary worldwide dependent on climate, land availability, and other resources essential for production. Reported here are comparisons between pen and cage rearing (the housing system, denoted HS: ), line crosses LC: ), two native Chinese lines (EM males were mated to Y1 and Y2 and their offspring denoted as EMY1 and EMY2), and sex in determining broiler traits. At hatch, 320 males and 320 females from each LC (giving a total of 1,280 chicks) were randomly assigned within each subgroup to 16 battery pens. There were 4 replicates for each combination of LC by sex. On d 28, half of the chicks were transferred to indoor floor pens, and the others were raised in single cages from d 29 to 91. Weekly body weights, livability, and feed conversion ratios ( FCR: ) were obtained to d 91, the age at which the broilers were slaughtered for carcass measurements. The caged males and females were heavier (P < 0.05) than their penned counterparts (2,292 vs 2,219 g). Except for females from line EMY1 (94.9%), the livability for each unit from 1 to 28 d, and 29 to 91 d was greater than 95%. Penned EMY2 broilers had the highest FCR (3.02), whereas penned EMY1 broilers had the lowest FCR (2.96) among the housing systems by LC combinations (P < 0.05). Caged chickens had thicker subcutaneous fat (7.24 mm), a higher percentages of abdominal fat (5.01%) and liver mass (3.13%) , but lower eviscerated carcass (60.63%) and breast muscle weights (pectoralis major and minor, 17.10%). Males were heavier and had higher percentages of leg muscle (boneless drum plus thigh, 24.22%) and heart muscle (1.08%) than the females (P < 0.05). However, the females had thicker subcutaneous fat (7.19 mm) and higher percentages of carcass weight (87.28%), breast muscle (18.11%), abdominal fat (6.54%), and liver mass (3.15%) than males. Penned females had the highest percentage of breast muscle (18.94%), and caged females had the highest percentage of liver mass (3.72%). Females of EMY1 had the highest percentage of breast muscle (18.40%). Generally, the housing system employed and the sex of the broilers greatly affect the carcass traits.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Carne/análise , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Feminino , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Fatores Sexuais
18.
Behav Brain Res ; 286: 58-63, 2015 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25677648

RESUMO

We have demonstrated that chicken lines which have undergone intense divergent selection for either low (LWS) or high (HWS) body weight (anorexic and obese containing, respectively) have differential food intake threshold responses to a range of intracerebroventricular injected neurotransmitters. The study reported herein was designed to measure endogenous appetite-associated factor mRNA profiles between these lines in an effort to further understand the molecular mechanisms involved in their differential eating patterns. Whole hypothalamus was collected from 5 day-old chicks that had been fasted for 180 min or had free access to food. Total RNA was isolated, reverse transcribed, and real-time PCR performed. Although mRNAs encoding orexigenic neuropeptides including agouti-related peptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY), prolactin-releasing peptide, and visfatin did not differ in expression between the lines, NPY receptor 5 mRNA was greater in fed LWS than HWS chicks, but fasting decreased the magnitude of difference. Anorexigenic factors including amylin, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and ghrelin were not differentially expressed between lines, while mRNA abundance of calcitonin, CRF receptor 1, leptin receptor, neuropeptide S, melanocortin receptor 3, and oxytocin were greater in LWS than HWS chicks. Pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA was lower in LWS than HWS chicks, while fasting decreased its expression in both lines. These results suggest that there are differences in gene expression of appetite-associated factors between LWS and HWS lines that might be associated with their differential food intake and thus contribute to differences in severity of anorexia, body weight, adiposity, and development of obesity.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Jejum/fisiologia , Hipotálamo/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Neurogenetics ; 16(2): 133-44, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25582322

RESUMO

Long-term selection for juvenile body weight from a common founder population resulted in two divergent chicken lines (low-weight selected line (LWS), high-weight selected line (HWS)) that display distinct food intake and blood glucose responses to exogenous neuropeptides and insulin. The objective of this study was to elucidate putative targets affecting food intake and energy homeostasis by sequencing hypothalamic RNA from LWS and HWS chickens after insulin injection. Ninety-day-old female LWS and HWS chickens were injected with either vehicle or insulin and hypothalamus collected at 1 h postinjection. Through RNA sequencing, a total of 361 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. There was greater expression of genes, mainly tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (DDC), and vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), involved in serotonin and dopamine biosynthesis and signaling in LWS than in HWS vehicle-injected chickens. In contrast, after insulin injection, these genes were more highly expressed in HWS than in LWS. We identified 90 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) existing only in the HWS and 121 SNPs specific to LWS and 5119 SNPs close to fixation (with absolute frequency difference ≥0.9). Four were located in genes encoding enzymes associated with serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways, such as DDC, TH, and solute carrier family 18, member 2 (VMAT). These data implicate differences in biogenic amines such as serotonin and dopamine in hypothalamic physiology between the chicken lines, and these differences might be associated with polymorphisms during long-term selection. Changes in serotonergic and dopaminergic signaling pathways in response to insulin injection suggest a role in whole-body energy homeostasis.


Assuntos
Monoaminas Biogênicas/biossíntese , Expressão Gênica , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Insulina/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Galinhas/genética , Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Feminino , Homeostase/genética , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Annu Rev Anim Biosci ; 2: 375-85, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25384148

RESUMO

Although the chicken was domesticated during the Neolithic period, the development of the modern broiler is a recent event that has occurred within the past 100 years. The chicken's adaptability has allowed it to be grown globally under a range of husbandry conditions. That is, the same genetic stock may be found in a range of environments, where it is noted for rapid growth to market weight and efficiency of feed use, which has increased dramatically, mainly through genetic selection. Under good husbandry and a high-energy diet, at 35 days of age a 1.40-kg broiler required 3.22 kg of feed in 1985. Twenty-five years later, we have a 2.44-kg broiler produced on 3.66 kg of feed. This review attempts to address the history of factors contributing to these changes, obstacles that have had to be overcome, and future limitations.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolismo Energético
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