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1.
Scand J Prim Health Care ; : 1-8, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33629891

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the Non-specific Symptoms and Signs of Cancer-Cancer Patient Pathway (NSSC-CPP) in order to describe organisational and clinical practice similarities and differences in the diagnostic work-up of suspected cancer in Denmark. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire on the organisation and practice pertaining to the NSSC-CPP was completed by all 21 diagnostic units in the five healthcare regions in Denmark. RESULTS: The questionnaire responses revealed regional and intraregional differences in the organisation and clinical practice of the NSSC-CPP. CT scan was the most often used imaging in the NSSC-CPP but there was no consensus whether the CT scan should be ordered and evaluated by general practitioners (GPs) or by the diagnostic units. Two regions were consistent but had different modalities regarding referrals from GPs. Three regions had intra-regional differences. The units reported on different types and frequency of forum for patient plan discussion and how to end a NSSC-CPP. CONCLUSION: The NSSC-CPP is implemented with great regional and intra-regional differences in Denmark. GPs face different requirements when referring to the NSSC-CPP, which indicates that the division of role and responsibility between GPs and the diagnostic units is not well defined.KEY POINTSIn Denmark, the cancer patient pathway for non-specific symptoms and signs of cancer (NSSC-CPP) has been implemented with variations, but little is known about these different modalities. This study showed that both at a regional and an intra-regional level:•General practitioners meet different implementation of national guidelines in the diagnostic units when referring to the NSSCP-CPP•The suitable patient group for the NSSC-CPP is not well defined•Quality criteria are needed to monitor, evaluate and improve the diagnostic work-up for patients with non-specific symptoms and signs of cancer.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychosocial consequences of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening can arise anywhere in the screening cascade. Previous studies have investigated the consequences of participating in CRC screening; however, we have not identified any studies investigating the psychosocial consequences of receiving the invitation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate psychosocial consequences of invitation to CRC screening. METHODS: The study was a longitudinal study performed in Region Zealand, Denmark. Participants included in this study were a random sample of 1000 CRC screening invitees and 1000 control persons, not invited to screening, matched in a 1:1 design on sex, age and municipality. We assessed psychosocial consequences before and after invitation in both study groups concurrently. The primary outcomes were psychosocial consequences measured with the condition-specific questionnaire Consequences of Screening in ColoRectal Cancer. RESULTS: Preinvitation response rates were 575 (57.5%) and 610 (61.0%) for the invitation group and control group, respectively. Postinvitation response rates were 442 (44.2%) for the invitation group and 561 (56.1%) for the control group.No differences in mean change in scale score were seen except for the scale 'Change in body perception'. The invitation group had a 0.39 lower change (99% CI (-0.78 to -0.004), p=0.009) in mean score than the control group in the direction of a less negative body perception after invitation. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not identify an association between invitation to CRC screening and negative psychosocial consequences.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512012

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The incidence of hypothyroidism is not expected to differ by socioeconomic factors. However, the decision to test and initiate treatment may differ. We aimed to examine whether educational level influences the probability of thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH)-measurement and initiation of levothyroxine treatment. DESIGN: Citizens in the greater Copenhagen Area during 2001-2015 were included. Individual-level data on educational level, diagnoses, GP-contact, TSH-measurement and medication were derived from administrative and healthcare registers. The relative risks (RR) between educational levels of annual TSH-measurement and treatment initiation following a TSH-measurement were analysed in Poisson regression models with generalized estimation equations. RESULTS: A TSH-measurement was performed in 19% of 9,390,052 person years. The probability of TSH-measurement was higher with short (RR 1.16 [95% CI 1.15-1.16]) and medium (RR 1.11 [95% CI 1.06-1.12]) compared with long education. Treatment was initiated after 0.8% of 2,049,888 TSH-measurements. For TSH < 5 mIU/L, RR for treatment initiation ranged between 0.47 (95%CI 0.39-0.57) and 0.78 (95%CI 0.67-0.91) for short and medium compared with long education. For TSH 5-10 mIU/L, there was no statistically significant difference. For TSH > 10 mIU/L, RR was 1.07 (95% CI 1.02-1.12) for short and 1.08 (95% CI 1.03-1.13) for medium compared with long education. CONCLUSION: The probability of TSH-measurement was higher with shorter education, and the probability of treatment initiation with TSH > 10 mIU/L was marginally higher with short-medium education compared with long education. However, the probability of treatment initiation with TSH < 5 mIU/L, that is treatment incongruous with guidelines, was substantially higher in persons with long education.

4.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e039871, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of age on the diagnostic properties of typical symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) in women presenting in general practice with symptoms suggestive of UTI with significant bacteriuria as the reference standard. DESIGN: Diagnostic accuracy study. SETTING: General practice, Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Adult 15 years or older. Women presenting in general practice with symptoms suggestive of UTI where urine was collected for investigation. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Accuracy of four symptoms of UTI (dysuria, frequency, urge and abdominal pain) in six different age groups. RESULTS: 90 practices included 1178 adult women. The prevalence of bacteriuria varied between 30% in women aged 30-44 years and 67% in women aged 75-89 years. The likelihood ratios for dysuria varied between age groups with the best performance in women aged 15-29 (positive likelihood ratio (pLR): 1.62 (1.30-1.94), negative likelihood ratio (nLR): 0.36 (0.19-0.54)) and women aged 30-44 (pLR: 1.74 (1.30-2.17), nLR: 0.48 (0.27-0.68)). CIs included or approximated one for the remaining symptoms in most age groups. When symptoms were combined to calculate post-test probabilities, the combined effect of the varying prevalence of bacteriuria and the varying diagnostic values resulted in a large variation of the post-test probabilities between age groups. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic value of symptoms of UTI as well as the prevalence of bacteriuria in women presenting to general practice with suspected UTI vary between age groups with considerable clinical implications. Diagnostic studies should take demographics such as age into consideration. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02698332.

5.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 7, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Harms of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening include psychosocial consequences. We have not identified studies using a participant-relevant questionnaire with adequate measurement properties to investigate these harms. However, Brodersen et al. have previously developed a core questionnaire consequences of screening (COS) for use in screening for life-threatening diseases. Therefore, the objectives were: (1) To investigate content validity of COS in a CRC screening setting and in case of gaps in content coverage (2) generate new items and themes and (3) test the possibly extended version of COS for dimensionality and differential item functioning (DIF) using Rasch Models. METHODS: We performed two-part-focus-groups with CRC screenees. Screenees were recruited by strategic sampling. In the first part 16 screenees with false-positive results (n = 7) and low-risk polyps (n = 9) were interviewed about their CRC screening experiences and in the second part COS was examined for content validity. When new information was developed in the focus groups, new items covering this topic were generated. Subsequently, new items were, together with COS, tested in the subsequent interviews. A random subsample (n = 410) from a longitudinal questionnaire study, not yet published, was used to form the data for this paper. We analysed multidimensionality and uniform DIF with Andersen's conditional likelihood ratio test. We assessed individual item fit to the model. We also analysed Local Dependence (LD) and DIF by partial gamma coefficients using Rasch Models. RESULTS: COS was found relevant in a CRC screening setting. However, new information was discovered in the focus groups, covered by 18 new CRC screening-specific items. The Rasch analyses only revealed minor problems in the COS-scales. The 18 new items were distributed on four new CRC screening-specific dimensions and one single item. CONCLUSION: An extended version of COS specifically for use in a CRC screening setting has been developed. The extended part encompasses four new scales and one new single item. The original COS with the CRC-screening specific extension is called consequences of screening in colorectal cancer (COS-CRC). COS-CRC possessed reliability, unidimensionality and invariant measurement.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Programas de Rastreamento , Neoplasias Colorretais/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Psicometria , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 2, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Development of the maternal antenatal attachment (MAA) constitutes an important aspect of the transition into motherhood. Early identification of women at risk of developing a poor MAA provides possibilities for preventive interventions targeting maternal mental health and the emerging mother-infant relationship. In this study, we investigate the relative importance of an extensive set of psychosocial, pregnancy-related, and physiological factors measured in the first trimester of pregnancy for MAA measured in third trimester. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted among pregnant women in Danish general practice (GP). Data were obtained in the first and the third trimester from pregnancy health records and electronic questionnaires associated with routine GP antenatal care visits. The Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale (MAAS) was used to assess maternal antenatal attachment. The relative importance of potential determinants of maternal antenatal attachment was assessed by the relative contribution of each factor to the fit (R2) calculated from multivariable regression models. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 1328 women. Low antenatal attachment (Total MAAS ≤ 75) was observed for 513 (38.6%) women. Perceived social support (having someone to talk to and having access to practical help when needed) emerged as the most important determinant. Furthermore, scores on the MAAS decreased with worse self-rated health, poor physical fitness, depression, increasing age, having given birth previously, and higher education. CONCLUSION: Pregnant women reporting lack of social support and general low physical and mental well-being early in pregnancy may be at risk for developing a poor MAA. An approach targeting both psychosocial and physiological well-being may positively influence expectant mothers' successful adaptation to motherhood.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Relações Materno-Fetais/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Gestantes/psicologia , Adulto , Dinamarca , Feminino , Medicina Geral , Humanos , Relações Mãe-Filho , Apego ao Objeto , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 29, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about factors associated with a clinically relevant reduction in menopausal symptoms through a brief acupuncture approach for women with moderate-to-severe menopausal symptoms. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial where participants were allocated to early versus late standardized acupuncture. Both the early group and the late group are included in this study. The late group got an identical intervention parallel staged by 6 weeks. By means of the relative importance, the effect was evaluated for both early versus late women with a 6-week follow-up. We included four symptom subscales from the validated MenoScores Questionnaire: hot flushes, day and night sweats, general sweating, menopausal-specific sleeping problems, as well as an overall score, which is the sum of the four outcomes in the analysis. RESULTS: 67 women with moderate to severe menopausal symptoms were included of whom 52 (77.6%) experienced a clinically relevant reduction in any of the four surveyed symptom subscales or overall score. 48 (71.6%) women experienced a clinically relevant reduction in any of the vasomotor symptom subscales: hot flushes, day and night sweats, general sweating. Women with vocational education were most likely to experience improvement compared to women with higher education. Beyond education, other factors of some importance for a clinically relevant reduction were no alcohol consumption, two or more births and urinary incontinence. CONCLUSIONS: Level of education was the most consistent factor associated with improvement. Beyond education, other factors of some importance were no alcohol consumption, two or more births and urinary incontinence. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov at April 21, 2016. The registration number is NCT02746497 .

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464661

RESUMO

Choosing the most adequate PROM for a study is a non-trivial process. The aim of this study was to provide a catalogue with analyses of content and construct validity of PROMs relevant to research in sports science, including all published local translations. The most commonly used PROMs in sports research were selected from a PubMed search "patient reported outcome measures sports", identifying 439 articles and 194 different PROMs. Articles describing development of the 61 selected PROMs were assessed for content validity and all articles regarding construct validity of each PROM and all published translations (in total 622 articles) were analyzed. A catalogue with assessments of the 61 PROMs was produced. The majority were of inferior validity, with few exceptions. The most common reason for this was that the PROM had not been developed by methods that ensure high content validity. Another major reason for inferior validity was that construct validity had not been secured by adequate statistical methods. In conclusion, this catalogue provides a tool for researchers to facilitate choosing the most valid PROM for studies in sports research. Furthermore, it shows for popular PROMs where further validation is needed, and for fields in musculoskeletal medicine where valid PROMs are lacking. It is suggested that a targeted effort is made to develop valid PROMs for major conditions in musculoskeletal research. The current method is easier to practice compared to assessment after COSMIN guidelines.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275798

RESUMO

Results by patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in musculoskeletal research often influence health care strategies. We aimed to evaluate to which extent these RCTs use adequate PROMs, and how this influences the results and conclusions. We identified RCTs of sports research relevance with PROMs as primary outcomes published in 13 preselected journals between January 1, 2008 and November 1, 2019; all journals regularly publish results from musculoskeletal research. Five journals have a high impact factor (>15) and eight with lower impact factors are widely read journals. It was assessed whether the RCTs had used PROMs with high content validity and whether the most adequate PROMs were used (i.e., the most well developed and well validated for the patients enrolled in the study). We registered journal impact factor, year of publication, existence of a registered protocol, and whether the study showed significant difference between interventions. A total of 54 RCTs with 56 primary outcomes comprising 26 different PROMs were identified. For 13 RCTs (24%), a protocol was not published. In only 24 of RCTs (44%), the most appropriate PROM had been used as primary outcome, independent of a registered protocol, ranking of the journal, and year of publication. In seven cases, PROMs were used to evaluate a condition that they had not been developed for. RCTs that used the most adequate PROM showed significantly more often (46%) difference in outcomes in contrast to RCTs that used inadequate PROMs (22%) (P = 0.0483). In the majority of cases the most adequate PROM had not been used. Studies, in which the most adequate PROM had been used as outcome, were significantly more likely to show significant difference between interventions. The extent to which protocols were not available was surprisingly high. Journals should request that adequate PROMs are used in RCTs, and if this is not the case that it is discussed how it might influence the results and conclusions. Likewise, it should be requested that a protocol is published or registered.

10.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377606

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate which patient-related outcomes are dependent on the experience of the cataract surgeon. METHODS: The study was designed as a prospective observational study. Novice (<150 surgeries performed) and experienced (>1000 surgeries performed) cataract surgeons from the Department of Ophthalmology, Rigshospitalet - Glostrup and Nordsjaellands Hospital - Hillerød were included in the study. Patients operated by the included surgeons were examined preoperatively, 1 day, 3 days, and 3 weeks after standard, noncomplicated cataract surgery. Primary outcomes were change in central corneal thickness and endothelial cell loss. Secondary outcomes were best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, aqueous flare, central macular thickness, and surgical complications. RESULTS: Surgery performed by novice surgeons resulted in significantly lower visual acuity (mean -3.6 letters (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS)); 95% CI: -7.3; -0.4, p = 0.03) and greater corneal thickness (mean 26.7 µm; 95% CI: 6.8; 46.6, p = 0.01) on the first day postoperative than surgery performed by experienced surgeons. CONCLUSION: The experience of the cataract surgeon affected visual acuity and central corneal thickness in the immediate postoperative period. In the future, these patient-related outcomes may be used to assess the technical proficiency of surgical trainees and investigate the effect of different training programs.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342023

RESUMO

Choosing the most appropriate patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) for a clinical study is essential in order to achieve trustworthy results. This choice will depend on (a) the objective of the study and hence the research question; (b) the choice of a theoretical framework, such as the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF); (c) whether there currently is a PROM that possesses high content validity and high construct validity for the specific patient group and objective, and if not; (d) the decision on whether to use a suboptimal PROM or develop and validate a new PROM. This paper presents the steps that should be followed in order to assess the relevance of PROMs and suggests ways to enhance the choice depending on the goal of the study.

12.
Eur J Gen Pract ; 26(1): 175-181, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common condition in general practice, and urine culture can help reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions. In case of delay of the result, antibiotic treatment can be guided by one or more point-of-care (POC) tests. In Denmark, POC microscopy and POC urine culture are widely used for this purpose. OBJECTIVES: To investigate if availability of POC microscopy or POC culture in general practice was associated with a more appropriate treatment decision in patients with suspected UTI while waiting for the result from the microbiological laboratory. METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted in 2016 in general practice in the Copenhagen area, Denmark. Data on all patients presenting in general practice with symptoms of UTI were registered anonymously and a urine sample was sent for culture at the microbiological laboratory. The association between the availability of POC tests and the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing was assessed with multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Seventy-six general practices included 1545 patients (83% female); 71% received appropriate treatment in practices with POC culture available and 65% in practices without POC culture available (p = 0.042). Having a microscope available was not associated with more appropriate treatment (70% vs. 69%, p = 0.54). CONCLUSION: Availability of POC culture marginally increased appropriate treatment while waiting for the result from the microbiological laboratory. Practices should adopt a strategy where they either perform culture within the practice or send urine for culture at the microbiological laboratory. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02698332.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145839

RESUMO

Developing new patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for application in clinical studies can be necessary if an adequate PROM does not exist. For adequate measurement, it is essential that the PROM has face validity (ie, is perceived to be relevant by clinicians and researchers) and has high content validity (ie, content relevance and content coverage for the targeted patient group). The steps needed to create PROMs that possess face and content validity for a specific condition are described in this paper. Face validity is achieved by item identification and generation through literature review. Content validity is confirmed through repetitive cognitive interviews of patients from the targeted patient group in order to generate a consensus-based pilot-version of the new PROM. This qualitative process ensures that items are appropriately worded, understandable, and minimizes doubts about how items should be answered. A practical example of this process is presented, which shows the development of the Knee Numeric-Entity Evaluation Score (KNEES-ACL), a condition-specific PROM for patients with deficiency of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL).

14.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211398

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate seasonal variation in cases of biopsy-proven GCA in eastern Denmark in a 29-year period. METHODS: Pathology records of all temporal artery biopsies in eastern Denmark between 1990 and 2018 were reviewed. For each patient, data were collected which included age, sex, date of birth and biopsy result. Seasonality was evaluated using logistic regression and Poisson regression analysis. Lastly, an explorative pilot study was conducted to investigate a possible association between three weather parameters (average temperature, amount of rain and hours of sunshine) and the biopsy outcome. RESULTS: One thousand three hundred twenty-three biopsies were included of which 336 fulfilled objective criteria for GCA diagnosis. Mean age at diagnosis was 75.6 years (range 52-94 years). Among the biopsy-proven cases of GCA, there were 223 women (66.3%, mean age 76.2 years) and 113 men (33.7%, mean age 74.4 years) giving a female to male ratio of 1.97:1. The peak occurrence of GCA was in the 70-79 years age group. Statistical analysis of seasonal variation showed an increased risk of a positive biopsy during summer compared to autumn (p = 0.037). No association between the three weather parameters and the biopsy outcome was found. CONCLUSION: In this study of biopsy-proven GCA in a large Danish patient cohort, the occurrence of GCA showed seasonal variation with higher occurrence in the summer months when compared to autumn. Future studies pooling all cases of GCA worldwide are needed to determine seasonality in the occurrence of GCA.

15.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 513, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several factors may play a role in the ability of patients with Alzheimer's disease to perform activities of daily living (ADL). The aim of this study was to examine the impact of different aspects of physical performance and cognitive functions on ADL in patients suffering from mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: We conducted secondary analyses on cross-sectional baseline data from the randomized controlled multicentre study "Preserving quality of life, physical health and functional ability in Alzheimer's Disease: The effect of physical exercise" (ADEX). In total, 185 AD patients (76 women and 109 men), with a mean age on 70,4 years, were included. Data from physical performance tests (Astrand cycle test, Timed up & Go (TUG), Sit to Stand test (STS)) and cognitive tests (Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Stroop Color and Word test (Stroop)) were used. Their associations with ADL, measured on the ADCS-ADL scale was assessed in multivariable regression analyses. RESULTS: SDMT and MMSE had significant, moderate correlations with total ADL (SDMT: r = 0.33, MMSE: r = 0.42) and instrumental ADL (SDMT: r = 0.31, MMSE: r = 0.42), but not with basic ADL. Adjusting for age and sex, the associations between SDMT and MMSE to total ADL and instrumental ADL persisted. No significant associations were found between Astrand, TUG, STS or Stroop and total ADL, basic ADL or instrumental ADL. CONCLUSION: Total ADL and instrumental ADL are associated with cognitive functions, including executive function. No significant association between examined physical performance parameters and ADL functions was observed, and consequently does not support an impact of physical function on ADL functions in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease and relatively well-preserved physical function. Strategies aimed to improve cognition may be better suited to improve ADL function in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01681602 . Registered 10 September 2012, retrospectively registered.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249660

RESUMO

The purpose of this article is to introduce the reader to the nature of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) and pitfalls in their use. PROMs collect subjective information directly from the patient regarding specific or general conditions and add to clinical and functional outcomes, and turn unmeasurable subjective qualities into quantitative measures. PROMs are questionnaires consisting of items: questions or statements with predefined response options. The items in an adequate PROM have been developed by involvement of patients with the condition in focus, and the PROM has been validated for these patients using suitable statistical methods. An adequate well-targeted PROM is more responsive than an inadequate PROM. Unfortunately, many studies use inadequate PROMs as outcomes. The methods used to generate PROMs should be described as thoroughly as those used to develop any other type of measurement instrument, and the choice of PROM should always be explained and thereby justified. If the PROM used is not adequate, the consequences for the interpretation of the results should be discussed. In many cases, an adequate PROM does not exist. If the best available PROM is chosen, there are methods to validate the adequacy of the chosen PROM, which make an interpretation of the study results possible.

17.
Scand J Prim Health Care ; : 1-14, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242291

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to examine selection in a general practice-based pregnancy cohort. DESIGN: Survey linked to administrative register data. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: In spring 2015, GPs were recruited from two Danish regions. They were asked to invite all pregnant women in their practice who had their first prenatal care visit before 15 August 2016 to participate in the survey. OUTCOME MEASURES: The characteristics of GPs and the pregnant women were compared at each step in the recruitment process - the GP's invitation, their agreement to participate, actual GP participation, and the women's participation - with an uncertainty coefficient to quantify the step where the largest selection occurs. RESULTS: Significant differences were found between participating and non-participating practices with regards to practice characteristics such as the number of patients registered with the practice, the age and sex of doctors, and the type of practice. Despite these differences, the characteristics of the eligible patients differed little between participating and non-participating practices. In participating practices significant differences were, however, observed between recruited and non-recruited patients. CONCLUSION: The skewed selection of patients was mainly caused by a high number of non-participants within practices that actively took part in the study. We recommend that a focus on the sampling within participating practices be the most important factor in representative sampling of patient populations in general practice. Key points Selection among general practitioners (GPs) is often unavoidable in practice-based studies, and we found significant differences between participating and non-participating practices. These include practice characteristics such as the number of GPs, the number of patients registered with the GP practice, as well as the sex and age of the GPs. •Despite this, only small differences in the characteristics of the eligible patients were observed between participating and non-participating practices. •In participating practices, however, significant differences were observed between recruited and non-recruited patients. •Comprehensive sampling within participating practices may be the best way to generate representative samples of patients.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096677

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease and a multidisciplinary approach to rehabilitation has been suggested as the best clinical practice. However, very few studies have investigated the long-term effects of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation approach, particularly regarding whether this can slow the progression of PD. The purpose was to investigate the short- and long-term effect of a 2-week multidisciplinary rehabilitation regimen on the PD-related decline in health-related quality of life (HRQOL), mobility, and muscle function. Individuals with PD (IPD) participated in a 2-week inpatient multidisciplinary rehabilitation regimen that focused on improving HRQOL, mobility, and muscle function. Data from the primary outcome: HRQOL (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire 39, PDQ-39), secondary outcomes: handgrip strength, Timed-up and Go (TUG), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) were compared at pre-visitation, before and after the 2-week regimen, and again at 4 and 10 months follow-up. In total, 224 patients with PD were included. There were short-term improvements in all outcomes. PDQ-39 was maintained at the same level as pre-visitation after 10 months follow-up. A 2-week multidisciplinary rehabilitation regimen improved short-term mobility, muscle function, and HRQOL in individuals with Parkinson's disease. HRQOL was maintained after 10 months demonstrating long-term effects.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089516

RESUMO

Translating patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) can alter the meaning of items and undermine the PROM's psychometric properties (quantified as cross-cultural differential item functioning [DIF]). The aim of this paper was to present the theoretical background for PROM translation, adaptation, and cross-cultural validation, and assess how PROMs used in sports medicine research have been translated and adapted. We also assessed DIF for the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) across Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish versions. We conducted a search in PubMed and Scopus to identify the method of translation, adaptation, and validation of PROMs relevant to musculoskeletal research. Additionally, 150 preoperative KOOS questionnaires were obtained from the Scandinavian knee ligament reconstruction registries, and cross-cultural DIF was evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis. There were 392 studies identified, describing the translation of 61 PROMs. Ninety-four percent were performed with forward-backward technique. Forty-nine percent used cognitive interviews to ensure appropriate wording, understandability, and adaptation to the target culture. Only two percent were validated according to modern test theory. No study assessed cross-cultural DIF. One KOOS subscale showed no cross-cultural DIF, two had DIF with respect to some (but not all) items, and thus conversion tables could be constructed, and two KOOS subscales could not be pooled. Most PROM translations are of undocumented quality, despite the common conclusion that they are valid and reliable. Scores from three of five KOOS subscales can be pooled across the Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish versions, but two of these must be adjusted for DIF.

20.
Brain Behav ; 10(11): e01823, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892489

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Patients with dementia have an increased 30-day mortality after hip fracture. We investigated clinical management including time to surgery, out-of-hours admission and surgery, surgery on weekends, surgery volume per ward, and anesthesia technique for this excess mortality risk. METHOD: This register- and population-based study comprised 12,309 older adults (age 70+) admitted to hospital for a first-time hip fracture in 2013-2014, of whom 11,318 underwent hip fracture surgery. Cox proportional hazards regression models were applied for the analysis. RESULTS: The overall postoperative 30-day mortality was 11.4%. Patients with dementia had a 1.5 times increased mortality risk than those without (HR = 1.50 [95% CI 1.31-1.72]). We observed no time-to-surgery difference by patient dementia status; additionally, the excess mortality risk in patients with dementia could not be explained by the clinical management factors we examined. CONCLUSIONS: Increased mortality in patients with dementia could not be explained by the measured preoperative clinical management. Suboptimal handling of postoperative complication and rehabilitation are to be investigated for their role in the witnessed increased mortality for patients with dementia.

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