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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680161

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Racial factors play a significant role in SSc. We evaluated differences in SSc presentations between white patients (WP), Asian patients (AP) and black patients (BP) and analysed the effects of geographical locations. METHODS: SSc characteristics of patients from the EUSTAR cohort were cross-sectionally compared across racial groups using survival and multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The study included 9162 WP, 341 AP and 181 BP. AP developed the first non-RP feature faster than WP but slower than BP. AP were less frequently anti-centromere (ACA; odds ratio (OR) = 0.4, P < 0.001) and more frequently anti-topoisomerase-I autoantibodies (ATA) positive (OR = 1.2, P = 0.068), while BP were less likely to be ACA and ATA positive than were WP [OR(ACA) = 0.3, P < 0.001; OR(ATA) = 0.5, P = 0.020]. AP had less often (OR = 0.7, P = 0.06) and BP more often (OR = 2.7, P < 0.001) diffuse skin involvement than had WP. AP and BP were more likely to have pulmonary hypertension [OR(AP) = 2.6, P < 0.001; OR(BP) = 2.7, P = 0.03 vs WP] and a reduced forced vital capacity [OR(AP) = 2.5, P < 0.001; OR(BP) = 2.4, P < 0.004] than were WP. AP more often had an impaired diffusing capacity of the lung than had BP and WP [OR(AP vs BP) = 1.9, P = 0.038; OR(AP vs WP) = 2.4, P < 0.001]. After RP onset, AP and BP had a higher hazard to die than had WP [hazard ratio (HR) (AP) = 1.6, P = 0.011; HR(BP) = 2.1, P < 0.001]. CONCLUSION: Compared with WP, and mostly independent of geographical location, AP have a faster and earlier disease onset with high prevalences of ATA, pulmonary hypertension and forced vital capacity impairment and higher mortality. BP had the fastest disease onset, a high prevalence of diffuse skin involvement and nominally the highest mortality.

3.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(11): 1576-1582, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391176

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of vasodilator drugs on the occurrence of features depending on myocardial ischaemia/fibrosis (ventricular arrhythmias, Q waves, cardiac blocks, pacemaker implantation, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <55%, and/or congestive heart failure and sudden cardiac death) in systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: 601 patients with SSc were enrolled from 1 December 2012 to 30 November 2015 and had a second visit 0.5-4 years apart. 153 received no vasodilators; 448 received vasodilator therapy (ie, calcium channel blockers and/or ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers or combinations of them), 89 of them being also treated with either endothelin receptor antagonists or PDE5 inhibitors or prostanoids. Associations between the occurrence of myocardial disease manifestations and any demographic, disease and therapeutic aspect were investigated by Cox regression analysis. A Cox frailty survival model with centre of enrolment as random effect was performed. RESULTS: During 914 follow-up patient-years, 12 ventricular arrhythmias, 5 Q waves, 40 cardiac blocks, 6 pacemaker implantations and 19 reduced LVEF and/or congestive heart failure (CHF) occurred. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, vasodilator therapy was associated with a lower incidence of ventricular arrhythmias (p=0.03); low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) with a lower incidence of cardiac blocks and/or Q waves and/or pacemaker implantation (p=0.02); active disease with a higher incidence of LVEF <55% and/or CHF and cardiac blocks and/or Q waves and/or pacemaker implantation (p=0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The present study might suggest a preventative effect on the occurrence of distinct myocardial manifestations by vasodilator therapy and low-dose ASA.

4.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(12): 1681-1685, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The European Scleroderma Trials and Research Group (EUSTAR) recently developed a preliminarily revised activity index (AI) that performed better than the European Scleroderma Study Group Activity Index (EScSG-AI) in systemic sclerosis (SSc). OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictive value for short-term disease severity accrual of the EUSTAR-AI, as compared with those of the EScSG-AI and of known adverse prognostic factors. METHODS: Patients with SSc from the EUSTAR database with a disease duration from the onset of the first non-Raynaud sign/symptom ≤5 years and a baseline visit between 2003 and 2014 were first extracted. To capture the disease activity variations over time, EUSTAR-AI and EScSG-AI adjusted means were calculated. The primary outcome was disease progression defined as a Δ≥1 in the Medsger's severity score and in distinct items at the 2-year follow-up visit. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify predictive factors. RESULTS: 549 patients were enrolled. At multivariate analysis, the EUSTAR-AI adjusted mean was the only predictor of any severity accrual and of that of lung and heart, skin and peripheral vascular disease over 2 years. CONCLUSION: The adjusted mean EUSTAR-AI has the best predictive value for disease progression and development of severe organ involvement over time in SSc.

5.
J Rheumatol ; 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936287

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Scleroderma renal crisis (SRC) is a severe life-threatening manifestation in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). However, the knowledge about risk factors for SRC is limited. We determined here the frequency of SRC and identified risk factors for the prediction of SRC. METHODS: Based on regular followup data from the German Network for Systemic Scleroderma, we used univariate and multivariate generalized estimating equations to analyze the association between clinical variables, SSc subsets, therapy [i.e., angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi), corticosteroids], and the occurrence of SRC. RESULTS: Data of 2873 patients with 10,425 visits were available for analysis with a mean number of registry visits of 3.6 ± 2.8 and a mean time of followup of 3.6 ± 3.8 years. In total, 70 patients developed SRC (70/2873, 2.4%). Of these patients, 57.1% (40/70) were diagnosed with diffuse cutaneous SSc, 31.4% (22/70) with limited cutaneous SSc, and 11.4% (8/70) with SSc-overlap syndromes. Predictive independent factors with the highest probability for SRC were positive anti-RNA polymerase antibodies (RNAP), a history of proteinuria prior to SRC onset, diminished DLCO, and a history of hypertension. Interestingly, positive antitopoisomerase autoantibodies did not predict a higher risk for SRC. Further, patients with SRC were significantly more frequently treated with ACEi and corticosteroids without being independently associated with SRC. CONCLUSION: In this cohort, SRC has become a rare complication. By far the highest risk for SRC was associated with the detection of anti-RNAP and proteinuria.

6.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(7): 979-987, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967395

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and efficacy of rituximab in systemic sclerosis (SSc) in clinical practice. METHODS: We performed a prospective study including patients with SSc from the European Scleroderma Trials and Research (EUSTAR) network treated with rituximab and matched with untreated patients with SSc. The main outcomes measures were adverse events, skin fibrosis improvement, lung fibrosis worsening and steroids use among propensity score-matched patients treated or not with rituximab. RESULTS: 254 patients were treated with rituximab, in 58% for lung and in 32% for skin involvement. After a median follow-up of 2 years, about 70% of the patients had no side effect. Comparison of treated patients with 9575 propensity-score matched patients showed that patients treated with rituximab were more likely to have skin fibrosis improvement (22.7 vs 14.03 events per 100 person-years; OR: 2.79 [1.47-5.32]; p=0.002). Treated patients did not have significantly different rates of decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC)>10% (OR: 1.03 [0.55-1.94]; p=0.93) nor in carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) decrease. Patients having received rituximab were more prone to stop or decrease steroids (OR: 2.34 [1.56-3.53], p<0.0001). Patients treated concomitantly with mycophenolate mofetil had a trend for better outcomes as compared with patients receiving rituximab alone (delta FVC: 5.22 [0.83-9.62]; p=0.019 as compared with controls vs 3 [0.66-5.35]; p=0.012). CONCLUSION: Rituximab use was associated with a good safety profile in this large SSc-cohort. Significant change was observed on skin fibrosis, but not on lung. However, the limitation is the observational design. The potential stabilisation of lung fibrosis by rituximab has to be addressed by a randomised trial.

7.
Nutrition ; 55-56: 51-55, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29960157

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the prevalence of sarcopenia among systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients with respect to quality of life, disability, organ involvement, and muscle function. METHODS: A total of 129 patients who met the ACR/EULAR 2013 classification criteria were included. Body composition was measured using bioelectric impedance analysis. Sarcopenia was defined according to the criteria of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Handgrip and knee extension strength and pulmonary peak flow were measured. Physical function was assessed with the Short Form-36 Health Survey and Scleroderma Health Assessment Questionnaire. RESULTS: Sarcopenia was prevalent in 22.5% of patients. There were significant differences between patients with and without sarcopenia regarding handgrip strength (11.5 [2.0-30.0] versus 18.0 [1.0-41.0] kilogram force [kgf]; P <0.001) and knee extension strength (11.0 [3.5-32.5] versus 17.5 [3.5-88.0] kgf; P = 0.006), physical function (38.8 [9.9-85.0] versus 48.8 [0-88.0]; P = 0.032) and number of immunosuppressants (2 [0-4] versus 1 [0-5]; P = 0.009). There were no differences regarding age (57.0 [32.0-83.0] versus 60.5 [28.0-82.0] years; P = 0.350) and disease duration (8 [1-27] versus 7 [0-34] years; P = 0.350). CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenia is common in patients with SSc and is associated with physical impairment that affects everyday life and participation in work. Interestingly, although age is the main risk factor for sarcopenia in the general population, it did not differ between sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic SSc patients in our study. Instead, the number of immunosuppressive drugs was significantly higher among sarcopenic patients.

8.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 77(9): 1326-1332, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29875097

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify the predictive clinical characteristics and establish a prediction model for the progression of mild interstitial lung disease (ILD) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Patients with SSc from two independent prospective cohorts were included in this observational study. All patients fulfilled the 2013 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism criteria, had mild ILD at baseline diagnosed by High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT), available baseline and ≥1 annual follow-up pulmonary function tests and no concomitant pulmonary hypertension or airflow obstruction. ILD progression was defined as a relative decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC)%≥15%, or FVC%≥10% combined with diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide %≥15% at 1-year follow-up. Candidate predictors for multivariate logistic regression were selected by expert opinion based on clinical significance. A prediction model for ILD progression was established in the derivation cohort and validated in the multinational validation cohort. RESULTS: A total of 25/98 and 25/117 patients with SSc showed ILD progression in the derivation cohort and the validation cohort, respectively. Lower SpO2 after 6 min walk test (6MWT) and arthritis ever were identified as independent predictors for ILD progression in both cohorts. The optimal cut-off value of SpO2 after 6MWT for predicting ILD progression was determined as 94% by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The derived SPAR model combining both predictors (SPO2 and ARthritis) increased the prediction rate from 25.5% to 91.7% with an area under the curve (95% CI) of 0.83 (0.73 to 0.93). CONCLUSIONS: The evidence-based SPAR prediction model developed in our study might be helpful for the risk stratification of patients with mild SSc-ILD in clinical practice and cohort enrichment for future clinical trial design.

9.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 70(11): 1829-1834, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29781588

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Data on the role of tobacco exposure in systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma) severity and progression are scarce. We aimed to assess the effects of smoking on the evolution of pulmonary and skin manifestations, based on the European Scleroderma Trials and Research group database. METHODS: Adult SSc patients with data on smoking history and a 12-24-month follow-up visit were included. Associations of severity and progression of organ involvement with smoking history and the Comprehensive Smoking Index were assessed using multivariable regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 3,319 patients were included (mean age 57 years, 85% female); 66% were never smokers, 23% were ex-smokers, and 11% were current smokers. Current smokers had a lower percentage of antitopoisomerase autoantibodies than previous or never smokers (31% versus 40% and 45%, respectively). Never smokers had a higher baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV1 /FVC) ratio than previous and current smokers (P < 0.001). The FEV1 /FVC ratio declined faster in current smokers than in never smokers (P = 0.05) or ex-smokers (P = 0.01). The baseline modified Rodnan skin thickness score (MRSS) and the MRSS decline were comparable across smoking groups. Although heavy smoking (>25 pack-years) increased the odds of digital ulcers by almost 50%, there was no robust adverse association of smoking with digital ulcer development. CONCLUSION: The known adverse effect of smoking on bronchial airways and alveoli is also observed in SSc patients; however, robust adverse effects of smoking on the progression of SSc-specific pulmonary or cutaneous manifestations were not observed.

10.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 20(1): 52, 2018 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CXCR4 are involved in the pathogenesis of fibrosis, a key feature of systemic sclerosis (SSc). It is hypothesized that immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies (abs) against these two receptors are present in patients with SSc and are associated with clinical findings. METHODS: Anti-CXCR3 and anti-CXCR4 ab levels were measured in 449 sera from 327 SSc patients and in 234 sera from healthy donors (HD) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In SSc, ab levels were compared with clinical data in a cross-sectional and longitudinal setting. Protein expression of CXCR3 and CXCR4 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was analyzed in 17 SSc patients and 8 HD by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Anti-CXCR3 and anti-CXCR4 ab levels were different among SSc subgroups compared with HD and were highest in diffuse SSc patients. The ab levels strongly correlated with each other (r = 0.85). Patients with SSc-related interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) exhibited higher ab levels which negatively correlated with lung function parameters (e.g., r = -0.5 and r = -0.43 for predicted vital capacity, respectively). However, patients with deterioration of lung function showed lower anti-CXCR3/4 ab levels compared with those with stable disease. Frequencies and median fluorescence intensities (MFI) of CXCR3+ and CXCR4+ PBMCs were lower in SSc patients compared with HD and correlated with the severity of skin and lung fibrosis. They correlated with the severity of skin and lung fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-CXCR3/4 abs and their corresponding receptors are linked with the severity of SSc-ILD. Antibody levels discriminate patients with stable or decreasing lung function and could be used for risk stratification.

11.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 72(4): 504-510, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29520082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to investigate the prevalence of malnutrition in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and its impact on their quality of life (QoL). SUBJECTS/METHODS: One hundred and twenty-nine patients with SSc underwent clinical evaluation and were screened with the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). Malnutrition was defined as MUST score ≥2.To investigate QoL, all patients completed the Short Form 36 Questionnaire and the Scleroderma Health Assessment Questionnaire. The data were analyzed with IBM SPSS® Statistics by using χ2/Fisher's test, Mann-Whitney U test, correlation, and linear regression analysis. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-nine patients were included in this study (mean age was 59.1 ± 13.8 years, 90.7% women). The prevalence of malnutrition was 10.9%. Age and disease duration were not significantly different between malnourished and well-nourished patients. All QoL scores (except bodily pain and self-reported health) were significantly impaired in malnourished patients. Furthermore, the Scleroderma Health Assessment Score score which assesses disease-specific QoL was significantly higher in the malnourished patients (1.6 ± 0.73 compared to 0.91 ± 0.61 in well-nourished patients; p = 0.001), reflecting a lower QoL due to disease-specific impairments. CONCLUSIONS: Severe malnutrition in SSc patients is associated with reduced QoL. Standardized nutritional screening should routinely be conducted to identify the risk of malnutrition in order to enable an intervention with multimodal treatment and avoid the serious consequences associated with severe malnutrition.

12.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 20(1): 17, 2018 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29382380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis (SSc-ILD) is a major cause of SSc-related death. Imunosuppressive treatment (IS) is used in patients with SSc for various organ manifestations mainly to ameliorate progression of SSc-ILD. Data on everyday IS prescription patterns and clinical courses of lung function during and after therapy are scarce. METHODS: We analysed patients fulfilling American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) 2013 criteria for SSc-ILD and at least one report of IS. Types of IS, pulmonary function tests (PFT) and PFT courses during IS treatment were evaluated. RESULTS: EUSTAR contains 3778/11,496 patients with SSc-ILD (33%), with IS in 2681/3,778 (71%). Glucocorticoid (GC) monotherapy was prescribed in 30.6% patients with GC combinations plus cyclophosphamide (CYC) (11.9%), azathioprine (AZA) (9.2%), methotrexate (MTX) (8.7%), or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) (7.3%). Intensive IS (MMF + GC, CYC or CYC + GC) was started in patients with the worst PFTs and ground glass opacifications on imaging. Patients without IS showed slightly less worsening in forced vital capacity (FVC) when starting with FVC 50-75% or >75%. GC showed negative trends when starting with FVC <50%. Regarding diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), negative DLCO trends were found in patients with MMF. CONCLUSIONS: IS is broadly prescribed in SSc-ILD. Clusters of clinical and functional characteristics guide individualised treatment. Data favour distinguished decision-making, pointing to either watchful waiting and close monitoring in the early stages or start of immunosuppressive treatment in moderately impaired lung function. Advantages of specific IS are difficult to depict due to confounding by indication. Data do not support liberal use of GC in SSc-ILD.

14.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 57(3): 441-450, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28499034

RESUMO

Objectives: The multisystem manifestations of SSc can greatly impact patients' quality of life. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with disability in SSc. Methods: SSc patients from the prospective DeSScipher cohort who had completed the scleroderma health assessment questionnaire (SHAQ), a disability score that combines the health assessment questionnaire and five visual analogue scales, were included in this analysis. The effect of factors possibly associated with disability was analysed with multiple linear regressions. Results: The mean SHAQ and HAQ scores of the 944 patients included were 0.87 (s.d. = 0.66) and 0.92 (s.d. = 0.78); 59% of the patients were in the mild to moderate difficulty SHAQ category (0 ⩽ SHAQ < 1), 34% in the moderate to severe disability category (1 ⩽ SHAQ < 2) and 7% in the severe to very severe disability category (2 ⩽ SHAQ ⩽ 3). The means of the visual analogue scales scores were in order of magnitude: overall disease severity (37 mm), RP (31 mm), pulmonary symptoms (24 mm), gastrointestinal symptoms (20 mm) and digital ulcers (19 mm). In multiple regression, the main factors associated with high SHAQ scores were the presence of dyspnoea [modified New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV (regression coefficient B = 0.62), modified NYHA class III (B = 0.53) and modified NYHA class II (B = 0.21; all vs modified NYHA class I)], FM (B = 0.37), muscle weakness (B = 0.27), digital ulcers (B = 0.20) and gastrointestinal symptoms (oesophageal symptoms, B = 0.16; stomach symptoms, B = 0.15; intestinal symptoms, B = 0.15). Conclusion: SSc patients perceive dyspnoea, pain, digital ulcers, muscle weakness and gastrointestinal symptoms as the main factors driving their level of disability, unlike physicians who emphasize objective measures of disability.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Avaliação da Deficiência , Qualidade de Vida , Escleroderma Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Perfil de Impacto da Doença , Europa (Continente) , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Gastroenteropatias/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Debilidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Medição da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Escleroderma Sistêmico/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Úlcera Cutânea/etiologia , Úlcera Cutânea/fisiopatologia
15.
BMC Neurosci ; 18(1): 19, 2017 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28114887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a large body of experimental evidence suggesting that omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are capable of modulating immune function. Some studies have shown that these PUFAs might have a beneficial effect in patients suffering form multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). This could be due to increased n-3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory lipid mediators. In the present study we tested the effect of an endogenously increased n-3 PUFA status on cuprizone-induced CNS demyelination and remyelination in fat-1 mice versus their wild-type (wt) littermates. Fat-1 mice express an n-3 desaturase, which allows them to convert n-6 PUFAs into n-3 PUFAs. RESULTS: CNS lipid profiles in fat-1 mice showed a significant increase of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels but similar docosahexaenoic acid levels compared to wt littermates. This was also reflected in significantly higher levels of monohydroxy EPA metabolites such as 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (18-HEPE) in fat-1 brain tissue. Feeding fat-1 mice and wt littermates 0.2% cuprizone for 5 weeks caused a similar degree of CNS demyelination in both groups; remyelination was increased in the fat-1 group after a recovery period of 2 weeks. However, at p = 0.07 this difference missed statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that n-3 PUFAs might have a role in promotion of remyelination after toxic injury to CNS oligodendrocytes. This might occur either via modulation of the immune system or via a direct effect on oligodendrocytes or neurons through EPA-derived lipid metabolites such as 18-HEPE.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Caderinas/metabolismo , Doenças Desmielinizantes/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Caderinas/genética , Cuprizona , Doenças Desmielinizantes/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Feminino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Regeneração Nervosa/fisiologia
16.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 76(1): 270-276, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27621285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Validity of European Scleroderma Study Group (EScSG) activity indexes currently used to assess disease activity in systemic sclerosis (SSc) has been criticised. METHODS: Three investigators assigned an activity score on a 0-10 scale for 97 clinical charts. The median score served as gold standard. Two other investigators labelled the disease as inactive/moderately active or active/very active. Univariate-multivariate linear regression analyses were used to define variables predicting the 'gold standard', their weight and derive an activity index. The cut-off point of the index best separating active/very active from inactive/moderately active disease was identified by a receiver-operating curve analysis. The index was validated on a second set of 60 charts assessed by three different investigators on a 0-10 scale and defined as inactive/moderately active or active/very active by other two investigators. One hundred and twenty-three were investigated for changes over time in the index and their relationships with those in the summed Medsger severity score (MSS). RESULTS: A weighted 10-point activity index was identified and validated: Δ-skin=1.5 (Δ=patient assessed worsening during the previous month), modified Rodnan skin score (mRss) >18=1.5, digital ulcers=1.5, tendon friction rubs=2.25, C-reactive protein >1 mg/dL=2.25 and diffusing capacity of the lung for CO (DLCO) % predicted <70%=1.0. A cut-off ≥2.5 was found to identify patients with active disease. Changes in the index paralleled those of MSS (p=0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: A preliminarily revised SSc activity index has been developed and validated, providing a valuable tool for clinical practice and observational studies.


Assuntos
Escleroderma Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Escleroderma Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 34 Suppl 100(5): 142-147, 2016 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27749240

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop a standardized scoring system to assess the severity of DUs in SSc patients and correlate it with functional outcomes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional, longitudinal study in SSc patients with DUs (n=65) we developed a digital ulcers score (DUS) for the assessment of DUs. DUS and the ABILHAND score were measured at each visit and differences were analysed using Tamhane's T2 test. Spearman's Rho test was applied for correlational analysis of DUS and functional outcomes. We calculated a linear regression model using clustered standard errors for correlation analysis between DUS and ABILHAND over time. RESULTS: 117 assessments of DUS were performed in 65 SSc patients. Mean DUS was 11.6±1.9 (range: 0-68). Subgroup analyses showed a higher DUS in patients suffering from diffuse cutaneous SSc when compared to patients with limited cutaneous SSc (12.8±3.0 vs. 9.7±2.2 p=0.18). There was no correlation between the DUS and manual ability using the ABILHAND score (overall: n=106 r=-0.138, p=0.22). We observed a small but significant linear correlation between the DUS and the ABILHAND score for a single patient over time (n=14, R2=0.31, r=0.06, p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The DUS is a feasible scoring instrument to assess severity of DUs in SSc patients. In accordance with the literature the severity of DUs correlates with clinical parameters but also severity of the disease. Further study is needed to establish the DUS as a standardized tool for the assessment of DUs.


Assuntos
Esclerodermia Difusa/complicações , Esclerodermia Limitada/complicações , Úlcera Cutânea/diagnóstico , Pele/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação da Deficiência , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Dedos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Esclerodermia Difusa/diagnóstico , Esclerodermia Difusa/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerodermia Limitada/diagnóstico , Esclerodermia Limitada/tratamento farmacológico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/fisiopatologia , Úlcera Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Cutânea/patologia , Úlcera Cutânea/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Cicatrização
19.
J Rheumatol ; 43(3): 587-91, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26773103

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess monocytic expression and ratio of angiotensin and endothelin receptors in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and their functional relevance. METHODS: Receptor expression was measured by flow cytometry. Chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18) concentration in supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with immunoglobulin G was measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Monocytes of patients with SSc presented an increased angiotensin II Type 1 receptor (AT1R)/AT2R ratio compared with those of healthy donors. Patients with lung fibrosis and patients with high modified Rodnan skin score showed a reduced endothelin 1 Type A receptor (ETAR)/ETBR ratio. High AT1R/AT2R, but low ETAR/ETBR ratios corresponded to higher CCL18 secretion. CONCLUSION: Altered angiotensin and endothelin receptor ratios observed in SSc influence autoantibody-mediated effects such as secretion of profibrotic CCL18.


Assuntos
Quimiocinas CC/sangue , Monócitos/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Receptor de Endotelina A/metabolismo , Escleroderma Sistêmico/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 75(7): 1407-15, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26324847

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Defects in regulatory T cell (Treg) biology have been associated with human systemic autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the origin of such Treg defects and their significance in the pathogenesis and treatment of SLE are still poorly understood. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 61 patients with SLE and 52 healthy donors and in vitro IL-2 stimulated PBMC were characterised by multicolour flow cytometry. Five patients with refractory SLE were treated daily with subcutaneous injections of 1.5 million IU of human IL-2 (aldesleukin) for five consecutive days, and PBMC were analysed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Patients with SLE develop a progressive homeostatic dysbalance between Treg and conventional CD4+ T cells in correlation with disease activity and in parallel display a substantial reduction of CD25 expression on Treg. These Treg defects resemble hallmarks of IL-2 deficiency and lead to a markedly reduced availability of functionally and metabolically active Treg. In vitro experiments revealed that lack of IL-2 production by CD4+ T cells accounts for the loss of CD25 expression in SLE Treg, which could be selectively reversed by stimulation with low doses of IL-2. Accordingly, treatment of patients with SLE with a low-dose IL-2 regimen selectively corrected Treg defects also in vivo and strongly expanded the Treg population. CONCLUSIONS: Treg defects in patients with SLE are associated with IL-2 deficiency, and can be corrected with low doses of IL-2. The restoration of endogenous mechanisms of immune tolerance by low-dose IL-2 therapy, thus, proposes a selective biological treatment strategy, which directly addresses the pathophysiology in SLE.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-2/análogos & derivados , Interleucina-2/administração & dosagem , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-2/sangue , Interleucina-2/deficiência , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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