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1.
Genet Med ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578471

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lamb-Shaffer syndrome (LAMSHF) is a neurodevelopmental disorder described in just over two dozen patients with heterozygous genetic alterations involving SOX5, a gene encoding a transcription factor regulating cell fate and differentiation in neurogenesis and other discrete developmental processes. The genetic alterations described so far are mainly microdeletions. The present study was aimed at increasing our understanding of LAMSHF, its clinical and genetic spectrum, and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved. METHODS: Clinical and genetic data were collected through GeneMatcher and clinical or genetic networks for 41 novel patients harboring various types ofSOX5 alterations. Functional consequences of selected substitutions were investigated. RESULTS: Microdeletions and truncating variants occurred throughout SOX5. In contrast, most missense variants clustered in the pivotal SOX-specific high-mobility-group domain. The latter variants prevented SOX5 from binding DNA and promoting transactivation in vitro, whereas missense variants located outside the high-mobility-group domain did not. Clinical manifestations and severity varied among patients. No clear genotype-phenotype correlations were found, except that missense variants outside the high-mobility-group domain were generally better tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: This study extends the clinical and genetic spectrum associated with LAMSHF and consolidates evidence that SOX5 haploinsufficiency leads to variable degrees of intellectual disability, language delay, and other clinical features.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(9): 1764-1777, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240838

RESUMO

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a disorder principally characterized by calcification and ossification of spinal ligaments and entheses. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare autosomal dominant disabling disorder characterized by progressive ossification of skeletal muscle, fascia, tendons, and ligaments. These conditions manifest phenotypic overlap in the ossification of tendons and ligaments. We describe herein a patient with DISH, exhibiting heterotopic ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament where clinical whole exome sequencing identified a variant within ACVR1, a gene implicated in FOP. This variant, p.K400E, is a novel variant, not identified previously, and occurs in a highly conserved region across orthologs. We used sequence-based predicative algorithms, molecular modeling, and molecular dynamics simulations, to test the potential for p.K400E to alter the structure and dynamics of ACVR1. We applied the same modeling and simulation methods to established FOP variants, to identify the detailed effects that they have on the ACVR1 protein, as well as to act as positive controls against which the effects of p.K400E could be evaluated. Our in silico molecular analyses support p.K400E as altering the behavior of ACVR1. In addition, functional testing to measure the effect of this variant on BMP-pSMAD 1/5/8 target genes was carried out which revealed this variant to cause increased ID1 and Msx2 expression compared with the wild-type receptor. This analysis supports the potential for the variant of uncertain significance to contribute to the patient's phenotype.

3.
Genes Brain Behav ; 18(2): e12549, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30588759

RESUMO

When vertebrates face acute stressors, their bodies rapidly undergo a repertoire of physiological and behavioral adaptations, which is termed the stress response. Rapid changes in heart rate and blood glucose levels occur via the interaction of glucocorticoids and their cognate receptors following hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. These physiological changes are observed within minutes of encountering a stressor and the rapid time domain rules out genomic responses that require gene expression changes. Although behavioral changes corresponding to physiological changes are commonly observed, it is not clearly understood to what extent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation dictates adaptive behavior. We hypothesized that rapid locomotor response to acute stressors in zebrafish requires hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis activation. In teleost fish, interrenal cells are functionally homologous to the adrenocortical layer. We derived eight frameshift mutants in genes involved in HPI axis function: two mutants in exon 2 of mc2r (adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor), five in exon 2 or 5 of nr3c1 (glucocorticoid receptor [GR]) and two in exon 2 of nr3c2 (mineralocorticoid receptor [MR]). Exposing larval zebrafish to mild environmental stressors, acute changes in salinity or light illumination, results in a rapid locomotor response. We show that this locomotor response requires a functioning HPI axis via the action of mc2r and the canonical GR encoded by nr3c1 gene, but not MR (nr3c2). Our rapid behavioral assay paradigm based on HPI axis biology can be used to screen for genetic and environmental modifiers of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and to investigate the effects of corticosteroids and their cognate receptor interactions on behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Locomoção , Estresse Fisiológico , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Mutação , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Receptores da Corticotropina/genética , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
4.
Neurology ; 91(23): e2170-e2181, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify novel genes involved in the etiology of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) or subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAHs) using whole-exome sequencing. METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing in 13 individuals from 3 families with an autosomal dominant IA/SAH inheritance pattern to look for candidate genes for disease. In addition, we sequenced PCNT exon 38 in a further 161 idiopathic patients with IA/SAH to find additional carriers of potential pathogenic variants. RESULTS: We identified 2 different variants in exon 38 from the PCNT gene shared between affected members from 2 different families with either IA or SAH (p.R2728C and p.V2811L). One hundred sixty-four samples with either SAH or IA were Sanger sequenced for the PCNT exon 38. Five additional missense mutations were identified. We also found a second p.V2811L carrier in a family with a history of neurovascular diseases. CONCLUSION: The PCNT gene encodes a protein that is involved in the process of microtubule nucleation and organization in interphase and mitosis. Biallelic loss-of-function mutations in PCNT cause a form of primordial dwarfism (microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II), and ≈50% of these patients will develop neurovascular abnormalities, including IAs and SAHs. In addition, a complete Pcnt knockout mouse model (Pcnt -/-) published previously showed general vascular abnormalities, including intracranial hemorrhage. The variants in our families lie in the highly conserved PCNT protein-protein interaction domain, making PCNT a highly plausible candidate gene in cerebrovascular disease.

5.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(3): 307-319, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29671115

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We report a female infant identified by newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiencies (NBS SCID) with T cell lymphopenia (TCL). The patient had persistently elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) with IgA deficiency, and elevated IgM. Gene sequencing for a SCID panel was uninformative. We sought to determine the cause of the immunodeficiency in this infant. METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) on the patient and parents to identify a genetic diagnosis. Based on the WES result, we developed a novel flow cytometric panel for rapid assessment of DNA repair defects using blood samples. We also performed whole transcriptome sequencing (WTS) on fibroblast RNA from the patient and father for abnormal transcript analysis. RESULTS: WES revealed a pathogenic paternally inherited indel in ATM. We used the flow panel to assess several proteins in the DNA repair pathway in lymphocyte subsets. The patient had absent phosphorylation of ATM, resulting in absent or aberrant phosphorylation of downstream proteins, including γH2AX. However, ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is an autosomal recessive condition, and the abnormal functional data did not correspond with a single ATM variant. WTS revealed in-frame reciprocal fusion transcripts involving ATM and SLC35F2 indicating a chromosome 11 inversion within 11q22.3, of maternal origin. Inversion breakpoints were identified within ATM intron 16 and SLC35F2 intron 7. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a novel ATM-breaking chromosome 11 inversion in trans with a pathogenic indel (compound heterozygote) resulting in non-functional ATM protein, consistent with a diagnosis of AT. Utilization of several molecular and functional assays allowed successful resolution of this case.

6.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0190897, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29304078

RESUMO

The ability to orchestrate appropriate physiological and behavioral responses to stress is important for survival, and is often dysfunctional in neuropsychiatric disorders that account for leading causes of global disability burden. Numerous studies have shown that the endocannabinoid neurotransmitter system is able to regulate stress responses and could serve as a therapeutic target for the management of these disorders. We used quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions to show that genes encoding enzymes that synthesize (abhd4, gde1, napepld), enzymes that degrade (faah, faah2a, faah2b), and receptors that bind (cnr1, cnr2, gpr55-like) endocannabinoids are expressed in zebrafish (Danio rerio). These genes are conserved in many other vertebrates, including humans, but fatty acid amide hydrolase 2 has been lost in mice and rats. We engineered transcription activator-like effector nucleases to create zebrafish with mutations in cnr1 and faah2a to test the role of these genes in modulating stress-associated behavior. We showed that disruption of cnr1 potentiated locomotor responses to hyperosmotic stress. The increased response to stress was consistent with rodent literature and served to validate the use of zebrafish in this field. Moreover, we showed for the first time that disruption of faah2a attenuated the locomotor responses to hyperosmotic stress. This later finding suggests that FAAH2 may be an important mediator of stress responses in non-rodent vertebrates. Accordingly, FAAH and FAAH2 modulators could provide distinct therapeutic options for stress-aggravated disorders.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Endocanabinoides/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Expressão Gênica , Peixe-Zebra/genética
7.
Clin Case Rep ; 4(9): 885-95, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27648269

RESUMO

A de novo GFAP variant, p.R376W, was identified in a child presenting with hypotonia, developmental delay, and abnormal brain MRI. Following the 2015 ACMG variant classification guidelines and the functional studies showing protein aggregate formation in vitro, p.R376W should be classified as a pathogenic variant, causative for Alexander disease.

8.
Front Genet ; 7: 47, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27092173

RESUMO

Recent advancement in genome engineering technology is changing the landscape of biological research and providing neuroscientists with an opportunity to develop new methodologies to ask critical research questions. This advancement is highlighted by the increased use of programmable DNA-binding agents (PDBAs) such as transcription activator-like effector (TALE) and RNA-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated (Cas) systems. These PDBAs fused or co-expressed with various effector domains allow precise modification of genomic sequences and gene expression levels. These technologies mirror and extend beyond classic gene targeting methods contributing to the development of novel tools for basic and clinical neuroscience. In this Review, we discuss the recent development in genome engineering and potential applications of this technology in the field of neuroscience.

9.
Endocrinology ; 153(9): 4556-67, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22778222

RESUMO

Metabolic disease is a significant global health and economic problem. In a phenomenon referred to as fetal programming, offspring of underweight or overweight mothers have an increased incidence of adulthood obesity and metabolic disease. Undernourished individuals have decreased levels of leptin, a regulator of energy balance, whereas obese people develop hyperleptinemia and leptin resistance. We hypothesize that alterations in circulating leptin during pregnancy contribute to programming events caused by maternal nutritional status. To test this hypothesis, pregnant mice were randomly placed in one of three treatment groups: ad libitum feed plus saline injection (control, n = 5), 50% food restriction plus saline injection (restricted, n = 4), or 50% food restriction plus 1 mg/kg · d leptin injection (restricted, leptin treated, n = 4). Mice were treated from 1.5 to 11.5 d after conception and then returned to ad libitum feeding until weaning. At 19 wk after weaning, offspring were placed on a 45% fat diet and then followed up until 26 wk after weaning, at which time they were killed, and samples were collected for further analysis. Our results demonstrate that males are more negatively impacted by high-fat diet than females, regardless of maternal treatment. We provide evidence that differential response to leptin may mediate the sexual dimorphism observed in fetal programming in which male offspring are more affected by maternal undernutrition and female offspring by maternal overnutrition. We show that female offspring born to food-restricted, leptin-supplemented mothers are obese and insulin resistant. This may mimic fetal programming events seen in offspring of overweight women.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Privação de Alimentos/fisiologia , Leptina/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Gravidez
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