Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 25
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Tipo de estudo
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Travel Med ; 26(8)2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Of febrile illnesses in Europe, dengue is second only to malaria as a cause of travellers being hospitalized. Local transmission has been reported in several European countries, including Spain. This study assesses the evolution of dengue-related admissions in Spain in terms of time, geographical distribution and individuals' common characteristics; it also creates a predictive model to evaluate the risk of local transmission. METHODS: This is a retrospective study using the Hospital Discharge Records Database from 1997 to 2016. We calculated hospitalization rates and described clinical characteristics. Spatial distribution and temporal behaviour were also assessed, and a predictive time series model was created to estimate expected cases in the near future. Figures for resident foreign population, Spanish residents' trips to endemic regions and the expansion of Aedes albopictus were also evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 588 dengue-related admissions were recorded: 49.6% were women, and the mean age was 34.3 years. One person died (0.2%), 82% presented with mild-to-moderate dengue and 7-8% with severe dengue. We observed a trend of steady and consistent increase in incidence (P < 0.05), in parallel with the increase in trips to dengue-endemic regions. Most admissions occurred during the summer, showing significant seasonality with 3-year peaks. We also found important regional differences. According to the predictive time series analysis, a continuing increase in imported dengue incidence can be expected in the near future, which, in the worst case scenario (upper 95% confidence interval), would mean an increase of 65% by 2025. CONCLUSION: We present a nationwide study based on hospital, immigration, travel and entomological data. The constant increase in dengue-related hospitalizations, in combination with wider vector distribution, could imply a higher risk of autochthonous dengue transmission in the years to come. Strengthening the human and vector surveillance systems is a necessity, as are improvements in control measures, in the education of the general public and in fostering their collaboration in order to reduce the impact of imported dengue and to prevent the occurrence of autochthonous cases.

2.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 922018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420591

RESUMO

By mid-2015, an increase in the number of cases of microcephaly among newborns and neurologic disorders was detected in the Northwest of Brazil, which was possibly associated with Zika virus infection. Later on, this phenomenon was also observed in several Latin-American countries. In February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) on this basis, declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. From that moment on, several measures were adopted to achieve the epidemic control at both international and national levels. The WHO launched a strategic response plan based on case detection, infection control and treatment, as well as, the research and development of new vector control tools, diagnostic tests and vaccines. In Europe both surveillance and vector control systems were reinforced. The countries reporting most cases were France, Spain and the United Kingdom. In Spain, due to the high probability of case importation based on the close relationships with Latin-America, numerous measures were adopted to achieve a rapid response and an optimal control. Those included: the implementation of an active surveillance in collaboration with several experts, institutions and scientific societies; entomologic surveillance enhancement; the development of communication activities and recommendations for both healthcare workers and general population.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Epidemias , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Zika virus , Adulto , Aedes , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Vetores de Doenças , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , América Latina , Masculino , Microcefalia/etiologia , Gravidez , Saúde Pública , Espanha , Organização Mundial da Saúde
3.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 92: 0-0, 2018. tab, mapas
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-177575

RESUMO

A mediados del 2015 se detectó en el noroeste de Brasil un incremento en el número de casos de microcefalia en recién nacidos y de alteraciones neurológicas, que se asociaron con una posible infección por el virus Zika y que más adelante comenzaría a observarse en otros países de Latinoamérica. En febrero de 2016 la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) declaró esta situación como una Emergencia de Salud Pública de Importancia Internacional (ESPII) y desde ese momento se llevaron a cabo numerosas medidas para el control de la epidemia tanto a nivel internacional, como nacional en los diferentes países. La OMS lanzó un Plan de respuesta estratégico basado en la detección de casos, control de la infección y tratamiento, así como en la investigación y desarrollo de herramientas para el control de mosquitos, test diagnósticos y vacunas. En Europa se reforzaron los sistemas de vigilancia así como de control de los vectores, siendo los países que más casos notificaron: Francia, España y el Reino Unido. En España debido a la alta probabilidad de importación de casos por la estrecha relación con Latinoamérica, se llevaron a cabo numerosas medidas que permitieron una rápida respuesta y un óptimo control, que incluyeron: la puesta en marcha de una vigilancia activa en la que colaboraron diversos profesionales, organismos y sociedades científicas; el refuerzo de actividades de vigilancia entomológica; el desarrollo de actividades de comunicación y la elaboración de recomendaciones dirigidas a profesionales sanitarios y a la población general


By mid-2015, an increase in the number of cases of microcephaly among newborns and neurologic disorders was detected in the Northwest of Brazil, which was possibly associated with Zika virus infection. Later on, this phenomenon was also observed in several Latin-American countries. In February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) on this basis, declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. From that moment on, several measures were adopted to achieve the epidemic control at both international and national levels. The WHO launched a strategic response plan based on case detection, infection control and treatment, as well as, the research and development of new vector control tools, diagnostic tests and vaccines. In Europe both surveillance and vector control systems were reinforced. The countries reporting most cases were France, Spain and the United Kingdom. In Spain, due to the high probability of case importation based on the close relationships with Latin-America, numerous measures were adopted to achieve a rapid response and an optimal control. Those included: the implementation of an active surveillance in collaboration with several experts, institutions and scientific societies; entomologic surveillance enhancement; the development of communication activities and recommendations for both healthcare workers and general population


Assuntos
Humanos , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Microcefalia/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/patogenicidade , Aedes/patogenicidade , Saúde do Viajante , Complicações na Gravidez , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/epidemiologia
4.
Acta Trop ; 169: 163-169, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28212847

RESUMO

West Nile fever is an emergent disease in Europe. The objective of this study was to conduct a predictive risk mapping of West Nile Virus (WNV) circulation in Spain based on historical data of WNV circulation. Areas of Spain with evidence of WNV circulation were mapped based on data from notifications to the surveillance systems and a literature review. A logistic regression-based spatial model was used to assess the probability of WNV circulation. Data were analyzed at municipality level. Mean temperatures of the period from June to October, presence of wetlands and presence of Special Protection Areas for birds were considered as potential predictors. Two predictors of WNV circulation were identified: higher temperature [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.07, 95% CI 1.82-2.35, p<0.01] and presence of wetlands (3.37, 95% CI 1.89-5.99, p<0.01). Model validations indicated good predictions: area under the ROC curve was 0.895 (95% CI 0.870-0.919) for internal validation and 0.895 (95% CI 0.840-0.951) for external validation. This model could support improvements of WNV risk- based surveillance in Spain. The importance of a comprehensive surveillance for WNF, including human, animal and potential vectors is highlighted, which could additionally result in model refinements.


Assuntos
Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Animais , Aves/virologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise de Regressão , Medição de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Análise Espacial , Temperatura Ambiente , Áreas Alagadas
7.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 30(2): 154-157, mar.-abr. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-151050

RESUMO

En la actualidad, la vigilancia epidemiológica sigue centrada, en España, en las enfermedades transmisibles incluidas en la lista de enfermedades de declaración obligatoria. Sin embargo, el patrón epidemiológico que dominó hasta las últimas décadas del siglo XX ha cambiado. Las enfermedades infecciosas, que eran las principales causas de morbimortalidad, han dado paso a un predominio de las enfermedades crónicas. En este sentido, se ha avanzado en la redacción y la aprobación de normativa específica sobre vigilancia de la salud pública. No obstante, tenemos pendiente el desarrollo de esta normativa que, entre otros puntos, recoge el mandato de organizar la vigilancia de las enfermedades no transmisibles en España. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir algunas características a tener en cuenta para desarrollar un sistema nacional de vigilancia de la salud pública vinculado a las estrategias ya existentes para la prevención y el control de las enfermedades crónicas (AU)


At present, epidemiological surveillance in Spain remains focused on the communicable diseases included in the list of notifiable diseases. However, there has been a change in epidemiological pattern that predominated until the last few decades of the twentieth century. Infectious diseases, which used to be the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, have given way to a predominance of chronic diseases. In this regard, progress has been made in the drafting and adoption of specific legal regulations on public health monitoring. However, Spain has yet to develop this legislation which, among other elements, includes the mandate to organize the surveillance of non-communicable diseases in Spain. This article aims to describe some points that should be considered in the development of a national surveillance system linked to existing strategies for the prevention and control of chronic diseases (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Serviços de Vigilância Epidemiológica , Estratégias Nacionais
8.
Gac Sanit ; 30(2): 154-7, 2016.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26832857

RESUMO

At present, epidemiological surveillance in Spain remains focused on the communicable diseases included in the list of notifiable diseases. However, there has been a change in epidemiological pattern that predominated until the last few decades of the twentieth century. Infectious diseases, which used to be the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, have given way to a predominance of chronic diseases. In this regard, progress has been made in the drafting and adoption of specific legal regulations on public health monitoring. However, Spain has yet to develop this legislation which, among other elements, includes the mandate to organize the surveillance of non-communicable diseases in Spain. This article aims to describe some points that should be considered in the development of a national surveillance system linked to existing strategies for the prevention and control of chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Humanos , Morbidade , Espanha/epidemiologia
9.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 88(5): 555-67, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25327266

RESUMO

Dengue has become a major public health problem worldwide. Ae. albopictus, vector responsible for transmission, was first detected in Catalonia in 2004. Since then, it has established along Mediterranean coast. The aim of this paper is to describe the risk of importation and possible autochthonous transmission of dengue virus in Spain, qualitatively reviewing factors that could influence the emergence of dengue in our country, and the implications for public health. No autochthonous transmission has occurred in our country to date, but infected travelers coming from endemic countries are arriving to Spain constantly. The transmission of this disease could occur on the Mediterranean coast. Transmission would be more likely in the warmer months due to cultural habits and higher vector densities. While most of the population would be susceptible, given the characteristics of the disease, the impact on health's population would be low. The main public health strategy to reduce the risk of importation and possible dengue transmission should focus on primary prevention, to prevent interaction of the virus, vector and human. These three components must be addressed in a comprehensive and multisectoral plan of action, intensifying some activities in the areas of greatest risk. Coordination of public health from all sectors involved is essential for the proper functioning of this integrated response plan for vector-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Aedes , Vírus da Dengue , Dengue/transmissão , Vetores de Doenças , Animais , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Risco , Espanha , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(6): 782-6, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25317706

RESUMO

In 2004, Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1894) was observed for the first time in Catalonia, northeastern Spain. A decade later, it has spread throughout the eastern Mediterranean region of the country and the Balearic Islands. Framed within a national surveillance project, we present the results of monitoring in 2013 in the autonomous communities of the mainland Levante. The current study reveals a remarkable increase in the spread of the invasive mosquito in relation to results from 2012; the species was present and well-established in 48 municipalities, most of which were along the Mediterranean coastline from the Valencian Community to the Region of Murcia.


Assuntos
Aedes , Distribuição Animal , Insetos Vetores , Controle de Mosquitos/normas , Aedes/classificação , Animais , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental/normas , Região do Mediterrâneo , Espanha
11.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 88(5): 555-567, sept.-oct. 2014. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-124320

RESUMO

El dengue se ha convertido en un importante problema de salud pública mundial. Ae. albopictus, vector competente para su transmisión, se detectó por primera vez en Cataluña en 2004. Desde entonces se ha establecido por la costa Mediterránea. El objetivo del artículo es describir el riesgo de importación y posible transmisión del dengue en España, revisando cualitativamente los factores que podrían influir en su emergencia en nuestro país, así como las implicaciones que tendría a nivel de salud pública. Aunque el virus no circula actualmente en España, constantemente llegan personas infectadas procedentes de países endémicos. La transmisión de esta enfermedad podría ocurrir en la costa mediterránea. Sería más probable en los meses más cálidos por los hábitos socioculturales y las mayor presencia del vector.Aunque la mayoría de la población es susceptible, el impacto en la salud de la población sería bajo dadas las características de la enfermedad. La estrategia fundamental de salud pública para reducir el riesgo de importación y posible transmisión del dengue debe enfocarse a la prevención primaria para evitar la interacción del virus, el vector y los seres humanos. Estos tres componentes deben abordarse dentro de un plan de acción integral y multisectorial, intensificando algunas actividades en las zonas de mayor riesgo. La coordinación desde salud pública de todos los sectores implicados es imprescindible para el correcto funcionamiento de este plan integral de respuesta ante enfermedades transmitidas por vectores (AU)


Dengue has become a major public health problem worldwide. Ae. albopictus, vector responsible for transmission, was first detected in Catalonia in 2004. Since then, it has established along Mediterranean coast. The aim of this paper is to describe the risk of importation and possible autochthonous transmission of dengue virus in Spain, qualitatively reviewing factors that could influence the emergence of dengue in our country, and the implications for public health. No autochthonous transmission has occurred in our country to date, but infected travelers coming from endemic countries are arriving to Spain constantly. The transmission of this disease could occur on the Mediterranean coast. Transmission would be more likely in the warmer months due to cultural habits and higher vector densities. While most of the population would be susceptible, given the characteristics of the disease, the impact on health’s population would be low. The main public health strategy to reduce the risk of importation and possible dengue transmission should focus on primary prevention, to prevent interaction of the virus, vector and human. These three components must be addressed in a comprehensive and multisectoral plan of action, intensifying some activities in the areas of greatest risk. Coordination of public health from all sectors involved is essential for the proper functioning of this integrated response plan for vector-borne diseases (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Dengue/transmissão , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Vírus da Dengue/patogenicidade , Dengue/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Risco Ajustado , Vetores de Doenças , Espanha , Controle Sanitário de Viajantes , Prevenção Primária/organização & administração , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(6): 782-786, 09/09/2014. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-723995

RESUMO

In 2004, Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1894) was observed for the first time in Catalonia, northeastern Spain. A decade later, it has spread throughout the eastern Mediterranean region of the country and the Balearic Islands. Framed within a national surveillance project, we present the results of monitoring in 2013 in the autonomous communities of the mainland Levante. The current study reveals a remarkable increase in the spread of the invasive mosquito in relation to results from 2012; the species was present and well-established in 48 municipalities, most of which were along the Mediterranean coastline from the Valencian Community to the Region of Murcia.


Assuntos
Animais , Aedes , Distribuição Animal , Insetos Vetores , Controle de Mosquitos/normas , Aedes/classificação , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental/normas , Região do Mediterrâneo , Espanha
13.
Eur J Public Health ; 24(4): 637-40, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24503376

RESUMO

Emergence and re-emergence of arboviral disease in new areas of southern Europe is becoming a public health problem. Since Aedes albopictus was first detected in 2004 in Catalonia, it has spread along the Spanish Mediterranean coast. Results of an entomological surveillance carried out by the Spanish Ministry of Health to monitor the expansion of Ae. albopictus along the Spanish Mediterranean coast between 2009 and 2012 are presented. Besides the new locations in Valencia and Murcia regional communities, it was identified in five municipalities in the Balearic Islands in 2012. A comprehensive plan aiming the control of invasive vector-borne diseases including entomological surveillance should be considered.


Assuntos
Aedes , Animais , Ecossistema , Região do Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Dinâmica Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População , Espanha/epidemiologia
14.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 86(6): 555-564, nov.-dic. 2012.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-107927

RESUMO

En España la leishmaniasis es una zoonosis endémica presente en la mayor parte del territorio peninsular e Islas Baleares. El parásito que se detecta es la Leishmania infantum y el principal reservorio es el perro. Los vectores competentes para transmitir el parásito son los flebotomos, de los que existen dos especies distribuidas por todo el territorio peninsular e Islas Baleares. En este artículo se revisa la situación actual y el comportamiento de la leishmaniasis en España. Se analiza y compara la información sobre la enfermedad procedente de las altas hospitalarias y de la Red Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica así como los factores de riesgo identificados en estudios anteriores que facilitan la transmisión. Desde 2009 está teniendo lugar un brote en el suroeste de la Comunidad de Madrid, destacando el elevado número de casos, cerca de 400 y la detección de un nuevo reservorio, la liebre. Las condiciones que pueden incrementar la incidencia de la leishmaniasis están asociadas al aumento del número de vectores infectados, al de la densidad del flebotomo, al de hospedadores o la aparición de nuevos reservorios en un área geográfica. Esta infección tiene una dinámica de transmisión compleja y para responder oportunamente a los brotes debe estar previamente desarrollado un plan de acción integral y multisectorial en el que participen todas las instituciones involucradas. Ante un brote, es importante estudiar los factores que condicionan la transmisión del lugar y adaptar el plan de acción a sus características específicas(AU)


In Spain, leishmaniasis is an endemic zoonosis present in most of the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. The parasite detected is Leishmania infantum and the main reservoir is the dog. Competent vectors to transmit the parasite are sandflies, of which there are two species distributed throughout the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. This article reviews the current situation and the behaviour of leishmaniasis in Spain. It analyzes and compares information about the disease from hospital discharges and from the National Epidemiological Surveillance Network. It also analyses the risk factors that facilitate transmission identified in previous studies. Since 2009 an outbreak is occurring in the southwest part of the Community of Madrid, with a significant number of cases, about 400 and the detection of a new reservoir, the hare. The conditions that can increase the incidence of leishmaniasis are linked to the increase number of infected vectors, increase sandfly density, increase hosts or the appearance of new reservoirs in a geographic area. This infection has got a complex transmission dynamic. To timely respond to outbreaks a comprehensive and multisectoral action plan should be developed joined by all the institutions involved in the preparation and response. Before an outbreak occurs, it is important to study all the factors affecting the transmission in that place and to adapt the action plan to the specific characteristics(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/prevenção & controle , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Risco , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/organização & administração , /epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Mudança Climática/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas de Informação/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas de Informação , Espanha/epidemiologia , Mudança Climática/mortalidade , /prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/normas , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/tendências , Sistemas de Informação/organização & administração , Controle de Vetores
15.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 86(6): 555-64, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23325131

RESUMO

In Spain, leishmaniasis is an endemic zoonosis present in most of the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. The parasite detected is Leishmania infantum and the main reservoir is the dog. Competent vectors to transmit the parasite are sandflies, of which there are two species distributed throughout the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. This article reviews the current situation and the behaviour of leishmaniasis in Spain. It analyzes and compares information about the disease from hospital discharges and from the National Epidemiological Surveillance Network. It also analyses the risk factors that facilitate transmission identified in previous studies. Since 2009 an outbreak is occurring in the southwest part of the Community of Madrid, with a significant number of cases, about 400 and the detection of a new reservoir, the hare. The conditions that can increase the incidence of leishmaniasis are linked to the increase number of infected vectors, increase sandfly density, increase hosts or the appearance of new reservoirs in a geographic area. This infection has got a complex transmission dynamic. To timely respond to outbreaks a comprehensive and multisectoral action plan should be developed joined by all the institutions involved in the preparation and response. Before an outbreak occurs, it is important to study all the factors affecting the transmission in that place and to adapt the action plan to the specific characteristics.


Assuntos
Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Feminino , Lebres/parasitologia , Humanos , Incidência , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Masculino , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Espanha/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
16.
J Infect ; 64(2): 218-24, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22138602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe demographic and clinical data and outcomes of severe cases of 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 (pH1N1) infections for persons with diabetes. METHODS: We selected all person with diabetes (N = 252) among severe laboratory confirmed cases reported to the Spanish Surveillance System for detection of pH1N1 from June through December, 2009. One patient without diabetes matched by age and sex was selected. Collected variables included demographic characteristics, underlying medical conditions, outcome, clinical course and treatment. RESULTS: Among those suffering diabetes only 15.9% did not report any other underlying condition. 38% of diabetic patients and 27.4% of non diabetic patients were admitted to ICU (p = 0.008). Thirty subjects suffering diabetes and fifteen without the disease died (11.9% vs. 6%[p = 0.019]). Multivariable analysis showed that the independent risk factors for ICU admission or death were suffering cardiovascular disease (OR = 2.28), morbid obesity (OR = 2.08) and antiviral treatment started after 48 h of onset of symptoms (OR = 1.89). Suffering diabetes was not independent risk factors for ICU admission or death after adjusting for covariates. CONCLUSIONS: The worse outcome among diabetes sufferers could be a consequence of the higher prevalence of comorbid underlying medical conditions but not diabetes itself. Further prospective studies are needed to verify these results.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Criança , Comorbidade , Complicações do Diabetes , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 84(5): 497-506, sept.-oct. 2010. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-82396

RESUMO

Las medidas de salud pública no farmacológicas se utilizan para reducir la exposición de las personas susceptibles a un agente infec-cioso. Se recomiendan al comienzo de una pandemia cuando la transmisión comienza y no se conocen las características del nuevo virus. El Plan Nacional de Preparación y Respuesta ante una Pande-mia de Gripe desarrolla la aplicación de estas medidas, recomendan-do la constitución de un Comité Asesor para su aplicación, multidis-ciplinar en su composición, con el fin de analizar el contexto epide-miológico y social en el que se desarrolla la pandemia y proponer medidas de salud pública según su evolución. En este artículo se describen las medidas de aislamiento, cuaren-tena y cierre de escuelas, que tienen el objetivo de reducir la difusión del virus en la población, y se revisan las bases teóricas que ayudan comprender el impacto de su aplicación. Las medidas de salud pública revisadas en este artículo reducen la transmisión del virus por lo que tienen que ser consideradas en la respuesta a una pandemia de gripe. El impacto sobre la salud depen-derá de la rapidez con que se tomen y del grado de aceptación y seguimiento que consigan. Los planes de respuesta deberán reco-mendar su uso en función de la gravedad ylas características del nue-vo virus pandémico. El análisis de los datos debería ser considerado como parte de la respuesta, ya que la información recogida y su análisis será la clave para asesorar a las autoridades sanitarias sobre las medidas que debe-rían adoptar(AU)


Nonpharmacological public health measures are used to reduce exposure of susceptible persons to an infectious agent. Its use is recommended at the start of a pandemic, when the transmission begins, and the characteristics of the new virus are unknown. The National Plan for Preparedness and Response to Pandemic Influenza included the application of these measures, recommending the esta-blishment of an Advisory Committee for implementation, with a multidisciplinary composition. The mandate at this Committee is to analyze the epidemiological and social context in confronting the pandemic and to propose public health measures according to their evolution. This article describes isolation, quarantine and closure of schools measures, aiming to reduce the spread of the virus in the population. It also reviews the epidemiological parameters that help to unders-tand the impact of its implementation. The public health measures reviewed in this paper reduce trans-mission of the virus, and they have to be considered in response to an influenza pandemic. The impact on health will depend on how quickly they are taken and how people accept and follow them. Res-ponse plans should recommend its use, depending on the severity and characteristics of the new pandemic virus. The data analysis should be considered as part of the response, because the information collection and analysis will be key to advi-sing health authorities on what measures should be adopted(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/tendências , Mortalidade
18.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 84(5): 463-79, 2010.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21203713

RESUMO

In this article the actions taken in the area of epidemiological surveillance in Spain during the influenza pandemic and the recommendations drawn from them during the progression of the pandemic are reviewed. The performance of the Surveillance Subcommittee established in the National Influenza Preparedness and Response Plan was central to the coordination of these activities. The Surveillance Subcommittee was immediately activated when the alert was issued. Its role is also described in this review. The existence of a National Plan allowed a rapid and coordinated response after the alert declaration. The epidemiological and virological surveillance of the influenza pandemic was adapted to an evolving situation. In addition to routine influenza monitoring systems, new surveillance systems were put in place such as a case-based surveillance for community influenza cases and a case-based surveillance for severe cases and deaths due to the pandemic. Among the lessons learned from this pandemic, we would highlight the need to strengthen the timely analysis of data collected during an alert, the need to promote the exchange of information among public health and health care professionals, and to strengthen the response capacity in order to have resilient and consolidated public health structures for future health alerts.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Vigilância da População/métodos , Humanos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 84(5): 497-506, 2010.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21203715

RESUMO

Nonpharmacological public health measures are used to reduce exposure of susceptible persons to an infectious agent. Its use is recommended at the start of a pandemic, when the transmission begins, and the characteristics of the new virus are unknown. The National Plan for Preparedness and Response to Pandemic Influenza included the application of these measures, recommending the establishment of an Advisory Committee for implementation, with a multidisciplinary composition. The mandate at this Committee is to analyze the epidemiological and social context in confronting the pandemic and to propose public health measures according to their evolution. This article describes isolation, quarantine and closure of schools measures, aiming to reduce the spread of the virus in the population. It also reviews the epidemiological parameters that help to understand the impact of its implementation. The public health measures reviewed in this paper reduce transmission of the virus, and they have to be considered in response to an influenza pandemic. The impact on health will depend on how quickly they are taken and how people accept and follow them. Response plans should recommend its use, depending on the severity and characteristics of the new pandemic virus. The data analysis should be considered as part of the response, because the information collection and analysis will be key to advising health authorities on what measures should be adopted.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Vigilância da População/métodos , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Espanha/epidemiologia
20.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 84(5): 529-46, 2010.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21203718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In April 2009, a new surveillance strategy for the detection of cases of pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 infection and for the implementation of appropriate control measures to contain its transmission was initiated in Spain. We describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of confirmed cases in Spain notified by the National Epidemiological Surveillance Network from April 24 to June 30, 2009. METHODS: As part of the initial surveillance response to the pandemic, case-based clinical and epidemiological information was collected nationwide on cases under investigation for pandemic virus (H1N1) 2009 infection and their contacts. RESULTS: Of 717 confirmed cases, 91% were notified by 5 Autonomous Communities. As of June 15,49.1% of cases belonged to school outbreaks. No nosocomial outbreaks were detected. The median incubation period was 3 days. Eighty-eight percent of cases were under the age of 30 years, and 24.9% were imported. The most frequent symptoms were cough (92%) and fever (81.8%). The median duration of symptoms was 5 days. Thirteen cases required hospitalization and one died. CONCLUSIONS: During the first months of the pandemic, pandemic influenza cases experienced a mild illness similar to seasonal influenza, predominantly affecting children and young adults. By the end of June 2009, the detection of outbreaks in different settings indicated the diffusion of the pandemic virus into the community and the start of its circulation.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Vigilância da População/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Registros , Espanha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA