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2.
Drug Res (Stuttg) ; 71(S 01): S2, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788873
3.
Gastroenterology ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Monogenic forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) illustrate the essential roles of individual genes in pathways and networks safeguarding immune tolerance and gut homeostasis. METHODS: To build a taxonomy model we assessed 165 disorders. Genes were prioritized based on penetrance of IBD and disease phenotypes were integrated with multi-omics datasets. Monogenic IBD genes were classified by: (1) overlapping syndromic features; (2) response to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; (3) bulk RNA-seq of 32 tissues; (4) single-cell RNA-seq of >50 cell subsets from the intestine of healthy individuals and IBD patients (pediatric and adult), and (5) proteomes of 43 immune subsets. The model was validated by addition of newly identified monogenic IBD defects. As a proof-of-concept, we explore the intersection between immunometabolism and antimicrobial activity for a group of disorders (G6PC3/SLC37A4). RESULTS: Our quantitative integrated taxonomy defines the cellular landscape of monogenic IBD gene expression across 102 genes with high and moderate penetrance (81 in the model set and 21 genes in the validation set). We illustrate distinct cellular networks, highlight expression profiles across understudied cell types (e.g., CD8+ T cells, neutrophils, epithelial subsets and endothelial cells) and define genotype-phenotype associations (perianal disease and defective antimicrobial activity). We illustrate processes and pathways shared across cellular compartments and phenotypic groups and highlight cellular immunometabolism with mTOR activation as one of the converging pathways. There is an overlap of genes and enriched cell-specific expression between monogenic and polygenic IBD. CONCLUSION: Our taxonomy integrates genetic, clinical and multi-omic data; providing a basis for genomic diagnostics and testable hypotheses for disease functions and treatment responses.

4.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34681123

RESUMO

Work from the last years indicates that the extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a direct role in various cellular processes, including proliferation, migration and differentiation. Besides homeostatic processes, its regulatory function in inflammation becomes more and more evident. In inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease, the ECM composition is constantly remodeled, and this can result in a structuring of fistulizing disease course. Thus, tracking early ECM changes might bear the potential to predict the disease course. In this review, we provide an overview of relevant diagnostic methods, focusing on ECM changes.

5.
Gut ; 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544843

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A considerable proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may be wheat-sensitive and respond to a gluten-free diet (GFD) although they do not have coeliac disease. However, a diagnostic test for wheat sensitivity (WS) is missing. Our study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) for the identification of WS as primary outcome. DESIGN: In this prospective, double-blind diagnostic study 147 non-coeliac patients fulfilling the Rome III criteria for IBS were tested by CLE for duodenal changes after wheat (index test), soy, yeast or milk exposure. Patients with IBS responding to 2 months of GFD were classified as having WS (reference test) using response criteria recommended by regulatory bodies for pharmaceutical trials of patients with IBS. After 2 months, CLE results were unblinded and patients were advised to exclude those food components that had led to a positive CLE reaction. The clinical response was assessed at follow-up after 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: Of 130 patients who completed the study per protocol, 74 (56.9%) responded to GFD and were classified as WS after 2 months, and 38 of these 74 patients were correctly identified by CLE (sensitivity 51.4%; 97.5% CI: 38.7% to 63.9%). A total of 38 of 56 patients without WS were correctly identified by CLE (specificity 67.9%; 97.5% CI: 52.9% to 79.9%). At 6 months follow-up, CLE correctly identified 49 of 59 food-sensitive patients (sensitivity 83.1%; 97.5% CI: 69.9% to 91.3%) but specificity was only 32% (97.5% CI: 15.7% to 54.3%). CONCLUSION: In light of the high proportion of patients with IBS responding to GFD, the diagnostic accuracy of CLE is too low to recommend widespread use of this invasive procedure. TRAIL REGISTRATION NUMBER: This study was registered as clinical trial in the German Registry for Clinical Studies (DRKS00010123).

7.
Z Gastroenterol ; 59(9): 944-953, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507373

RESUMO

Refractory celiac disease (RCD) refers to a rare subgroup of patients with celiac disease who show clinical signs of malabsorption despite a gluten-free diet. RCD is divided into an autoimmune phenotype (RCD type I) and pre-lymphoma (RCD type II). To reflect the clinical reality in managing this disease in Germany, a national register was established based on a questionnaire developed specifically for this purpose. Between 2014 and 2020, a total of 53 patients were registered. The diagnosis of RCD was confirmed in 46 cases (87%). This included 27 patients (59%) with RCD type I and 19 patients (41%) with RCD type II. A wide range of diagnostic and therapeutic measures was used. Therapeutically, budesonide was used in 59% of the RCD patients regardless of the subtype. Nutritional therapy was used in only 5 patients (11%). Overall mortality was 26% (12 patients) with a clear dominance in patients with RCD type II (9 patients, 47%). In summary, RCD needs to become a focus of national guidelines to increase awareness, establish standards, and thus enable the treating physician to make the correct diagnosis in a timely manner. Moreover, we concluded that when treating such patients, contacting a specialized center is recommended to ensure sufficient management.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca , Linfoma , Doença Celíaca/diagnóstico , Doença Celíaca/epidemiologia , Doença Celíaca/terapia , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Sistema de Registros
8.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 655404, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368180

RESUMO

High-definition endoscopy is one essential step in the initial diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterizing the extent and severity of inflammation, as well as discriminating ulcerative colitis (UC) from Crohn's disease (CD). Following general recommendations and national guidelines, individual risk stratification should define the appropriate surveillance strategy, biopsy protocol and frequency of endoscopies. Beside high-definition videoendoscopy the application of dyes applied via a spraying catheter is of additional diagnostic value with a higher detection rate of intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN). Virtual chromoendoscopy techniques (NBI, FICE, I-scan, BLI) should not be recommended as a single surveillance strategy in IBD, although newer data suggest a higher comparability to dye-based chromoendoscopy than previously assumed. First results of oral methylene blue formulation are promising for improving the acceptance rate of classical chromoendoscopy. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is still an experimental but highly innovative endoscopic procedure with the potential to contribute to the detection of dysplastic lesions. Molecular endoscopy in IBD has taken application of CLE to a higher level and allows topical application of labeled probes, mainly antibodies, against specific target structures expressed in the tissue to predict response or failure to biological therapies. First pre-clinical and in vivo data from label-free multiphoton microscopy (MPM) are now available to characterize mucosal and submucosal inflammation on endoscopy in more detail. These new techniques now have opened the door to individualized and highly specific molecular imaging in IBD in the future and pave the path to personalized medicine approaches. The quality of evidence was stated according to the Oxford Center of evidence-based medicine (March 2009). For this review a Medline search up to January 2021 was performed using the words "inflammatory bowel disease," "ulcerative colitis," "crohn's disease," "chromoendoscopy," "high-definition endoscopy," "confocal laser endomicroscopy," "confocal laser microscopy," "molecular imaging," "multiphoton microscopy."

9.
Z Gastroenterol ; 59(8): 865-868, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341976

RESUMO

Hypercalcemia is a rare cause of pancreatitis. A thorough differential diagnosis is essential to distinguish causes for hypercalcemia. We here report a patient with a high-output stoma that was completely immobilized after surgery. This led to a hypercalcemia that repetitively resulted in acute pancreatitis. This etiology of a pancreatitis has not been described yet.


Assuntos
Hipercalcemia , Pancreatite Crônica , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Hipercalcemia/diagnóstico
10.
Mucosal Immunol ; 14(6): 1381-1392, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420043

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has so far claimed over three and a half million lives worldwide. Though the SARS-CoV-2 mediated disease COVID-19 has first been characterized by an infection of the upper airways and the lung, recent evidence suggests a complex disease including gastrointestinal symptoms. Even if a direct viral tropism of intestinal cells has recently been demonstrated, it remains unclear, whether gastrointestinal symptoms are caused by direct infection of the gastrointestinal tract by SARS-CoV-2 or whether they are a consequence of a systemic immune activation and subsequent modulation of the mucosal immune system. To better understand the cause of intestinal symptoms we analyzed biopsies of the small intestine from SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Applying qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, we detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA and nucleocapsid protein in duodenal mucosa. In addition, applying imaging mass cytometry and immunohistochemistry, we identified histomorphological changes of the epithelium, which were characterized by an accumulation of activated intraepithelial CD8+ T cells as well as epithelial apoptosis and subsequent regenerative proliferation in the small intestine of COVID-19 patients. In summary, our findings indicate that intraepithelial CD8+ T cells are activated upon infection of intestinal epithelial cells with SARS-CoV-2, providing one possible explanation for gastrointestinal symptoms associated with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Duodeno/imunologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Enteropatias/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Linfócitos Intraepiteliais/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Apoptose , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proliferação de Células , Chlorocebus aethiops , Duodeno/patologia , Duodeno/virologia , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Enteropatias/patologia , Enteropatias/virologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/virologia , Linfócitos Intraepiteliais/virologia , Masculino , Reepitelização , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Células Vero , Carga Viral
11.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While MR enterography allows detection of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the findings continue to be of limited use in guiding treatment-medication vs. surgery. PURPOSE: To test the feasibility of MR elastography of the gut in healthy volunteers and IBD patients. STUDY TYPE: Prospective pilot. POPULATION: Forty subjects (healthy volunteers: n = 20, 37 ± 14 years, 10 women; IBD patients: n = 20 (ulcerative colitis n = 9, Crohn's disease n = 11), 41 ± 15 years, 11 women). FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: Multifrequency MR elastography using a single-shot spin-echo echo planar imaging sequence at 1.5 T with drive frequencies of 40, 50, 60, and 70 Hz. ASSESSMENT: Maps of shear-wave speed (SWS, in m/s) and loss angle (φ, in rad), representing stiffness and solid-fluid behavior, respectively, were generated using tomoelastography data processing. Histopathological analysis of surgical specimens was used as reference standard in patients. STATISTICAL TESTS: Unpaired t-test, one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post hoc analysis, Pearson's correlation coefficient and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) with 95%-confidence interval (CI). Significance level of 5%. RESULTS: MR elastography was feasible in all 40 subjects (100% technical success rate). SWS and φ were significantly increased in IBD by 21% and 20% (IBD: 1.45 ± 0.14 m/s and 0.78 ± 0.12 rad; healthy volunteers: 1.20 ± 0.14 m/s and 0.65 ± 0.06 rad), whereas no significant differences were found between ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease (P = 0.74 and 0.90, respectively). In a preliminary assessment, a high diagnostic accuracy in detecting IBD was suggested by an AUC of 0.90 (CI: 0.81-0.96) for SWS and 0.84 (CI: 0.71-0.95) for φ. DATA CONCLUSION: In this pilot study, our results demonstrated the feasibility of MR elastography of the gut and showed an excellent diagnostic performance in predicting IBD. EVIDENCE LEVEL: 1 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 1.

12.
Z Gastroenterol ; 59(7): 665-676, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255315

RESUMO

The quality of the medical care depends on numerous factors that can often be influenced by the doctor itself. It is a great challenge to follow the constant scientific progress in practice. Scientific standards in gastroenterology are defined in DGVS guidelines and regularly revised. The implementation of evidence-based recommendations in practice remains challenging. On the basis of the DGVS guidelines, the Quality Commission has therefore developed a selection of quality indicators with particular relevance using standardized criteria, the broad implementation of which could contribute to improved patient care in gastroenterology.


Assuntos
Gastroenterologia , Doenças Metabólicas , Alemanha , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Pacientes Ambulatoriais
13.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 54(6): 779-791, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ileal and colonic Crohn's disease seem to be two separate entities. AIMS: To describe the main physiological distinctions between the small and the large intestine and to analyse the differences between ileal and colonic Crohn's disease. METHODS: The relevant literature was critically examined and synthesised. RESULTS: The small and large intestine have fundamental distinctions (anatomy, cellular populations, immune defence, microbiota). The differences between ileal and colonic Crohn's disease are highlighted by a heterogeneous body of evidence including clinical features (natural history of the disease, efficacy of treatments, and monitoring), epidemiological data (smoking status, age, gender) and biological data (genetics, microbiota, immunity, mesenteric fat). However, the contribution of these factors to disease location remains poorly understood. CONCLUSION: The classification of ileal and colonic Crohn's disease as distinct subphenotypes is well supported by the literature. Understanding of these differences could be exploited to develop more individualised patient care.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn , Humanos , Íleo
14.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 121: 104645, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166871

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Many elastography studies have shown that liver stiffness increases with fibrosis and thus can be used as a reliable marker for noninvasively staging fibrosis. However, the sensitivity of viscosity-related mechanical parameters, such as shear wave dispersion, to liver fibrosis is less well understood. METHODS: In this proof-of-concept study, 15 healthy volunteers and 37 patients with chronic liver disease and biopsy-proven fibrosis were prospectively investigated by MR elastography at six drive frequencies of 35-60 Hz. Maps of shear wave speed (SWS, in m/s) and loss angle (φ, in rad), as a marker of stiffness and viscous properties, respectively, were generated using tomoelastography data processing. The Child-Pugh score was used to assess cirrhosis severity. RESULTS: While SWS increased with fibrosis (F0: 1.53 ± 0.11 m/s, F1-F3: 1.71 ± 0.17 m/s, F4: 2.50 ± 0.39 m/s; P < 0.001), φ remained unchanged during mild to severe fibrosis (F0: 0.63 ± 0.05 rad, F1-F3: 0.60 ± 0.05 rad, P = 0.21) but increased in cirrhosis (F4: 0.81 ± 0.16 rad; P < 0.001). Correspondingly, the slope of SWS-dispersion within the investigated range of vibration frequencies increased from insignificant (F0-F3: 0.010 ± 0.007 m/s/Hz) to significant (F4: 0.038 ± 0.025 m/s/Hz; P = 0.005). Significant correlation with the Child-Pugh score was found for φ (R = 0.60, P = 0.01) but not for SWS. CONCLUSION: Although cirrhosis is associated with liver stiffening and, intuitively, transition towards more rigid material properties, the observed increases in φ and slope of SWS-dispersion indicate abnormally high mechanical friction in cirrhotic livers. This biophysical signature might provide a prognostic imaging marker for the detection of pathological processes associated with fibrosis independent of stiffness.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Biópsia , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Viscosidade
15.
Surg Endosc ; 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recently developed haemostatic peptide gel for endoscopic application has been introduced to improve the management of gastrointestinal bleeding. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, efficacy and indication profiles of PuraStat in a clinical setting. METHODS: In this prospective observational multicentre pilot study, patients with acute non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding (upper and lower) were included. Primary and secondary application of PuraStat was evaluated. Haemoglobin, prothrombin time, platelets and transfusion behaviour were documented before and after haemostasis. The efficacy of PuraStat was assessed during the procedure, at 3 days and 1 week after application. RESULTS: 111 patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding were recruited into the study. 70 percent (78/111) of the patients had upper gastrointestinal bleeding and 30% (33/111) had lower gastrointestinal bleeding. After primary application of PuraStat, initial haemostatic success was achieved in 94% of patients (74/79, 95% CI 88-99%), and in 75% of the patients when used as a secondary haemostatic product, following failure of established techniques (24/32, 95% CI 59-91%). The therapeutic success rates (absence of rebleeding) after 3 and 7 days were 91% and 87% after primary use, and 87% and 81% in all study patients. Overall rebleeding rate at 30 day follow-up was 16% (18/111). In the 5 patients who finally required surgery (4.5%), PuraStat allowed temporary haemostasis and stabilisation. CONCLUSIONS: PuraStat expanded the therapeutic toolbox available for an effective treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding sources. It could be safely applied and administered without complications as a primary or secondary therapy. PuraStat may additionally serve as a bridge to surgery in order to achieve temporary haemostasis in case of refractory severe bleeding, possibly playing a role in preventing immediate emergency surgery.

16.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 664045, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34136502

RESUMO

Inflammatory cytokines initiate and sustain the perpetuation of processes leading to chronic inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The nature of the trigger causing an inflammatory reaction decides whether type 1, type 17, or type 2 immune responses, typically characterized by the respective T- helper cell subsets, come into effect. In the intestine, Type 2 responses have been linked with mucosal healing and resolution upon an immune challenge involving parasitic infections. However, type 2 cytokines are frequently elevated in certain types of IBD in particular ulcerative colitis (UC) leading to the assumption that Th2 cells might critically support the pathogenesis of UC raising the question of whether such elevated type 2 responses in IBD are beneficial or detrimental. In line with this, previous studies showed that suppression of IL-13 and other type 2 related molecules in murine models could improve the outcomes of intestinal inflammation. However, therapeutic attempts of neutralizing IL-13 in ulcerative colitis patients have yielded no benefits. Thus, a better understanding of the role of type 2 cytokines in regulating intestinal inflammation is required. Here, we took a comparative transcriptomic approach to address how Th2 responses evolve in different mouse models of colitis and human IBD datasets. Our data show that type 2 immune-related transcripts are induced in the inflamed gut of IBD patients in both Crohn's disease and UC and across widely used mouse models of IBD. Collectively our data implicate that the presence of a type 2 signature rather defines a distinct state of intestinal inflammation than a disease-specific pathomechanism.

17.
United European Gastroenterol J ; 9(4): 451-460, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fecal calprotectin (FC) is a non-invasive marker of gut inflammation which is frequently used to guide therapeutic decisions in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Each step of FC measurement can influence the results, leading to misinterpretations and potentially impacting the management of IBD patients. To date, there is high heterogeneity between FC measurements and no current method is universally accepted as a standard. AIMS: Our aim was to provide clear position statementsabout the pre-analytical and the analytical phases of FC measurement to homogenize FC levels and to minimize variability and risk of misinterpretation through aninternational consensus. MATERIALS & METHODS: Fourteen physicians with expertise in the field of IBD and FC from 11 countries attended a virtual international consensus meeting on July 17th, 2020. A systematic literature was conducted and the literature evidence was shared and discussedamong the participants. Statements were formulated, discussed, and voted. Statements were considered approved if all participants agreed. RESULTS: Nine statements were formulated and approved. Based on the available evidence, quantitative tests should be preferred for measuring FC. Furthermore, FC measurement, if possible, should always be performed with the same method and factors influencing FC levels should be taken into account when interpreting the results. DISCUSSION: FC has an increasingly important role in the management of patients with IBD. However, large multicenter studies should be conducted to define the reproducibility and to confirm the diagnostic accuracy of the available FC tests. CONCLUSION: FC concentrations guide clinicians' treatment decisions. Our statements have a relevant impact in daily practice and could be applied in clinical trials to standardize FC measurement.

18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9820, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972639

RESUMO

Spatial heterogeneity of hepatic fibrosis in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) in comparison to viral hepatitis was assessed as a potential new biomarker using MR elastography (MRE). In this proof-of-concept study, we hypothesized a rather increased heterogeneity in PSC and a rather homogeneous distribution in viral hepatitis. Forty-six consecutive subjects (PSC: n = 20, viral hepatitis: n = 26) were prospectively enrolled between July 2014 and April 2017. Subjects underwent multifrequency MRE (1.5 T) using drive frequencies of 35-60 Hz and generating shear-wave speed (SWS in m/s) maps as a surrogate of stiffness. The coefficient of variation (CV in %) was determined to quantify fibrosis heterogeneity. Mean SWS and CV were 1.70 m/s and 21% for PSC, and 1.84 m/s and 18% for viral hepatitis. Fibrosis heterogeneity was significantly increased for PSC (P = 0.04) while no difference was found for SWS of PSC and viral hepatitis (P = 0.17). Global hepatic stiffness was similar in PSC and viral hepatitis groups, but spatial heterogeneity may reveal spatial patterns of stiffness changes towards enhanced biophysics-based diagnosis by MRI.


Assuntos
Colangite Esclerosante/patologia , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Hepatite Viral Humana/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 656047, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912578

RESUMO

Background: Interleukin-22 (IL-22) impacts the integrity of intestinal epithelia and has been associated with the development of colitis-associated cancer and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Previous data suggest that IL-22 protects the mucosal barrier and promotes wound healing and barrier defect. We hypothesized, that IL-22 modulates cell polarity of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) acting on tight junction assembly. The aim of the study was to investigate IL-22-dependent mechanisms in the reprogramming of intestinal epithelia. Methods: IECs were exposed to IL-22 at various concentrations. IECs in Matrigel® were grown to 3-dimensional cysts in the presence or absence of IL-22 and morphology and expression of polarity proteins were analyzed by confocal microscopy. Epithelial cell barrier (TER and sandwich assay) and TJ assembly analysis (calcium-switch assay) were performed. TJ and cell polarity protein expression were assessed by western blotting and confocal microscopy. Cell migration and invasion assays were performed. Induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was assessed by RT-qPCR analysis and western blotting. Signaling pathway analyses were performed by phosphoblotting and functional assays after blocking STAT3 and ERK signaling pathways. Using the toxoplasma-model of terminal ileitis, IL-22-knock-out mice were compared to wild-type littermates, analyzed for barrier function using one-path-impedance-analysis and macromolecular flux (H3-mannitol, Ussing-chambers). Results: IECs exhibited a barrier defect after IL-22 exposure. TJ protein distribution and expression were severely impaired. Delayed recovery in the calcium-switch assay was observed suggesting a defect in TJ assembly. Analyzing the 3D-cyst model, IL-22 induced multi-lumen and aberrant cysts, and altered the localization of cell polarity proteins. Cell migration and invasion was caused by IL-22 as well as induction of EMT. Interestingly, only inhibition of the MAPK pathway, rescued the TJal barrier defect, while blocking STAT3 was relevant for cell survival. In addition, ileal mucosa of IL-22 deficient mice was protected from the barrier defect seen in Toxoplasma gondii-induced ileitis in wild type mice shown by significantly higher Re values and correspondingly lower macromolecule fluxes. Conclusion: IL-22 impairs intestinal epithelial cell barrier by inducing EMT, causing defects in epithelial cell polarity and increasing cell motility and cell invasion. IL-22 modulates TJ protein expression and mediates tight junctional (TJal) barrier defects via ERK pathway.

20.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(4): 905-915, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33817450

RESUMO

Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important complication in COVID-19, but its precise etiology has not fully been elucidated. Insights into AKI mechanisms may be provided by analyzing the temporal associations of clinical parameters reflecting disease processes and AKI development. Methods: We performed an observational cohort study of 223 consecutive COVID-19 patients treated at 3 sites of a tertiary care referral center to describe the evolvement of severe AKI (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes stage 3) and identify conditions promoting its development. Descriptive statistics and explanatory multivariable Cox regression modeling with clinical parameters as time-varying covariates were used to identify risk factors of severe AKI. Results: Severe AKI developed in 70 of 223 patients (31%) with COVID-19, of which 95.7% required kidney replacement therapy. Patients with severe AKI were older, predominantly male, had more comorbidities, and displayed excess mortality. Severe AKI occurred exclusively in intensive care unit patients, and 97.3% of the patients developing severe AKI had respiratory failure. Mechanical ventilation, vasopressor therapy, and inflammatory markers (serum procalcitonin levels and leucocyte count) were independent time-varying risk factors of severe AKI. Increasing inflammatory markers displayed a close temporal association with the development of severe AKI. Sensitivity analysis on risk factors of AKI stage 2 and 3 combined confirmed these findings. Conclusion: Severe AKI in COVID-19 was tightly coupled with critical illness and systemic inflammation and was not observed in milder disease courses. These findings suggest that traditional systemic AKI mechanisms rather than kidney-specific processes contribute to severe AKI in COVID-19.

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