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3.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 58(2): 142-149, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497426

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Impairment in pulmonary function tests and radiological abnormalities are a major concern in COVID-19 survivors. Our aim is to evaluate functional respiratory parameters, changes in chest CT, and correlation with peripheral blood biomarkers involved in lung fibrosis at two and six months after SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. METHODS: COVID-FIBROTIC (clinicaltrials.gov NCT04409275) is a multicenter prospective observational cohort study aimed to evaluate discharged patients. Pulmonary function tests, circulating serum biomarkers, chest radiography and chest CT were performed at outpatient visits. RESULTS: In total, 313, aged 61.12 ± 12.26 years, out of 481 included patients were available. The proportion of patients with DLCO < 80% was 54.6% and 47% at 60 and 180 days. Associated factors with diffusion impairment at 6 months were female sex (OR: 2.97, 95%CI 1.74-5.06, p = 0.001), age (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05, p = 0.005), and peak RALE score (OR: 1.22, 95% CI 1.06-1.40, p = 0.005). Patients with altered lung diffusion showed higher levels of MMP-7 (11.54 ± 8.96 vs 6.71 ± 4.25, p = 0.001), and periostin (1.11 ± 0.07 vs 0.84 ± 0.40, p = 0.001). 226 patients underwent CT scan, of whom 149 (66%) had radiological sequelae of COVID-19. In severe patients, 68.35% had ground glass opacities and 38.46% had parenchymal bands. Early fibrotic changes were associated with higher levels of MMP7 (13.20 ± 9.20 vs 7.92 ± 6.32, p = 0.001), MMP1 (10.40 ± 8.21 vs 6.97 ± 8.89, p = 0.023), and periostin (1.36 ± 0.93 vs 0.87 ± 0.39, p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Almost half of patients with moderate or severe COVID-19 pneumonia had impaired pulmonary diffusion six months after discharge. Severe patients showed fibrotic lesions in CT scan and elevated serum biomarkers involved in pulmonary fibrosis.


INTRODUCCIÓN: El deterioro de la función pulmonar en las pruebas correspondientes y las alteraciones radiológicas son las preocupaciones principales en los supervivientes de la COVID-19. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar los parámetros de la función respiratoria, los cambios en la TC de tórax y la correlación con los biomarcadores en sangre periférica involucrados en la fibrosis pulmonar a los 2 y a los 6 meses tras la neumonía por SARS-CoV-2. MÉTODOS: El ensayo COVID-FIBROTIC (clinicaltrials.gov NCT04409275) es un estudio de cohortes multicéntrico, prospectivo y observacional cuyo objetivo fue evaluar los pacientes dados de alta. Se realizaron pruebas de función pulmonar, detección de biomarcadores en plasma circulante y radiografía y TC de tórax durante las visitas ambulatorias. RESULTADOS: En total 313 pacientes, de 61,12 ± 12,26 años, de los 481 incluidos estuvieron disponibles.La proporción de pacientes con DLCO < 80% fue del 54,6 y del 47% a los 60 y 180 días.Los factores que se asociaron a la alteración de la difusión a los 6 meses fueron el sexo femenino (OR: 2,97; IC del 95%: 1,74-5,06; p = 0,001), la edad (OR: 1,03; IC del 95%: 1,01-1,05; p = 0,005) y la puntuación RALE más alta (OR: 1,22; IC del 95%: 1,06-1,40; p = 0,005). Los pacientes con alteración de la difusión pulmonar mostraron niveles más altos de MMP-7 (11,54 ± 8,96 frente a 6,71 ± 4,25; p = 0,001) y periostina (1,11 ± 0.07 frente a 0,84 ± 0,40; p = 0,001). Se le realizó una TC a 226 pacientes de los cuales 149 (66%) presentaban secuelas radiológicas de la COVID-19. En los pacientes graves, el 68,35% mostraban opacidades en vidrio esmerilado y el 38,46%, bandas parenquimatosas. Los cambios fibróticos tempranos se asociaron a niveles más altos de MMP7 (13,20 ± 9,20 frente a 7,92 ± 6,32; p = 0,001), MMP1 (10,40 ± 8,21 frente a 6,97 ± 8,89; p = 0,023), y periostina (1,36 ± 0,93 frente a 0,87 ± 0,39; p = 0,001). CONCLUSIÓN: Casi la mitad de los pacientes con neumonía moderada o grave por COVID-19 presentaba alteración de la difusión pulmonar 6 meses después del alta. Los pacientes graves mostraban lesiones fibróticas en laTC y un aumento de los biomarcadores séricos relacionados con la fibrosis pulmonar.

5.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 57: 13-20, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629634

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with pre-existing respiratory diseases in the setting of COVID-19 may have a greater risk of severe complications and even death. METHODS: A retrospective, multicenter, cohort study with 5847 COVID-19 patients admitted to hospitals. Patients were separated in two groups, with/without previous lung disease. Evaluation of factors associated with survival and secondary composite end-point such as ICU admission and respiratory support, were explored. RESULTS: 1,271 patients (22%) had a previous lung disease, mostly COPD. All-cause mortality occurred in 376 patients with lung disease (29.5%) and in 819 patients without (17.9%) (p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier curves showed that patients with lung diseases had a worse 30-day survival (HR = 1.78; 95%C.I. 1.58-2.01; p < 0.001) and COPD had almost 40% mortality. Multivariable Cox regression showed that prior lung disease remained a risk factor for mortality (HR, 1.21; 95%C.I. 1.02-1.44; p = 0.02). Variables independently associated with all-cause mortality risk in patients with lung diseases were oxygen saturation less than 92% on admission (HR, 4.35; 95% CI 3.08-6.15) and elevated D-dimer (HR, 1.84; 95% CI 1.27-2.67). Age younger than 60 years (HR 0.37; 95% CI 0.21-0.65) was associated with decreased risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Previous lung disease is a risk factor for mortality in patients with COVID-19. Older age, male gender, home oxygen therapy, and respiratory failure on admission were associated with an increased mortality. Efforts must be done to identify respiratory patients to set measures to improve their clinical outcomes.


INTRODUCCIÓN: Los pacientes con enfermedades respiratorias preexistentes pueden tener en el contexto de la covid-19 un mayor riesgo de complicaciones graves e incluso de muerte. MÉTODOS: Estudio de cohortes multicéntrico y retrospectivo de 5.847 pacientes con covid-19 ingresados en hospitales. Los pacientes se separaron en 2 grupos, sin y con enfermedad pulmonar previa. Se evaluaron factores asociados con la supervivencia y criterios combinados de valoración secundarios, como el ingreso en la UCI y la necesidad de asistencia respiratoria. RESULTADOS: Mil doscientos setenta y un (1.271) pacientes (22%) tenían una enfermedad pulmonar previa, principalmente EPOC. La mortalidad por todas las causas ocurrió en 376 pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar (29,5%) y en 819 pacientes sin enfermedad pulmonar (17,9%; p < 0,001). Las curvas de Kaplan-Meier mostraron que los pacientes con enfermedades pulmonares tenían una peor supervivencia a los 30 días (HR: 1,78; IC del 95%: 1,58-2,01; p < 0,001) y la EPOC tenía una mortalidad de casi el 40%. La regresión de Cox multivariante mostró que la enfermedad pulmonar previa seguía siendo un factor de riesgo de mortalidad (HR: 1,21; IC del 95%: 1,02-1,44; p = 0,02). Las variables asociadas de forma independiente con el riesgo de muerte por todas las causas en pacientes con enfermedades pulmonares fueron la saturación de oxígeno inferior al 92% al ingreso (HR: 4,35; IC del 95%: 3,08-6,15) y el dímero D elevado (HR: 1,84; IC del 95%: 1,27-2,67). La edad menor de 60 años (HR: 0,37; IC del 95%: 0,21-0,65) se asoció con una disminución del riesgo de muerte. CONCLUSIONES: La enfermedad pulmonar previa es un factor de riesgo de muerte en pacientes con covid-19. La edad avanzada, el sexo masculino, la oxigenoterapia domiciliaria y la insuficiencia respiratoria al ingreso se asociaron con un aumento de la mortalidad. Se deben realizar esfuerzos para identificar a los pacientes respiratorios y establecer medidas para mejorar sus resultados clínicos.

6.
Respir Med ; 189: 106638, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-Flow Nasal Cannula (HFNC) therapy is useful treatment in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). The ROX index (ratio of pulse oximetry/fraction of inspired oxygen to respiratory rate) has been evaluated to predict success of HFNC in patients with pneumonia. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether the ROX Index could predict HFNC therapy success in patients with ARF due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. METHODS: An observational, prospective study was performed including patients admitted with ARF secondary to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia who met criteria for HFNC therapy initiation. Demographic, radiological, laboratory and clinical course data were collected. The ROX index was calculated at 1 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after starting HFNC. RESULTS: In total 85 patients were included (age, 64.51 + 11.78 years; male, 69.4%). HFNC failed in 47 (55.3%) patients, of whom 45 (97.8%) were initially managed with noninvasive ventilation (NIV). ROX index at 24 h was the best predictor of HFNC success (AUC 0.826, 95%CI 0.593-1.00, p = 0.015) with a cut-off point of 5.35 (S 0.91, Sp 0.79, PPV 0.92, NPP 0.79). In multivariate logistic regression analysis ROX index at 24 h proved the best predictor of HFNC success. CONCLUSIONS: ROX index at 24 h with a cut-off point of 5.35 predicts HFNC success in patients with SARS-Cov-2-induced ARF.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Oximetria , Oxigenoterapia , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Taxa Respiratória , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ventilação não Invasiva , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
J Clin Virol ; 142: 104943, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an imperative need to determine the durability of adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2. We enumerated SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells targeting S1 and M proteins and measured RBD-specific serum IgG over a period of 2-6 months after symptoms onset in a cohort of subjects who had recovered from severe clinical forms of COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We recruited 58 patients (38 males and 20 females; median age, 62.5 years), who had been hospitalized with bilateral pneumonia, 60% with one or more comorbidities. IgG antibodies binding to SARS-CoV-2 RBD were measured by ELISA. SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD69+-expressing-IFNγ-producing-CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were enumerated in heparinized whole blood by flow cytometry for ICS. RESULTS: Detectable SARS-CoV-2-S1/M-reactive CD69+-IFN-γ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were displayed in 17 (29.3%) and 6 (10.3%) subjects respectively, at a median of 84 days after onset of symptoms (range, 58-191 days). Concurrent comorbidities increased the risk (OR, 3.15; 95% CI, 1.03-9.61; P = 0.04) of undetectable T-cell responses in models adjusted for age, sex and hospitalization ward. Twenty-one out of the 35 patients (60%) had detectable RBD-specific serum IgGs at a median of 118 days (range, 60-145 days) after symptoms onset. SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific IgG serum levels were found to drop significantly over time. CONCLUSION: A relatively limited number of subjects who developed severe forms of COVID-19 had detectable SARS-CoV-2-S1/M IFNγ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells at midterm after clinical diagnosis. Our data also indicated that serum levels of RBD-specific IgGs decline over time, becoming undetectable in some patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(11): e13582, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A systematic analysis of concomitant arterial hypertension in COVID-19 patients and the impact of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have not been studied in a large multicentre cohort yet. We conducted a subanalysis from the international HOPE Registry (https://hopeprojectmd.com, NCT04334291) comparing COVID-19 in presence and absence of arterial hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Out of 5837 COVID-19 patients, 2850 (48.8%) patients had the diagnosis arterial hypertension. 1978/2813 (70.3%) patients were already treated with ACEI or ARBs. The clinical outcome of the present subanalysis included all-cause mortality over 40 days of follow-up. RESULTS: Patients with arterial hypertension suffered significantly more from different complications including respiratory insufficiency (60.8% vs 39.5%), heart failure (9.9% vs 3.1%), acute kidney injury (25.3% vs 7.3%), pneumonia (90.6% vs 86%), sepsis (14.7% vs 7.5%), and bleeding events (3.6% vs 1.6%). The mortality rate was 29.6% in patients with concomitant arterial hypertension and 11.3% without arterial hypertension (P < .001). Invasive and non-invasive respiratory supports were significantly more required in presence of arterial hypertension as compared without it. In the multivariate cox regression analysis, while age≥65, benzodiazepine, antidepressant at admission, elevated LDH or creatinine, respiratory insufficiency and sepsis might be a positive independent predictors of mortality, antiviral drugs, interferon treatment, ACEI or ARBs at discharge or oral anticoagulation at discharge might be an independent negative predictor of the mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The mortality rate and in-hospital complications might be increased in COVID-19 patients with a concomitant history of arterial hypertension. The history of ACEI or ARBs treatments does not seem to impact the outcome of these patients.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/epidemiologia , Sepse/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/terapia , Creatinina/metabolismo , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Itália/epidemiologia , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Ventilação não Invasiva , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Respiração Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espanha/epidemiologia
9.
Respir Med ; 186: 106536, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260979

RESUMO

Treatment with Dextromethorphan/Quinidine (DM/Q) has demonstrated benefit on pseudobulbar affect and bulbar function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The aim of this study was to assess whether DM/Q could provide long-term improvement in bulbar function and thereby prolong noninvasive respiratory management in ALS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, case-cohort study, recruited ALS patients with bulbar dysfunction. Subjects included were compared with cross-matched historical controls. Cases received DM/Q (20/10 mg twice daily) during one-year follow-up; bulbar dysfunction was evaluated with the Norris scale bulbar subscore (NBS) and bulbar subscale of AlSFRS-R (ALSFRSb). RESULTS: In total, 21 cases and 20 controls were enrolled, of whom noninvasive respiratory muscle assistance failed in 6 (28.5%) patients in the DM/Q group, compared with 4 patients (20.0%) in the control group (p = 0.645). Time from study onset to failure of respiratory muscle aids was 5.50 + 1.31 months in the DM/Q group and 5.20 + 1.15 months in the control group (p = 0.663). The adjusted OR for the effect of treatment on failure of noninvasive respiratory muscle aids was 2.12 (95%CI 0.23-33.79, p = 0.592). In the DM/Q group an impairment in scores was found in NBS (F = 19.26, p = 0.000) and ALSFRS-Rb (F = 12.71, p = 0.001) across different months of the study. CONCLUSION: Treatment with DM/Q in ALS is unable to prolong noninvasive respiratory management, and moreover, has no effect on long-term deterioration of bulbar function. Notwithstanding the results on bulbar function, DM/Q was found to improve pseudobulbar affect during one-year follow-up.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/complicações , Dextrometorfano/administração & dosagem , Quinidina/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Respiratória/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Idoso , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
BMJ Nutr Prev Health ; 4(1): 285-292, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking has been associated with poorer outcomes in relation to COVID-19. Smokers have higher risk of mortality and have a more severe clinical course. There is paucity of data available on this issue, and a definitive link between smoking and COVID-19 prognosis has yet to be established. METHODS: We included 5224 patients with COVID-19 with an available smoking history in a multicentre international registry Health Outcome Predictive Evaluation for COVID-19 (NCT04334291). Patients were included following an in-hospital admission with a COVID-19 diagnosis. We analysed the outcomes of patients with a current or prior history of smoking compared with the non-smoking group. The primary endpoint was all-cause in-hospital death. RESULTS: Finally, 5224 patients with COVID-19 with available smoking status were analysed. A total of 3983 (67.9%) patients were non-smokers, 934 (15.9%) were former smokers and 307 (5.2%) were active smokers. The median age was 66 years (IQR 52.0-77.0) and 58.6% were male. The most frequent comorbidities were hypertension (48.5%) and dyslipidaemia (33.0%). A relevant lung disease was present in 19.4%. In-hospital complications such sepsis (23.6%) and embolic events (4.3%) occurred more frequently in the smoker group (p<0.001 for both). All cause-death was higher among smokers (active or former smokers) compared with non-smokers (27.6 vs 18.4%, p<0.001). Following a multivariate analysis, current smoking was considered as an independent predictor of mortality (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.82, p=0.017) and a combined endpoint of severe disease (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.43, p=0.006). CONCLUSION: Smoking has a negative prognostic impact on patients hospitalised with COVID-19.

11.
Adicciones ; 0(0): 1583, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171114

RESUMO

The prevalence of active smoking in adults with asthma is similar in the total population. Smoking is associated with worse clinical control of the disease, a rapid reduction of lung function and a variable response to corticoids. Tobacco consumption negatively affects the quality of life of asthmatic patients as well as increasing the number of medical visits and hospital admissions due to exacerbations. Moreover, smoking entails a higher risk of developing lung cancer, cardiovascular comorbidities and death in asthmatic patients. Nevertheless, current asthma guidelines do not include specific recommendations on the management of smoking asthmatic patients and the treatment of the smoking habit in this subpopulation. For this reason, a narrative review of the literature was carried out for consensus using a nominal group methodology developed throughout 2019 to extract practical recommendations that would allow the diagnosis and treatment of asthma in smokers, as well as the treatment of smoking in asthmatics, to be improved. The conclusions and recommendations were validated at the SEPAR national congress of the same year. Among the most relevant, the need to address smoking in people with asthma through health advice, pharmacological treatment and behavioral therapy was emphasized, as this is a factor that negatively impacts the symptoms, prognosis and response to asthma treatment. In smokers with suspected asthma, the presence of emphysema and the differential diagnosis of other diseases should be evaluated and the impact of smoking on the result of diagnostic tests should be considered. It is also concluded that smoking reduces the response to treatment with inhaled corticosteroids, which is why combined therapy with bronchodilators is recommended.


La prevalencia de tabaquismo activo en adultos con asma es similar a la de la población general. El tabaquismo se asocia con un peor control clínico de la enfermedad, una disminución acelerada de la función pulmonar y una respuesta irregular a la terapia con glucocorticoides. El consumo de tabaco impacta negativamente en la calidad de vida de los pacientes asmáticos y provoca un incremento en el número de visitas y de hospitalizaciones por exacerbaciones. Además, el tabaquismo aumenta el riesgo de cáncer de pulmón, comorbilidades cardiovasculares y muerte en pacientes asmáticos. A pesar de todo ello, las guías actuales del manejo del asma no incluyen recomendaciones específicas para el manejo de los pacientes asmáticos fumadores. Por este motivo, se procedió a una revisión narrativa de la literatura para un consenso mediante metodología de grupo nominal desarrollada a lo largo del año 2019 para extraer recomendaciones prácticas que permitieran mejorar el diagnóstico y el tratamiento del asma en fumadores, así como el tratamiento del tabaquismo en asmáticos. Las conclusiones y recomendaciones fueron validadas en el congreso nacional de la SEPAR del mismo año. Entre las más relevantes, se incidió en la necesidad de abordar el tabaquismo en las personas con asma mediante consejo sanitario, tratamiento farmacológico y terapia conductual, al ser un factor que impacta negativamente en la sintomatología, el pronóstico y la respuesta al tratamiento del asma. En el fumador con sospecha de asma, se debe evaluar la presencia de enfisema y el diagnóstico diferencial de otras enfermedades y considerar el impacto del tabaquismo en el resultado de las pruebas diagnósticas. También se concluye que el hábito tabáquico reduce la respuesta al tratamiento con corticoides inhalados, por lo que se recomienda terapia combinada con broncodilatadores.

13.
Arch. bronconeumol. (Ed. impr.) ; 57(supl.2): 13-20, abr. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-196726

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with pre-existing respiratory diseases in the setting of COVID-19 may have a greater risk of severe complications and even death. METHODS: A retrospective, multicenter, cohort study with 5847 COVID-19 patients admitted to hospitals. Patients were separated in two groups, with/without previous lung disease. Evaluation of factors associated with survival and secondary composite end-point such as ICU admission and respiratory support, were explored. RESULTS: 1,271 patients (22%) had a previous lung disease, mostly COPD. All-cause mortality occurred in 376 patients with lung disease (29.5%) and in 819 patients without (17.9%) (p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier curves showed that patients with lung diseases had a worse 30-day survival (HR = 1.78; 95%C.I. 1.58-2.01; p < 0.001) and COPD had almost 40% mortality. Multivariable Cox regression showed that prior lung disease remained a risk factor for mortality (HR, 1.21; 95%C.I. 1.02-1.44; p = 0.02). Variables independently associated with all-cause mortality risk in patients with lung diseases were oxygen saturation less than 92% on admission (HR, 4.35; 95% CI 3.08-6.15) and elevated D-dimer (HR, 1.84; 95% CI 1.27-2.67). Age younger than 60 years (HR 0.37; 95% CI 0.21-0.65) was associated with decreased risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Previous lung disease is a risk factor for mortality in patients with COVID-19. Older age, male gender, home oxygen therapy, and respiratory failure on admission were associated with an increased mortality. Efforts must be done to identify respiratory patients to set measures to improve their clinical outcomes


INTRODUCCIÓN: Los pacientes con enfermedades respiratorias preexistentes pueden tener en el contexto de la covid-19 un mayor riesgo de complicaciones graves e incluso de muerte. MÉTODOS: Estudio de cohortes multicéntrico y retrospectivo de 5.847 pacientes con covid-19 ingresados en hospitales. Los pacientes se separaron en 2 grupos, sin y con enfermedad pulmonar previa. Se evaluaron factores asociados con la supervivencia y criterios combinados de valoración secundarios, como el ingreso en la UCI y la necesidad de asistencia respiratoria. RESULTADOS: Mil doscientos setenta y un (1.271) pacientes (22%) tenían una enfermedad pulmonar previa, principalmente EPOC. La mortalidad por todas las causas ocurrió en 376 pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar (29,5%) y en 819 pacientes sin enfermedad pulmonar (17,9%; p < 0,001). Las curvas de Kaplan-Meier mostraron que los pacientes con enfermedades pulmonares tenían una peor supervivencia a los 30 días (HR: 1,78; IC del 95%: 1,58-2,01; p < 0,001) y la EPOC tenía una mortalidad de casi el 40%. La regresión de Cox multivariante mostró que la enfermedad pulmonar previa seguía siendo un factor de riesgo de mortalidad (HR: 1,21; IC del 95%: 1,02-1,44; p = 0,02). Las variables asociadas de forma independiente con el riesgo de muerte por todas las causas en pacientes con enfermedades pulmonares fueron la saturación de oxígeno inferior al 92% al ingreso (HR: 4,35; IC del 95%: 3,08-6,15) y el dímero D elevado (HR: 1,84; IC del 95%: 1,27-2,67). La edad menor de 60 años (HR: 0,37; IC del 95%: 0,21-0,65) se asoció con una disminución del riesgo de muerte. CONCLUSIONES: La enfermedad pulmonar previa es un factor de riesgo de muerte en pacientes con covid-19. La edad avanzada, el sexo masculino, la oxigenoterapia domiciliaria y la insuficiencia respiratoria al ingreso se asociaron con un aumento de la mortalidad. Se deben realizar esfuerzos para identificar a los pacientes respiratorios y establecer medidas para mejorar sus resultados clínicos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Pneumopatias/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pandemias , Pneumopatias/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Prognóstico , Comorbidade
14.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 278(10): 3911-3919, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Around 20% of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 need mechanical ventilation (MV). MV may be prolonged, thus warranting tracheostomy. METHODS: Observational cohort study enrolling patients admitted due to COVID-19. Demographic and clinical data at hospital and ICU admission were collected. The primary endpoint was to identify parameters associated with a need for tracheostomy; secondary endpoints were to analyze the clinical course of patients who needed tracheostomy. RESULTS: 118 patients were enrolled; 37 patients (31.5%) were transferred to ICU, of which 11 (29.72%) needed a tracheostomy due to prolonged MV. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score at ICU admission (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.47-0.92, p 0.015) was the only variable found to be associated with increased risk of the need for tracheostomy, with a cut-off point of 4.5 (sensitivity 0.72, specificity 0.73, positive predictive value 0.57 and negative predictive value 0.85). The main complications were nosocomial infection (100%), supraventricular cardiac arrhythmia (45.5%), agitation (54.5%), pulmonary thromboembolism (9.1%) and depression (9.1%). All patients presented with hypoalbuminemia and significant critical illness polyneuropathy. CONCLUSION: SOFA at ICU admission is associated with an increased risk of tracheostomy in patients with COVID-19. Moreover, they present clinical features similar to those with chronic critical illness and suffer SARS-CoV-2-related complications.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecção Hospitalar , Humanos , Respiração Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Traqueostomia
16.
J Med Virol ; 93(1): 375-382, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579268

RESUMO

There is limited information on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) T-cell immune responses in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells may be instrumental in resolution of and protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we tested 25 hospitalized patients either with microbiologically documented COVID-19 (n = 19) or highly suspected of having the disease (n = 6) for presence of SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD69+ expressing interferon-γ (IFN-γ) producing CD8+ T cells using flow-cytometry for intracellular cytokine staining assay. Two sets of overlapping peptides encompassing the SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein N-terminal 1 to 643 amino acid sequence and the entire sequence of SARS-CoV-2 M protein were used simultaneously as antigenic stimulus. Ten patients (40%) had detectable responses, displaying frequencies ranging from 0.15 to 2.7% (median of 0.57 cells/µL; range, 0.43-9.98 cells/µL). The detection rate of SARS-CoV-2-reactive IFN-γ CD8+ T cells in patients admitted to intensive care was comparable (P = .28) to the rate in patients hospitalized in other medical wards. No correlation was found between SARS-CoV-2-reactive IFN-γ CD8+ T-cell counts and SARS-CoV-2 S-specific antibody levels. Likewise, no correlation was observed between either SARS-CoV-2-reactive IFN-γ CD8+ T cells or S-specific immunoglobulin G-antibody titers and blood cell count or levels of inflammatory biomarkers. In summary, in this descriptive, preliminary study we showed that SARS-CoV-2-reactive IFN-γ CD8+ T cells can be detected in a non-negligible percentage of patients with moderate to severe forms of COVID-19. Further studies are warranted to determine whether quantitation of these T-cell subsets may provide prognostic information on the clinical course of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Interferon gama/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados Preliminares , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
17.
Respir Care ; 66(3): 378-383, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mechanical insufflation-exsufflation (MI-E) applied via tracheostomy tubes in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) who are on home mechanical ventilation via tracheostomy is an effective procedure for respiratory secretion management. Nonetheless, tenacious secretions may remain and increase the risk of respiratory infections. The aim of this study was to determine whether adding oscillations to MI-E could reduce the rate of respiratory infections and the need for bronchoscopy to remove secretions in patients with ALS on home mechanical ventilation via tracheostomy. METHODS: This was a 2-y, prospective, crossover study. Subjects were treated with conventional MI-E and MI-E with oscillations for 2 alternate 6-month periods. Data were collected on episodes of respiratory infections, hospital admission, and number of bronchoscopy procedures. RESULTS: In the 19 ALS subjects enrolled, the median (interquartile range [IQR]) number of acute respiratory infections per subject was 1.0 (0.5-2.0) in the MI-E period and 0.0 (0.0-2.0) in the MI-E plus oscillations period (P = .92). The median (IQR) number of hospital stays was 0.0 (0.0-1.0) in the MI-E period and 0.0 (0.0-1.0) in the MI-E plus oscillations period (P = .80). The median (IQR) number of bronchoscopies per subject was 0.0 (0.0-1.0) in MI-E period and 0.0 (0.0-0.5) in the MI-E plus oscillations period (P = .26). MI-E plus oscillations treatment had no impact on the risk of respiratory infections (odds ratio 3.71, 95% CI 0.81-16.84, P = .09) or the need for bronchoscopy (odds ratio 2.70, 95% CI 0.44-16.68, P = .29). CONCLUSIONS: Adding oscillations to MI-E therapy in subjects with ALS on home mechanical ventilation via tracheostomy did not decrease the risk of respiratory infections, hospital admission, or need for bronchoscopy.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Insuflação , Insuficiência Respiratória , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/complicações , Tosse , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Traqueostomia
18.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(4): 957-966, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165755

RESUMO

Recently the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak has been declared a pandemic. Despite its aggressive extension and significant morbidity and mortality, risk factors are poorly characterized outside China. We designed a registry, HOPE COVID-19 (NCT04334291), assessing data of 1021 patients discharged (dead or alive) after COVID-19, from 23 hospitals in 4 countries, between 8 February and 1 April. The primary end-point was all-cause mortality aiming to produce a mortality risk score calculator. The median age was 68 years (IQR 52-79), and 59.5% were male. Most frequent comorbidities were hypertension (46.8%) and dyslipidemia (35.8%). A relevant heart or lung disease were depicted in 20%. And renal, neurological, or oncological disease, respectively, were detected in nearly 10%. Most common symptoms were fever, cough, and dyspnea at admission. 311 patients died and 710 were discharged alive. In the death-multivariate analysis, raised as most relevant: age, hypertension, obesity, renal insufficiency, any immunosuppressive disease, 02 saturation < 92% and an elevated C reactive protein (AUC = 0.87; Hosmer-Lemeshow test, p > 0.999; bootstrap-optimist: 0.0018). We provide a simple clinical score to estimate probability of death, dividing patients in four grades (I-IV) of increasing probability. Hydroxychloroquine (79.2%) and antivirals (67.6%) were the specific drugs most commonly used. After a propensity score adjustment, the results suggested a slight improvement in mortality rates (adjusted-ORhydroxychloroquine 0.88; 95% CI 0.81-0.91, p = 0.005; adjusted-ORantiviral 0.94; 95% CI 0.87-1.01; p = 0.115). COVID-19 produces important mortality, mostly in patients with comorbidities with respiratory symptoms. Hydroxychloroquine could be associated with survival benefit, but this data need to be confirmed with further trials. Trial Registration: NCT04334291/EUPAS34399.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Idoso , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/terapia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
Cardiol J ; 28(2): 202-214, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of any underlying heart condition could influence outcomes during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The registry HOPE-COVID-19 (Health Outcome Predictive Evaluation for COVID-19, NCT04334291) is an international ambispective study, enrolling COVID-19 patients discharged from hospital, dead or alive. RESULTS: HOPE enrolled 2798 patients from 35 centers in 7 countries. Median age was 67 years (IQR: 53.0-78.0), and most were male (59.5%). A relevant heart disease was present in 682 (24%) cases. These were older, more frequently male, with higher overall burden of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking habit, obesity) and other comorbidities such renal failure, lung, cerebrovascular disease and oncologic antecedents (p < 0.01, for all). The heart cohort received more corticoids (28.9% vs. 20.4%, p < 0.001), antibiotics, but less hydroxychloroquine, antivirals or tocilizumab. Considering the epidemiologic profile, a previous heart condition was independently related with shortterm mortality in the Cox multivariate analysis (1.62; 95% CI 1.29-2.03; p < 0.001). Moreover, heart patients needed more respiratory, circulatory support, and presented more in-hospital events, such heart failure, renal failure, respiratory insufficiency, sepsis, systemic infammatory response syndrome and clinically relevant bleedings (all, p < 0.001), and mortality (39.7% vs. 15.5%; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: An underlying heart disease is an adverse prognostic factor for patients suffering COVID-19. Its presence could be related with different clinical drug management and would benefit from maintaining treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers during in-hospital stay.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Sistema de Registros , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
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