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1.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-35, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583990

RESUMO

Experimental studies have reported on the anti-inflammatory properties of polyphenols. However, results from epidemiological investigations have been inconsistent, and especially studies using biomarkers for assessment of polyphenol intake have been scant. We aimed to characterize the association between plasma concentrations of 35 polyphenol compounds and low-grade systemic inflammation state as measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). A cross-sectional data analysis was performed based on 315 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort with available measurements of plasma polyphenols and hsCRP. In logistic regression analysis the odds and 95% confidence intervals (CI-s) of elevated serum hsCRP (>3 mg/L) were calculated within quartiles and per standard deviation (SD) higher level of plasma polyphenol concentrations. In multivariable-adjusted model, the sum of plasma concentrations of all polyphenols measured (per SD) was associated with 29% lower odds of elevated hsCRP (95% CI: 50%-1%). In the class of flavonoids, daidzein was inversely associated with elevated hsCRP (OR= 0.66, 95%CI 0.46-0.96). Among phenolic acids, statistically significant associations were observed for 3,5-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (OR=0.58, 95%CI 0.39-0.86), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (OR= 0.63, 95% CI 0.46-0.87), ferulic acid (OR= 0.65, 95%CI 0.44-0.96), and caffeic acid (OR= 0.69, 95%CI 0.51-0.93). The odds of elevated hsCRP were significantly reduced for hydroxytyrosol (OR= 0.67, 95%CI 0.48-0.93). This study showed that polyphenol biomarkers are associated with lower odds of elevated hsCRP. Whether diet rich in bioactive polyphenol compounds could be an effective strategy to prevent or modulate deleterious health effects of inflammation should be addressed by further well-powered longitudinal studies.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506954

RESUMO

Evidence suggests an influence of sex hormones on cutaneous melanoma risk, but epidemiologic findings are conflicting. We examined the associations between use of oral contraceptives (OCs) and menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and melanoma risk in women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC is a prospective cohort study initiated in 1992 in 10 European countries. Information on exogenous hormone use at baseline was derived from country-specific self-administered questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Over 1992-2015, 1,696 melanoma cases were identified among 334,483 women, whereof 770 cases among 134,758 postmenopausal women. There was a positive, borderline-significant association between OC use and melanoma risk (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.00-1.26), with no detected heterogeneity across countries (phomogeneity = 0.42). This risk increased linearly with duration of use (ptrend = 0.01). Among postmenopausal women, ever use of MHT was associated with a nonsignificant increase in melanoma risk overall (HR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.97-1.43), which was heterogeneous across countries (phomogeneity = 0.05). Our findings do not support a strong and direct association between exogenous hormone use and melanoma risk. In order to better understand these relations, further research should be performed using prospectively collected data including detailed information on types of hormone, and on sun exposure, which may act as an important confounder or effect modifier on these relations.

3.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 178, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolomics is a promising molecular tool to identify novel etiologic pathways leading to cancer. Using a targeted approach, we prospectively investigated the associations between metabolite concentrations in plasma and breast cancer risk. METHODS: A nested case-control study was established within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer cohort, which included 1624 first primary incident invasive breast cancer cases (with known estrogen and progesterone receptor and HER2 status) and 1624 matched controls. Metabolites (n = 127, acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, glycerophospholipids, hexose, sphingolipids) were measured by mass spectrometry in pre-diagnostic plasma samples and tested for associations with breast cancer incidence using multivariable conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Among women not using hormones at baseline (n = 2248), and after control for multiple tests, concentrations of arginine (odds ratio [OR] per SD = 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70-0.90), asparagine (OR = 0.83 (0.74-0.92)), and phosphatidylcholines (PCs) ae C36:3 (OR = 0.83 (0.76-0.90)), aa C36:3 (OR = 0.84 (0.77-0.93)), ae C34:2 (OR = 0.85 (0.78-0.94)), ae C36:2 (OR = 0.85 (0.78-0.88)), and ae C38:2 (OR = 0.84 (0.76-0.93)) were inversely associated with breast cancer risk, while the acylcarnitine C2 (OR = 1.23 (1.11-1.35)) was positively associated with disease risk. In the overall population, C2 (OR = 1.15 (1.06-1.24)) and PC ae C36:3 (OR = 0.88 (0.82-0.95)) were associated with risk of breast cancer, and these relationships did not differ by breast cancer subtype, age at diagnosis, fasting status, menopausal status, or adiposity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings point to potentially novel pathways and biomarkers of breast cancer development. Results warrant replication in other epidemiological studies.

4.
Anal Chem ; 91(17): 11334-11342, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398002

RESUMO

We are constantly exposed to a variety of environmental contaminants and hormones, including those mimicking endogenous estrogens. These highly heterogeneous molecules are collectively referred to as xenoestrogens and hold the potential to affect and alter the delicate hormonal balance of the human body. To monitor exposure and investigate potential health implications, comprehensive analytical methods covering all major xenoestrogen classes are needed but not available to date. Herein, we describe a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of multiple classes of endogenous as well as exogenous estrogens in human urine, serum, and breast milk to enable proper exposure and risk assessment. In total, 75 analytes were included, whereof a majority was successfully in-house validated in the three matrices. Extraction recoveries of validated analytes ranged from 71% to 110% and limits of quantification from 0.015 to 5 µg/L, 0.03 to 14 µg/L, and 0.03 to 4.6 µg/L in urine, serum, and breast milk, respectively. The applicability of the novel method was demonstrated in proof-of-principle experiments by analyzing urine from Austrian individuals and breast milk from Austrian and Nigerian individuals. Thereby, we proved the methods' feasibility to identify and quantify different classes of xenoestrogens simultaneously. The results illustrate the general importance of multiclass exposure assessment in the context of the exposome paradigm. Specifically, they highlight the need for estimating total estrogenic burden rather than single analyte or chemical class measurements and its potential impact in endocrine disruption and hormone related diseases including cancers.

5.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(5): 1220-1230, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relation of dairy product consumption to health and mortality is controversial. OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations of consumption of various dairy products with mortality in the Italian cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Italy study. METHODS: Dairy product consumption was assessed by validated semiquantitative FFQs. Multivariable Cox models stratified by center, age, and sex and adjusted for confounders estimated associations of milk (total, full fat, and reduced fat), yogurt, cheese, butter, and dairy calcium consumption with mortality for cancer, cardiovascular disease, and all causes. Nonlinearity was tested by restricted cubic spline regression. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 14.9 y, 2468 deaths were identified in 45,009 participants: 59% from cancer and 19% from cardiovascular disease. No significant association of consumption of any dairy product with mortality was found in the fully adjusted models. A 25% reduction in risk of all-cause mortality was found for milk intake from 160 to 120 g/d (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.91) but not for the highest (>200 g/d) category of intake (HR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.08) compared with nonconsumption. Associations of full-fat and reduced-fat milk consumption with all-cause and cause-specific mortality were similar to those for milk as a whole. CONCLUSIONS: In this Italian cohort characterized by low to average milk consumption, we found no evidence of a dose-response association between milk consumption and mortality and also no association of consumption of other dairy products investigated with mortality.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319002

RESUMO

Several studies have reported associations of hypertension with cancer, but not all results were conclusive. We examined the association of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure with the development of incident cancer at all anatomical sites in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by EPIC-participating center and age at recruitment, and adjusted for sex, education, smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diabetes and dietary (in women also reproductive) factors. The study included 307,318 men and women, with an average follow-up of 13.7 (standard deviation 4.4) years and 39,298 incident cancers. We confirmed the expected positive association with renal cell carcinoma: HR = 1.12 (1.08-1.17) per 10 mm Hg higher SBP and HR = 1.23 (1.14-1.32) for DBP. We additionally found positive associations for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC): HR = 1.16 (1.07-1.26) (SBP), HR = 1.31 (1.13-1.51) (DBP), weaker for head and neck cancers: HR = 1.08 (1.04-1.12) (SBP), HR = 1.09 (1.01-1.17) (DBP) and, similarly, for skin SCC, colon cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer and uterine adenocarcinoma (AC), but not for esophageal AC, lung SCC, lung AC or uterine endometroid cancer. We observed weak inverse associations of SBP with cervical SCC: HR = 0.91 (0.82-1.00) and lymphomas: HR = 0.97 (0.93-1.00). There were no consistent associations with cancers in other locations. Our results are largely compatible with published studies and support weak associations of blood pressure with cancers in specific locations and morphologies.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951192

RESUMO

Metabolomics may reveal novel insights into the etiology of prostate cancer, for which few risk factors are established. We investigated the association between patterns in baseline plasma metabolite profile and subsequent prostate cancer risk, using data from 3,057 matched case-control sets from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). We measured 119 metabolite concentrations in plasma samples, collected on average 9.4 years before diagnosis, by mass spectrometry (AbsoluteIDQ p180 Kit, Biocrates Life Sciences AG). Metabolite patterns were identified using treelet transform, a statistical method for identification of groups of correlated metabolites. Associations of metabolite patterns with prostate cancer risk (OR1SD ) were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Supplementary analyses were conducted for metabolite patterns derived using principal component analysis and for individual metabolites. Men with metabolite profiles characterized by higher concentrations of either phosphatidylcholines or hydroxysphingomyelins (OR1SD = 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.66-0.89), acylcarnitines C18:1 and C18:2, glutamate, ornithine and taurine (OR1SD = 0.72, 0.57-0.90), or lysophosphatidylcholines (OR1SD = 0.81, 0.69-0.95) had lower risk of advanced stage prostate cancer at diagnosis, with no evidence of heterogeneity by follow-up time. Similar associations were observed for the two former patterns with aggressive disease risk (the more aggressive subset of advanced stage), while the latter pattern was inversely related to risk of prostate cancer death (OR1SD = 0.77, 0.61-0.96). No associations were observed for prostate cancer overall or less aggressive tumor subtypes. In conclusion, metabolite patterns may be related to lower risk of more aggressive prostate tumors and prostate cancer death, and might be relevant to etiology of advanced stage prostate cancer.

8.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(4): 1275-1285, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Earlier age at menopause has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but the shape of association and role of established cardiovascular risk factors remain unclear. Therefore, we examined the associations between menopausal characteristics and CHD risk; the shape of the association between age at menopause and CHD risk; and the extent to which these associations are explained by established cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: We used data from EPIC-CVD, a case-cohort study, which includes data from 23 centres from 10 European countries. We included only women, of whom 10 880 comprise the randomly selected sub-cohort, supplemented with 4522 cases outside the sub-cohort. We conducted Prentice-weighted Cox proportional hazards regressions with age as the underlying time scale, stratified by country and adjusted for relevant confounders. RESULTS: After confounder and intermediate adjustment, post-menopausal women were not at higher CHD risk compared with pre-menopausal women. Among post-menopausal women, earlier menopause was linearly associated with higher CHD risk [HRconfounder and intermediate adjusted per-year decrease = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.03, p = 0.001]. Women with a surgical menopause were at higher risk of CHD compared with those with natural menopause (HRconfounder-adjusted = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.10-1.42, p < 0.001), but this attenuated after additional adjustment for age at menopause and intermediates (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.96-1.29, p = 0.15). A proportion of the association was explained by cardiovascular risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Earlier and surgical menopause were associated with higher CHD risk. These associations could partially be explained by differences in conventional cardiovascular risk factors. These women might benefit from close monitoring of cardiovascular risk factors and disease.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 145(9): 2349-2359, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694528

RESUMO

Published associations between dietary folate and bladder cancer risk are inconsistent. Biomarkers may provide more accurate measures of nutrient status. This nested case-control analysis within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) investigated associations between pre-diagnostic serum folate, homocysteine, vitamins B6 and B12 and the risk of urothelial cell carcinomas of the bladder (UCC). A total of 824 patients with newly diagnosed UCC were matched with 824 cohort members. Serum folate, homocysteine, and vitamins B6 and B12 were measured. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for total, aggressive, and non-aggressive UCC were estimated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for smoking status, smoking duration and intensity, and other potential confounders. Additionally, statistical interaction with smoking status was assessed. A halving in serum folate concentrations was moderately associated with risk of UCC (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.98-1.43), in particular aggressive UCC (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.02-1.75; p-heterogeneity = 0.19). Compared to never smokers in the highest quartile of folate concentrations, this association seemed only apparent among current smokers in the lowest quartile of folate concentrations (OR: 6.26; 95% CI: 3.62-10.81, p-interaction = 0.07). Dietary folate was not associated with aggressive UCC (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 0.81-1.95; p-heterogeneity = 0.14). No association was observed between serum homocysteine, vitamins B6 and B12 and risk of UCC. This study suggests that lower serum folate concentrations are associated with increased UCC risk, in particular aggressive UCC. Residual confounding by smoking cannot be ruled out and these findings require confirmation in future studies with multiple measurements.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30515770

RESUMO

Diet is the primary source of cadmium - a proven Group 1 human carcinogen - for non-smokers. Observational studies investigating the effect of cadmium from food sources on breast cancer risk have produced inconsistent results. We examined the association between dietary cadmium and risk of breast cancer defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 status, in 8,924 women recruited to a prospective study between 1987 and 1992. Dietary cadmium intake was estimated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline. During a median of 22 years of follow-up, 451 incident cases of breast cancer were identified through the Varese Cancer Registry. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer and receptor-defined breast cancer subtypes were estimated for quintiles of dietary cadmium intake, adjusting for confounding factors. Mean dietary cadmium intake was 7.8 (standard deviation 1.4) µg/day. Women with highest quintile of cadmium intake had a greater risk of breast cancer (HR 1.54; 95% CI, 1.06 - 2.22; p-trend = 0.028) than those with lowest quintile of intake. Women premenopausal at recruitment had HR = 1.73 (95% CI, 1.10 - 2.71, highest vs. lowest quintile); postmenopausal women had HR = 1.32 (95% CI, 1.05 - 1.66 for each standard deviation increase in cadmium). Cadmium-related risk of breast cancer did not vary with ER, PR or HER2 status (p-heterogeneity not significant). These findings support the hypothesis that dietary cadmium is a risk factor for breast cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30418614

RESUMO

Background: Existing evidence for the prospective association of vitamin D status with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is focused almost exclusively on circulating total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] without distinction between its subtypes: non-epimeric and epimeric 25(OH)D3 stereoisomers; and 25(OH)D2, the minor component of 25(OH)D. We aimed to investigate the prospective associations of circulating levels of the sum and each of these three metabolites with incident T2D. Methods: This analysis in the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study for T2D included 9671 incident T2D cases and 13562 subcohort members. Plasma vitamin D metabolites were quantified by liquid-chromatography mass-spectrometry. We used multivariable Prentice-weighted Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of T2D for each metabolite. Analyses were performed separately within country, and estimates combined across countries using random-effects meta-analysis. Results: The mean concentrations (standard deviation) of total 25(OH)D, non-epimeric 25(OH)D3, epimeric 25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D2 were 41.1 (17.2), 40.7 (17.3), 2.13 (1.31), and 8.16 (6.52) nmol/L, respectively. Plasma total 25(OH)D and non-epimeric 25(OH)D3 were inversely associated with incident T2D [multivariable-adjusted HR per 1-SD=0.81 (95%CI: 0.77, 0.86) for both variables], while epimeric 25(OH)D3 was positively associated: per 1-SD HR=1.16 (1.09, 1.25). There was no statistically significant association with T2D for 25(OH)D2 [per 1-SD HR=0.94 (0.76, 1.18)]. Conclusions: Plasma non-epimeric 25(OH)D3 was inversely associated with incident T2D, consistent with it being the major metabolite contributing to total 25(OH)D. The positive association of the epimeric form of 25(OH)D3 with incident T2D provides novel information to assess the biological relevance of vitamin D epimerization and vitamin D subtypes in diabetes etiology.

12.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481275

RESUMO

The role of hormonal factors in lymphoid neoplasms etiology remains unclear. Previous studies have yielded conflicting results, been underpowered to assess many lymphoma subtypes, or lacked detailed information on relevant exposures. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, we analyzed comprehensive data collected at baseline (1992-2000) on reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use among 343,458 women, including 1,427 incident B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) and its major subtypes identified after a mean follow-up of 14 years (through 2015). We estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals using multivariable proportional hazards modeling. Overall, we observed no statistically significant associations between parity, age at first birth, breastfeeding, oral contraceptive use or ever use of postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of B-cell NHL or its subtypes. Women who had a surgical menopause had a 51% higher risk of B-cell NHL (based on 67 cases) compared with natural menopause (hazard ratio=1.51, 95% confidence interval=1.17, 1.94). Given that this result may be due to chance, our results provide little support for the hypothesis that sex hormones play a role in lymphomagenesis.

13.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462234

RESUMO

Background: The aim of this paper is to investigate the causality of the inverse association between cigarette smoking and Parkinson's disease (PD). The main suggested alternatives include a delaying effect of smoking, reverse causality or an unmeasured confounding related to a low-risk-taking personality trait. Methods: A total of 715 incident PD cases were ascertained in a cohort of 220 494 individuals from NeuroEPIC4PD, a prospective European population-based cohort study including 13 centres in eight countries. Smoking habits were recorded at recruitment. We analysed smoking status, duration, and intensity and exposure to passive smoking in relation to PD onset. Results: Former smokers had a 20% decreased risk and current smokers a halved risk of developing PD compared with never smokers. Strong dose-response relationships with smoking intensity and duration were found. Hazard ratios (HRs) for smoking <20 years were 0.84 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67-1.07], 20-29 years 0.73 (95% CI 0.56-0.96) and >30 years 0.54 (95% CI 0.43-0.36) compared with never smokers. The proportional hazard assumption was verified, showing no change of risk over time, arguing against a delaying effect. Reverse causality was disproved by the consistency of dose-response relationships among former and current smokers. The inverse association between passive smoking and PD, HR 0.70 (95% CI 0.49-0.99) ruled out the effect of unmeasured confounding. Conclusions: These results are highly suggestive of a true causal link between smoking and PD, although it is not clear which is the chemical compound in cigarette smoking responsible for the biological effect.

14.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(22): 5594-5601, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30037816

RESUMO

Purpose: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has the potential for cure with surgery when diagnosed at an early stage. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) has been shown to be elevated in the plasma of RCC patients. We aimed to test whether plasma KIM-1 could represent a means of detecting RCC prior to clinical diagnosis.Experimental Design: KIM-1 concentrations were measured in prediagnostic plasma from 190 RCC cases and 190 controls nested within a population-based prospective cohort study. Cases had entered the cohort up to 5 years before diagnosis, and controls were matched on cases for date of birth, date at blood donation, sex, and country. We applied conditional logistic regression and flexible parametric survival models to evaluate the association between plasma KIM-1 concentrations and RCC risk and survival.Results: The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of RCC for a doubling in KIM-1 concentration was 1.71 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.44-2.03, P = 4.1 × 10-23], corresponding to an IRR of 63.3 (95% CI, 16.2-246.9) comparing the 80th to the 20th percentiles of the KIM-1 distribution in this sample. Compared with a risk model including known risk factors of RCC (age, sex, country, body mass index, and tobacco smoking status), a risk model additionally including KIM-1 substantially improved discrimination between cases and controls (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.8 compared with 0.7). High plasma KIM-1 concentrations were also associated with poorer survival (P = 0.0053).Conclusions: Plasma KIM-1 concentrations could predict RCC incidence up to 5 years prior to diagnosis and were associated with poorer survival. Clin Cancer Res; 24(22); 5594-601. ©2018 AACR.

15.
Nutrition ; 55-56: 140-145, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30005330

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cancer patients changing their diet in relation to cancer site, sex, age and geographic distribution. Furthermore, we aimed to explore the rationale behind dietary changes and to identify sources of information in order to plan specific educational training. METHODS: Patients ≥18 y of age who accessed the Italian Cancer Patients, Families and Friends Association information points were invited to participate. An ad hoc self-report questionnaire was used. The questionnaire asked patients about changes made to the major food groups. A minimum sample of 100 patients for the most common cancers was planned. We analyzed 1257 questionnaires. We assessed the prevalence of, reasons for, and type of dietary changes. Logistic regression was used to analyze the main determinants of dietary changes. RESULTS: Of the 1257 patients, 705 (56.1%) reported changes since receiving the diagnosis of cancer. On the logistic regression analysis, age and tumor site were significantly associated with dietary changes (P <0.001), mainly in patients <50 y of age and in those with upper gastrointestinal cancers. Slightly more than half (50.8%) of patients adopted a healthier diet, with 31.3% doing so to deal with eating-related side effects and 17.9% due to cancer sites. Regardless of the reasons for changing, the most common food items to result in a decrease in consumption were alcohol, red and processed meats, and sugary drinks. Only 15% of patients reported receiving specific nutrition indication. CONCLUSION: Italian patients are attentive to the importance of diet during cancer treatment. Personal choices reflect some indications for cancer prevention as there is still a shortage of guidelines for a correct diet during treatment. Nutrition indications are rarely given within the oncologic center.

16.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912394

RESUMO

Background: Experimental and epidemiological studies suggest a protective role for vitamin D in colorectal carcinogenesis, but evidence is inconclusive. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations that minimize risk are unknown. Current Institute of Medicine (IOM) vitamin D guidance is based solely on bone health. Methods: We pooled participant-level data from 17 cohorts, comprising 5706 colorectal cancer case participants and 7107 control participants with a wide range of circulating 25(OH)D concentrations. For 30.1% of participants, 25(OH)D was newly measured. Previously measured 25(OH)D was calibrated to the same assay to permit estimating risk by absolute concentrations. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) for prediagnostic season-standardized 25(OH)D concentrations were calculated using conditional logistic regression and pooled using random effects models. Results: Compared with the lower range of sufficiency for bone health (50-<62.5 nmol/L), deficient 25(OH)D (<30 nmol/L) was associated with 31% higher colorectal cancer risk (RR = 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05 to 1.62); 25(OH)D above sufficiency (75-<87.5 and 87.5-<100 nmol/L) was associated with 19% (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.67 to 0.99) and 27% (RR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.59 to 0.91) lower risk, respectively. At 25(OH)D of 100 nmol/L or greater, risk did not continue to decline and was not statistically significantly reduced (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.67 to 1.24, 3.5% of control participants). Associations were minimally affected when adjusting for body mass index, physical activity, or other risk factors. For each 25 nmol/L increment in circulating 25(OH)D, colorectal cancer risk was 19% lower in women (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.75 to 0.87) and 7% lower in men (RR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.86 to 1.00) (two-sided Pheterogeneity by sex = .008). Associations were inverse in all subgroups, including colorectal subsite, geographic region, and season of blood collection. Conclusions: Higher circulating 25(OH)D was related to a statistically significant, substantially lower colorectal cancer risk in women and non-statistically significant lower risk in men. Optimal 25(OH)D concentrations for colorectal cancer risk reduction, 75-100 nmol/L, appear higher than current IOM recommendations.

17.
Nutrients ; 10(6)2018 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29874819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coffee and tea are among the most commonly consumed nonalcoholic beverages worldwide, but methodological differences in assessing intake often hamper comparisons across populations. We aimed to (i) describe coffee and tea intakes and (ii) assess their contribution to intakes of selected nutrients in adults across 10 European countries. METHOD: Between 1995 and 2000, a standardized 24-h dietary recall was conducted among 36,018 men and women from 27 European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study centres. Adjusted arithmetic means of intakes were estimated in grams (=volume) per day by sex and centre. Means of intake across centres were compared by sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: In women, the mean daily intake of coffee ranged from 94 g/day (~0.6 cups) in Greece to 781 g/day (~4.4 cups) in Aarhus (Denmark), and tea from 14 g/day (~0.1 cups) in Navarra (Spain) to 788 g/day (~4.3 cups) in the UK general population. Similar geographical patterns for mean daily intakes of both coffee and tea were observed in men. Current smokers as compared with those who reported never smoking tended to drink on average up to 500 g/day more coffee and tea combined, but with substantial variation across centres. Other individuals' characteristics such as educational attainment or age were less predictive. In all centres, coffee and tea contributed to less than 10% of the energy intake. The greatest contribution to total sugar intakes was observed in Southern European centres (up to ~20%). CONCLUSION: Coffee and tea intake and their contribution to energy and sugar intake differed greatly among European adults. Variation in consumption was mostly driven by geographical region.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Café , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Chá , Adulto , Idoso , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Nutr Diabetes ; 8(1): 22, 2018 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29695712

RESUMO

Excessive calorie intake and physical inactivity are considered key determinants of the rapid worldwide increase in obesity prevalence, however the relationship between diet and weight gain is complex. We investigated associations between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and long-term changes in weight and waist circumference in volunteers recruited to the Italian section of the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). We investigated 32,119 cohort members who provided anthropometric measures at recruitment and updated information on recall a mean of 12 years later. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet was assessed using the Italian Mediterranean Index (score range 0-11). Associations between index score and weight and waist changes were assessed by multivariate linear regression models. Risks of developing overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity were investigated by multivariate logistic models. Increasing Italian Mediterranean Index score (indicating better adherence) was associated with lower 5-year weight change in volunteers of normal weight at baseline (ß -0.12, 95% CI -0.16 to -0.08 for 1 tertile increase in score), but not in those overweight/obese at baseline (P interaction between Index score and BMI 0.0001). High adherence was also associated with reduced risk of becoming overweight/obese (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.84-0.99 third vs. first tertile); smaller 5-year change in waist circumference (ß -0.09, 95% CI -0.14 to -0.03 for 1 tertile increase in score); and lower risk of abdominal obesity (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.84-0.99 third vs. first tertile). Adherence to a traditional Italian Mediterranean diet may help prevent weight gain and abdominal obesity.

19.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 115: 482-490, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29621579

RESUMO

Selenium is a trace element of both nutritional and toxicological interest, depending on its dose and chemical form. Diet is the primary source of exposure for most individuals. We sought to investigate the influence of food intake on serum levels of selenium species. Among fifty subjects randomly selected from a Northern Italian population, we assessed dietary habits using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. We also measured circulating levels of selenium species in serum using high pressure liquid chromatography associated with inductively-coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometer. Circulating levels of inorganic selenium, the most toxic selenium species, were positively associated with intake of fish, legumes and dry fruits, and inversely associated with intake of dairy products and mushrooms. Concerning the organic selenium species, selenoproteinP-bound selenium was inversely associated with intake of fish, fresh fruits, vegetables, and legumes, while selenocysteine-bound selenium positively associated with intake of fresh fruit, potato, legume and mushroom. In the present study, intakes of different foods were correlated with different types of selenium species. These results have important public health implications when assessing the nutritional and toxicological potential of diet composition with reference to selenium exposure.


Assuntos
Dieta , Selênio/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Fabaceae/química , Feminino , Peixes/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Selênio/análise , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras/química
20.
Int J Cancer ; 143(3): 515-526, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29473162

RESUMO

Immuno-proteomic screening has identified several tumor-associated autoantibodies (AAb) that may have diagnostic capacity for invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, with AAbs to P53 proteins and cancer-testis antigens (CTAGs) as prominent examples. However, the early detection potential of these AAbs has been insufficiently explored in prospective studies. We performed ELISA measurements of AAbs to CTAG1A, CTAG2, P53 and NUDT11 proteins, for 194 patients with ovarian cancer and 705 matched controls from the European EPIC cohort, using serum samples collected up to 36 months prior to diagnosis under usual care. CA125 was measured using electrochemo-luminiscence. Diagnostic discrimination statistics were calculated by strata of lead-time between blood collection and diagnosis. With lead times ≤6 months, ovarian cancer detection sensitivity at 0.98 specificity (SE98) varied from 0.19 [95% CI 0.08-0.40] for CTAG1A, CTAG2 and NUDT1 to 0.23 [0.10-0.44] for P53 (0.33 [0.11-0.68] for high-grade serous tumors). However, at longer lead-times, the ability of these AAb markers to distinguish future ovarian cancer cases from controls declined rapidly; at lead times >1 year, SE98 estimates were close to zero (all invasive cases, range: 0.01-0.11). Compared to CA125 alone, combined logistic regression scores of AAbs and CA125 did not improve detection sensitivity at equal level of specificity. The added value of these selected AAbs as markers for ovarian cancer beyond CA125 for early detection is therefore limited.

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