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1.
Eur J Cancer ; 167: 142-148, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35307254

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Durvalumab is the standard-of-care as consolidation therapy after chemo-radiotherapy in stage III unresectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, its activity across patients with NSCLC harbouring driver genomic alterations (dGA) is poorly characterised. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Multicentre retrospective study including patients with stage III unresectable NSCLC treated with durvalumab after chemo-radiotherapy between April 2015 and October 2020 at 26 centres in Europe and America. Clinical and biological data were collected; dGA included: EGFR/BRAF/KRAS mutations (m) and ALK/ROS1 rearrangements (r). We evaluated progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) based on dGA. RESULTS: Out of 323 patients included, 43 patients had one dGA: KRASm (n = 26; 8 G12C), EGFRm (n = 8; 6 del19/ex21), BRAFm (n = 5; 4 V600E) and ALKr (n = 4). The median age was 66 years [39-84], gender ratio 1:1, with 98% performance status (PS) 0-1 and 19% non-smokers; 88% had adenocarcinoma. PD-L1 was positive in 85% (n = 4 missing). In the whole cohort, the median PFS was 17.5 months (mo.) (95% CI, 13.2-24.9) and median OS 47 mo (95%CI, 47-not reached [NR]). No statistically significant differences in terms of the median PFS were observed between patients with dGA vs. non-dGA: 14.9 mo (95% CI, 8.1-NR) vs. 18 mo. (95% CI, 13.4-28.3) (P = 1.0); however, when analysed separately: the median PFS was NR (11.3-NR) in the KRASm G12C vs. 8.1 mo (5.8-NR) in the EGFRm del19/ex21 vs. 7.8 mo (7.7-NR) in the BRAFm V600E/ALKr (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: We observed limited activity of durvalumab consolidation in patients with stage III unresectable NSCLC with EGFR/BRAFm and ALKr but not for those harbouring KRASm. Larger prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Receptores ErbB/genética , Genômica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 23(1): e17-e28, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have significantly improved outcome of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) patients. However, their efficacy remains uncertain in uncommon histologies (UH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from ICI treated aNSCLC patients (April,2013-January,2021) in one Institution were retrospectively collected. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were estimated by Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression model, respectively. Objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) were assessed. RESULTS: Of 375 patients, 79 (21.1%) had UH: 19 (24.1%) sarcomatoid carcinoma, 15 (19.0%) mucinous adenocarcinoma, 10 (12.6%) enteric adenocarcinoma, 8 (10.1%) adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, 7 (8.9%) large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, 6 (7.6%) mixed histology non-adenosquamous, 5 (6.3%) adenosquamous carcinoma, 9 (11.4%) other UH. In UH group, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) <1%, 1-49%, ≥50% and unknown expression were reported in 27.8%, 22.8%, 31.7% and 17.7% patients respectively and ICI was the second/further-line in the majority of patients. After a median follow-up of 35.64 months (m), median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 2.5 m in UH [95% CI 2.2-2.9 m] versus (vs.) 2.7 m in CH [95% CI 2.3-3.2 m, P-value = .584]; median overall survival (mOS) was 8.8 m [95% CI 4.9-12.6 m] vs. 9.7 m [95% CI 8.0-11.3 m, P-value = .653]. At multivariate analyses only ECOG PS was a confirmed prognostic factor in UH. ORR and DCR were 25.3% and 40.5% in UH vs. 21.6% and 49.5% in CH [P-value = .493 and .155 respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: No significant differences were detected between UH and CH groups. Prospective trials are needed to understand ICIs role in UH population.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
3.
Eur J Intern Med ; 93: 87-94, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Research is moving towards a more personalized management of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) due to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in the treatment of these clinical manifestations. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed to retrieve data about the use of tocilizumab in the treatment of irAEs. Additionally, data from cancer patients referred to our Immune-related Adverse Event Clinic and treated with tocilizumab were collected. RESULTS: Our literature review identified 20 articles and 11 meeting abstracts. Data about 91 cancer patients who received tocilizumab for the treatment of irAEs were collected. In 85% of cases, this therapy was associated with clinical benefit and no case of disease progression was reported. ICI therapy was continued following irAE onset and biologic therapy initiation in only three patients. Five patients developed irAEs upon ICI initiation and were subsequently treated with tocilizumab at our Centre. At a median follow-up of eight months, tocilizumab was safely continued along with ICI in three out of five patients, and an adequate control of irAE was obtained in all cases. No significant adverse reactions to tocilizumab were reported. Only one patient experienced a disease progression 18 months after ICI discontinuation. CONCLUSION: Both our systematic literature review and case series highlight the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in the treatment of irAEs. Furthermore, they both support the possibility of a combined approach with tocilizumab and ICI, to guarantee an effective irAEs management without losing the oncologic response.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Neoplasias , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 10(6): 2955-2969, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34295690

RESUMO

In the immunotherapy era, considering the prolonged survival benefit and responses observed with immunecheckpoint inhibitors (ICI) in many cancer types, the identification of patients with rapid progression (PD) and deaths upon ICI has found some skepticism and resistance among the scientific community. Nevertheless, an acceleration of tumour during ICI, defined as hyperprogressive disease (HPD), has been recognized across different cancer types and evidence regarding rapid PDs and deaths are emerging in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and thymic malignancies and in uncommon non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) populations. Of note, PD and early deaths (ED) rates upon single agent ICI were up to 60% and 30% in MPM and 70% and 38% in SCLC patients, respectively. Similarly, rapid PDs and deaths were observed in clinical trials and retrospective studies including patients with poor performance status (PS), HIV infection and rare NSCLC histologies. Atypical patterns of response, such as pseudoprogression (PsPD) may also occur in other thoracic malignancies (MPM) and in some uncommon populations (i.e., HIV patients), however probably at lower rate compared to HPD. The characterizations of HPD and PsPD mechanisms and the identification of common definition criteria are the next future challenges in this area of cancer research.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(9)2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potential added value of liquid biopsy (LB) is not well determined in the case of small cell lung cancer (SCLC), an aggressive tumor that can occur either de novo or from the histologic transformation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: A systematic review of studies adopting LB in patients with SCLC have been performed to assess the clinical utility of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) or circulating tumor cells (CTCs). RESULTS: After a screening of 728 records, 62 studies (32 evaluating CTCs, 27 ctDNA, and 3 both) met predetermined eligibility criteria. Only four studies evaluated LB in the diagnostic setting for SCLC, while its prognostic significance was evaluated in 38 studies and prominently supported by both ctDNA and CTCs. A meta-analysis of 11 studies as for CTCs enumeration showed an HR for overall survival of 2.63 (1.71-4.05), with a potential publication bias. The feasibility of tumor genomic profiling and the predictive role of LB in terms of response/resistance to chemotherapy was assessed in 11 and 24 studies, respectively, with greater consistency for those regarding ctDNA. Intriguingly, several case reports suggest that LB can indirectly capture the transition to SCLC in NSCLC treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: While dedicated trials are needed, LB holds potential clinical roles in both de novo and transformed SCLC. CtDNA analysis appears the most valuable and practicable tool for both disease monitoring and genomic profiling.

6.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(9): 2972-2980, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003722

RESUMO

Unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive disease with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 10%. Recent data suggest that MPM is an immunologically active tumor, in which checkpoint inhibition through the blockade of the anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (-CTLA-4) or anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) could play a major therapeutic role. Initially, clinical trials evaluated immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in the salvage setting after platinum-based chemotherapy with mixed results in terms of efficacy. More recently, the combination of the anti-CTLA-4 agent ipilimumab plus the anti-PD-1 agent nivolumab was tested in the front-line setting, and reported a superior survival as compared to platinum/pemetrexed. While other clinical trials ore ongoing in order to investigate ICIs for MPM, it seems now evident that we have entered a new "era" for the treatment of MPM. In the future, a few issues need to be solved with regard to the use of ICIs for MPM. Among them, there is the identification of biomarkers of sensitivity to immunotherapy that may help enrich the patient population who could benefit the most from treatment, while avoiding for some other patients the potential occurrence of immune-related side effects from therapies that are anticipated to be ineffective.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma Maligno , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico
7.
Eur J Cancer ; 150: 224-231, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated the cumulative poor prognostic role of concomitant medications on the clinical outcome of patients with advanced cancer treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors, creating and validating a drug-based prognostic score to be calculated before immunotherapy initiation in patients with advanced solid tumours. This 'drug score' was calculated assigning score 1 for each between proton-pump inhibitor and antibiotic administration until a month before cancer therapy initiation and score 2 in case of corticosteroid intake. The good risk group included patients with score 0, intermediate risk with score 1-2 and poor risk with score 3-4. METHODS: Aiming at validating the prognostic and putative predictive ability depending on the anticancer therapy, we performed the present comparative analysis in two cohorts of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), respectively, receiving first-line pembrolizumab or chemotherapy through a random case-control matching and through a pooled multivariable analysis including the interaction between the computed score and the therapeutic modality (pembrolizumab vs chemotherapy). RESULTS: Nine hundred fifty and 595 patients were included in the pembrolizumab and chemotherapy cohorts, respectively. After the case-control random matching, 589 patients from the pembrolizumab cohort and 589 from the chemotherapy cohort were paired, with no statistically significant differences between the characteristics of the matched subjects. Among the pembrolizumab-treated group, good, intermediate and poor risk evaluable patients achieved an objective response rate (ORR) of 50.0%, 37.7% and 23.4%, respectively, (p < 0.0001), whereas among the chemotherapy-treated group, patients achieved an ORR of 37.0%, 40.0% and 32.4%, respectively (p = 0.4346). The median progression-free survival (PFS) of good, intermediate and poor risk groups was 13.9 months, 6.3 months and 2.8 months, respectively, within the pembrolizumab cohort (p < 0.0001), and 6.2 months, 6.2 months and 4.3 months, respectively, within the chemotherapy cohort (p = 0.0280). Among the pembrolizumab-treated patients, the median overall survival (OS) for good, intermediate and poor risk patients was 31.4 months, 14.5 months and 5.8 months, respectively, (p < 0.0001), whereas among the chemotherapy-treated patients, it was 18.3 months, 16.8 months and 10.6 months, respectively (p = 0.0003). A similar trend was reported considering the two entire populations. At the pooled analysis, the interaction term between the score and the therapeutic modality was statistically significant with respect to ORR (p = 0.0052), PFS (p = 0.0003) and OS (p < 0.0001), confirming the significantly different effect of the score within the two cohorts. CONCLUSION: Our 'drug score' showed a predictive ability with respect to ORR in the immunotherapy cohort only, suggesting it might be a useful tool for identifying patients unlikely to benefit from first-line single-agent pembrolizumab. In addition, the prognostic stratification in terms of PFS and OS was significantly more pronounced among the pembrolizumab-treated patients.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Itália , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Polimedicação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
8.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(5): 873-877, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795207

RESUMO

This is the first case report of a patient with ALK-rearranged metastatic lung adenocarcinoma who became pregnant during treatment with alectinib. A multidisciplinary team of gynecologists, neonatologists, oncologists, psychologists, and pharmacologists was set up to handle the case. According to patient's preference, the study drug was continued throughout pregnancy and the woman delivered a healthy baby girl at 35 weeks and 5 days of gestation. Fetal parameters remained normal during pregnancy. At birth, alectinib levels were 14 times higher in maternal plasma than in the fetus (259 versus 18 ng/mL). The average concentration of alectinib in the placenta was 562 ng/g. The baby was followed during her first 20 months, and no developmental anomalies were observed. After 32 months from diagnosis, the mother is well and in partial remission.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Carbazóis/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases
9.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(8): 1298-1311, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887464

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preclinical models recently unveiled the vulnerability of LKB1/KRAS comutated NSCLC to metabolic stress-based treatments. Because miR-17 is a potential epigenetic regulator of LKB1, we hypothesized that wild-type LKB1 (LKB1WT) NSCLC with high miR-17 expression may be sensitive to an energetic stress condition, and eligible for metabolic frailties-based therapeutic intervention. METHODS: We took advantage of NSCLC cell lines with different combinations of KRAS mutation and LKB1 deletion and of patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) with high (LKB1WT/miR-17 high) or low (LKB1WT/miR-17 low) miR-17 expression. We evaluated LKB1 pathway impairment and apoptotic response to metformin. We retrospectively evaluated LKB1 and miR-17 expression levels in tissue specimens of patients with NSCLC and PDXs. In addition, a lung cancer series from The Cancer Genome Atlas data set was analyzed for miR-17 expression and potential correlation with clinical features. RESULTS: We identified miR-17 as an epigenetic regulator of LKB1 in NSCLC and confirmed targeting of miR-17 to LKB1 3' untranslated region by luciferase reporter assay. We found that miR-17 overexpression functionally impairs the LKB1/AMPK pathway. Metformin treatment prompted apoptosis on miR-17 overexpression only in LKB1WT cell lines, and in LKB1WT/miR-17 high PDXs. A retrospective analysis in patients with NSCLC revealed an inverse correlation between miR-17 and LKB1 expression and highlighted a prognostic role of miR-17 expression in LKB1WT patients, which was further confirmed by The Cancer Genome Atlas data analysis. CONCLUSIONS: We identified miR-17 as a mediator of LKB1 expression in NSCLC tumors. This study proposes a miR-17 expression score potentially exploitable to discriminate LKB1WT patients with NSCLC with impaired LKB1 expression and poor outcome, eligible for energy-stress-based treatments.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , MicroRNAs , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Prognóstico , /metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(4)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some concomitant medications including antibiotics (ATB) have been reproducibly associated with worse survival following immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in unselected patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (according to programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and treatment line). Whether such relationship is causative or associative is matter of debate. METHODS: We present the outcomes analysis according to concomitant baseline medications (prior to ICI initiation) with putative immune-modulatory effects in a large cohort of patients with metastatic NSCLC with a PD-L1 expression ≥50%, receiving first-line pembrolizumab monotherapy. We also evaluated a control cohort of patients with metastatic NSCLC treated with first-line chemotherapy. The interaction between key medications and therapeutic modality (pembrolizumab vs chemotherapy) was validated in pooled multivariable analyses. RESULTS: 950 and 595 patients were included in the pembrolizumab and chemotherapy cohorts, respectively. Corticosteroid and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy but not ATB therapy was associated with poorer performance status at baseline in both the cohorts. No association with clinical outcomes was found according to baseline statin, aspirin, ß-blocker and metformin within the pembrolizumab cohort. On the multivariable analysis, ATB emerged as a strong predictor of worse overall survival (OS) (HR=1.42 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.79); p=0.0024), and progression free survival (PFS) (HR=1.29 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.59); p=0.0192) in the pembrolizumab but not in the chemotherapy cohort. Corticosteroids were associated with shorter PFS (HR=1.69 (95% CI 1.42 to 2.03); p<0.0001), and OS (HR=1.93 (95% CI 1.59 to 2.35); p<0.0001) following pembrolizumab, and shorter PFS (HR=1.30 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.56), p=0.0046) and OS (HR=1.58 (95% CI 1.29 to 1.94), p<0.0001), following chemotherapy. PPIs were associated with worse OS (HR=1.49 (95% CI 1.26 to 1.77); p<0.0001) with pembrolizumab and shorter OS (HR=1.12 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.24), p=0.0139), with chemotherapy. At the pooled analysis, there was a statistically significant interaction with treatment (pembrolizumab vs chemotherapy) for corticosteroids (p=0.0020) and PPIs (p=0.0460) with respect to OS, for corticosteroids (p<0.0001), ATB (p=0.0290), and PPIs (p=0.0487) with respect to PFS, and only corticosteroids (p=0.0033) with respect to objective response rate. CONCLUSION: In this study, we validate the significant negative impact of ATB on pembrolizumab monotherapy but not chemotherapy outcomes in NSCLC, producing further evidence about their underlying immune-modulatory effect. Even though the magnitude of the impact of corticosteroids and PPIs is significantly different across the cohorts, their effects might be driven by adverse disease features.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimedicação , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Eur J Cancer ; 149: 235-248, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The treatment of metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (mNSCLC) patients with EGFR/HER2 exon 20 insertion mutation (i-mut) remains an unmet clinical need. Poziotinib, a new generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is currently under investigation as a potential targeted therapy. This compassionate study of its use aims to describe the activity/toxicity of poziotinib in mNSCLC with EGFR/HER2-exon-20-i-mut. PATIENTS AND METHODS: NSCLC patients who were treated either with EGFR or HER2 exon 20-i-mut within an expanded access program were included in this study. Poziotinib (16 mg or less) was administrated orally quaque die (QD). The primary end-point was the overall response rate (ORR) assessed by central review using RECIST v1.1, and secondary end-points were median progression free survival (PFS), disease control rate (DCR), median overall survival (OS) and toxicity. RESULTS: The median age of all the 30 patients was 58 years (25-80 years), most of them were females (73%); ECOG 0-1 (83%), EGFR i-mut (73%) and pre-treated (83%). 73% started with poziotinib at a dose of 16 mg. At data cut-off, 22 of 33 patients (73%) experienced a progress in the disease and 12 of 30 (40%) died. Median PFS was 5.6 months (95% CI: 3.6-6.7 months) and the mOS 9.5 months (95% CI: 5.3 - not-reached months). The ORR was 30% (EGFR/HER2: 23/50%) and DCR 80%. G3 AEs were reported in 66% of the patients and were found with skin rash (50%), diarrhoea (17.6%), mucositis (7%) and paronychia (3%). G5, possibly associated with pneumonitis might also have occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Poziotinib exhibited effects in mNSCLC patients with EGFR/HER2-exon 20-i-mut. The toxicity rate was high leading to frequent dose interruption and reduction, thereby reducing mPFS in patients with good ORR/DCR. ZENITH20 trial is now being used to evaluate the low dose and new scheduled dose (e.g. bis in die (BID)).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Mutagênese Insercional , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Quinazolinas/administração & dosagem , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Ensaios de Uso Compassivo , Progressão da Doença , Receptores ErbB/genética , Éxons , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Quinazolinas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Eur J Cancer ; 148: 24-35, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment sequencing with first-line immunotherapy, followed by second-line chemotherapy, is still a viable option for NSCLC patients with PD-L1 expression ≥50%. METHODS: We evaluated post-progression treatment pathways in a large real-world cohort of metastatic NSCLC patients with PD-L1 expression ≥ 50% treated with first-line pembrolizumab monotherapy. RESULTS: Overall, 974 patients were included. With a median follow-up of 22.7 months (95%CI: 21.6-38.2), the median overall survival (OS) of the entire population was 15.8 months (95%CI: 13.5-17.5; 548 events). At the data cutoff, among the 678 patients who experienced disease progression, 379 (55.9%) had not received any further treatment, and 359 patients (52.9%) had died. Patients who did not receive post-progression therapies were older (p = 0.0011), with a worse ECOG-PS (p < 0.0001) and were on corticosteroids prior to pembrolizumab (p = 0.0024). At disease progression, 198 patients (29.2%) received a switched approach and 101 (14.9%) received pembrolizumab ByPD either alone (64 [9.4%]) or in combination with local ablative treatments (37 [5.5%]) (LATs). After a random-case control matching according to ECOG-PS, CNS metastases, bone metastases, and (previous) best response to pembrolizumab, patients receiving pembrolizumab ByPD plus LATs were confirmed to have a significantly longer post-progression OS compared to patients receiving pembrolizumab ByPD alone 13.9 months versus 7.8 months (p = 0.0179) 241 patients (35.5%) among the 678 who had experienced PD, received a second-line systemic treatment (regardless of previous treatment beyond PD). As compared to first-line treatment commencement, patients' features at the moment of second-line initiation showed a significantly higher proportion of patients aged under 70 years (p = 0.0244), with a poorer ECOG-PS (p < 0.0001) and having CNS (p = 0.0001), bone (p = 0.0266) and liver metastases (p = 0.0148). CONCLUSIONS: In the real-world scenario NSCLC patients with PD-L1 expression ≥50% treated with first-line single-agent pembrolizumab achieve worse outcomes as compared to the Keynote-024 trial. Poor post-progression outcomes are major determinants of the global results that should be considered when counselling patients for first-line treatment choices.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Ósseas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 160: 103299, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722699

RESUMO

Target therapies completely changed the clinical approach in EGFR mutated and ALK rearranged non-small cell lung cancer, ensuring these patients exceptional outcomes with a better toxicity profile compared to conventional chemotherapy. In recent years, beyond EGFR and ALK alterations, new data are emerging about less common alterations, new drugs have been already approved and others agents have been recently investigated or are currently under investigation. In this review we will discuss some uncommon alterations in non-small cell lung cancer such as ROS1, BRAF, RET, HER2, NTRK, MET and other targets that are in an early evaluation phase. We will summarize the characteristics of patients harboring these alterations, the already approved or under investigation therapies and the related resistance mechanisms.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas
14.
Immunotherapy ; 13(7): 621-631, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775103

RESUMO

This study is a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials involving first-line studies in which immune checkpoint inhibitors were added to chemotherapy and were compared with chemotherapy alone. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). The analyses used random-effects models and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system to rate the quality of the evidence. Nine articles were included for qualitative and quantitative synthesis. A meta-analysis of the nine randomized trials showed a significant benefit in terms of OS (hazard ratio: 0.75 [95% CI: 0.66-0.85]; p < 0.01). Only programmed death ligand-1 positive-high cancers derive a significant OS benefit. In this meta-analysis, there is moderate evidence that the addition of immune checkpoint inhibitors to chemotherapy may improve both OS compared with chemotherapy alone.


Lay abstract We provide a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in first-line studies where immune checkpoint inhibitors were added to chemotherapy (CT) and were compared with CT alone. Nine articles were included for qualitative and quantitative synthesis. A meta-analysis of the nine randomized trials indicated a significant benefit in terms of overall survival (OS; hazard ratio: 0.75 [95% CI: 0.66­0.85]; p < 0.01). Only programmed death ligand-1 positive-high cancers were observed to receive a significant OS benefit. In this meta-analysis, there is moderate evidence that the addition of immune checkpoint inhibitors to CT may improve OS as compared with CT alone.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Terapia Combinada , Humanos
15.
Thorac Cancer ; 12(6): 880-889, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved outcome in tobacco smoking patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) following immunotherapy has previously been reported. However, little is known regarding this association during first-line immunotherapy in patients with high PD-L1 expression. In this study we compared clinical outcomes according to the smoking status of two large multicenter cohorts. METHODS: We compared clinical outcomes according to the smoking status (never smokers vs. current/former smokers) of two retrospective multicenter cohorts of metastatic NSCLC patients, treated with first-line pembrolizumab and platinum-based chemotherapy. RESULTS: A total of 962 NSCLC patients with PD-L1 expression ≥50% who received first-line pembrolizumab and 462 NSCLC patients who received first-line platinum-based chemotherapy were included in the study. Never smokers were confirmed to have a significantly higher risk of disease progression (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.49 [95% CI: 1.15-1.92], p = 0.0022) and death (HR = 1.38 [95% CI: 1.02-1.87], p = 0.0348) within the pembrolizumab cohort. On the contrary, a nonsignificant trend towards a reduced risk of disease progression (HR = 0.74 [95% CI: 0.52-1.05], p = 0.1003) and death (HR = 0.67 [95% CI: 0.45-1.01], p = 0.0593) were reported for never smokers within the chemotherapy cohort. After a random case-control matching, 424 patients from both cohorts were paired. Within the matched pembrolizumab cohort, never smokers had a significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS) (HR = 1.68 [95% CI: 1.17-2.40], p = 0.0045) and a nonsignificant trend towards a shortened overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.32 [95% CI: 0.84-2.07], p = 0.2205). On the contrary, never smokers had a significantly longer PFS (HR = 0.68 [95% CI: 0.49-0.95], p = 0.0255) and OS (HR = 0.66 [95% CI: 0.45-0.97], p = 0,0356) compared to current/former smoker patients within the matched chemotherapy cohort. On pooled multivariable analysis, the interaction term between smoking status and treatment modality was concordantly statistically significant with respect to ORR (p = 0.0074), PFS (p = 0.0001) and OS (p = 0.0020), confirming the significantly different impact of smoking status across the two cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Among metastatic NSCLC patients with PD-L1 expression ≥50% receiving first-line pembrolizumab, current/former smokers experienced improved PFS and OS. On the contrary, worse outcomes were reported among current/former smokers receiving first-line chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Fumar/tendências , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Análise de Sobrevida
16.
Lung Cancer ; 152: 165-173, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The introduction of immunotherapy has improved the prognosis of patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). However, data in poor ECOG Performance Status (PS) patients remain scant due to their exclusion from randomized trials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed data of patients with advanced NSCLC treated with immunotherapy in two Italian Centers, to evaluate the impact of PS (0-1 vs 2) on disease control rate (DCR), progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Chi-square test was used to compare clinical-pathological variables, their impact on survival was evaluated through Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Among 404 patients included, PS was 0 in 137 (33.9 %), 1 in 208 (51.5 %) and 2 in 59 (14.6 %) patients; 143 were female and 90 had squamous NSCLC. Clinical-pathological variables were uniformly distributed except for higher prevalence of liver metastases in patients with poor PS. We found that PS2 patients showed worse outcomes in terms of DCR (21.8 % vs 50.3 %, p = 0.001), PFS [2.0 (95 % CI 1.6-3.0) vs 3.0 (95 % CI 2.7-4.0) months, p < 0.0001] and OS [4.0 (95 % CI 2.8-5.7) vs 13.2 (95 % CI 11.0-15.8) months, p < 0.0001]. PS2 status, negative PDL1 expression and early corticosteroids exposure as well as higher Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio and LDH at baseline were associated with worse outcomes at univariate and multivariable analysis. Subgroup analysis confirmed poor outcomes in PS2 patients with high LDH and concomitant corticosteroid therapies. The incidence of Grade 3/4 adverse events was 11.3 % in PS 0-1 and 10.2 % in PS 2 patients (p = 0.81). CONCLUSION: Our data confirm reduced efficacy of immunotherapy in patients with poor PS even though a good safety. Despite PS remains the most powerful independent prognostic factor for NSCLC, LDH levels and steroids exposure could support the decision making in PS2 patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Biomarcadores , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 22(2): e180-e192, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Real-world data have suggested a detrimental effect of steroid use in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving immunotherapy. However, previous studies included heterogeneous cohorts of patients receiving different lines of treatment with several immuno-oncology agents and various combinations of chemotherapy and immuno-oncology agents. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A comprehensive clinicopathologic database of patients with NSCLC and programmed cell death ligand 1 >50% treated with frontline pembrolizumab monotherapy was constructed in 14 centers in Italy, Spain, Greece, and Switzerland. A multivariate analysis adjusting for the established prognostic factors was performed using a Cox regression model. RESULTS: For the 265 eligible patients, the median age at diagnosis was 67 years, 66% were male, 90% were current or former smokers, 18% had had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or 3. Of the NSCLC subtypes, 64% were adenocarcinoma and 25% were squamous cell. Of the patients, 18% had had brain metastases at diagnosis and 24% had received steroids before or during pembrolizumab treatment. The median time to progression was 4.4 months with and 13.7 months without steroid use (hazard ratio [HR], 2.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69-3.85; log-rank P < .001). The median survival was 22.5 months for the whole cohort, 7.7 months for the steroid group, and not reached for the non-steroid group (HR, 3.64; 95% CI, 2.34-5.68; log-rank P < .001). On multivariate analysis accounting for all established prognostic variables, steroid use was still independently associated with a high risk of progression (HR, 1.864; 95% CI, 1.179-2.949; P = .008) and death (HR, 2.292; 95% CI, 1.441-3.644; P < .001) CONCLUSIONS: In patients with advanced NSCLC and programmed cell death ligand 1 expression > 50% receiving frontline pembrolizumab monotherapy, any use of steroids before or during treatment was associated with an 86% increase in the risk of progression and a 2.3-fold increase in the risk of death, even accounting for palliative indication-related bias, including the presence of central nervous system metastasis. The use of steroids for palliative indications should be restricted to absolutely necessary for patients receiving immuno-oncology monotherapy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
Front Oncol ; 10: 588862, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33282740

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of Skeletal Related Adverse Events (SREs) in EGFR mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with bone metastases, treated with modern tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), has been scarcely investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the data of EGFR mutated NSCLC patients with bone metastases treated with TKIs in 12 Italian centers from 2014 to 2019, with the primary aim to explore type and frequency of SREs. RESULTS: Seventy-seven out of 274 patients enrolled (28%) developed at least one major SRE: 55/274 (20%) bone fractures, 30/274 (11%) spinal cord compression, 5/274 (2%) hypercalcemia. Median time to the onset of SRE was 3.63 months. Nine patients (3%) underwent bone surgery and 150 (55%) radiation therapy on bone. SREs were more frequently observed within the 12 months from TKI start than afterwards (71 vs 29%, p 0.000). Patient Performance Status and liver metastases where independently associated with the risk of developing SREs. Median TKI exposure and overall survival were 11 and 28 months, respectively. Bone resorption inhibitors were associated with a lower risk of death (HR 0.722, 95% CI: 0.504-1.033, p = 0.075) although not statistically significant at multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Bone metastatic NSCLC patients with EGFR mutated disease, treated with EGFR TKIs, have a relatively long survival expectancy and are at high risk to develop SREs. The early SRE occurrence after the TKI start provides the rationale to administer bone resorption inhibitors.

19.
Lung Cancer ; 150: 123-131, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130353

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In the most of cases, for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who progressed to previous immune checkpoint inhibitors (CKI) administered as first- or as second-line therapy, chemotherapy (CT) remains the only viable options in the absence of "druggable" mutations. We aimed to explore the efficacy of salvage chemotherapy after immunotherapy (SCAI) in advanced NSCLC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed a retrospective, multicenter study, involving 20 Italian centers, with the primary objective of describing the clinical outcome of advanced NSCLC patients treated with SCAI at the participating institutions from November 2013 to July 2019. The primary endpoint of the study was represented by overall survival (OS), defined as the time from CT initiation to death. Secondary outcome endpoints of the SCAI (progression free survival, PFS, objective response rate, ORR and toxicity) and explorative biomarkers (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, NLR during immunotherapy) were also analyzed. RESULTS: In our study population of 342 NSCLC patients, SCAI obtained a median OS of 6.8 months (95 % confidence interval, CI 5.5-8.1), median PFS of 4.1 months (95 % CI 3.4-4.8) and ORR of 22.8 %. A "Post-CKI score" was constructed by combining significant predictors of OS at the multivariate analyses (sex, ECOG PS, disease control with prior immunotherapy), Harrell'C was 0.65, (95 % CI:0.59-0.71). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the late-line settings, our findings support the hypothesis that previous immunotherapy might increase the sensitivity of the tumor to the subsequent chemotherapy. The "Post-CKI score" was clinically effective in successfully discriminating three distinct prognostic subgroups of patients after the failure of CKI, representing a possibly useful tool for the tailored decision-making process of advanced treatment-line settings in NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 9(5): 1940-1951, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumor but approximately 12% of patients survive more than 3 years. The biological differences underlying better outcomes are not known. Several targeted agents and immunotherapy have been ineffective. Hedgehog (Hh) is one emerging pathway. We compared the biological profiles of patients with different survival, investigating the most frequently altered genes, including the Hh pathway. METHODS: We analyzed 56 MPM. A 36-month overall survival (OS) cut-off divided patients into 32 normo (NS) and 24 long (LS) survivors. We used next generation sequencing to test 21 genes, immunohistochemistry to evaluate SMO expression. Mutation differences between NS and LS and their associations with clinical features were analysed by Fisher's test, OS with the Kaplan-Meier method and its association with mutations by univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Clinical features were similar in both groups. Eighteen out of 56 patients (32%) were wild-type for the genes analysed. At least five had mutations in BAP1, NF2, TP53, SMO and PTCH1 with no significant differences between the groups except for SMO. SMO, a member of the Hh pathway, was mutated only in NS (15.6%) and only SMO mutations were significantly associated with poor prognosis at univariate (HR =4.36, 95% CI: 2.32-8.18, P<0.0001) and multivariate (HR =9.2, 95% CI: 3.0-28.4, P=0.0001) analysis. All SMO mutated patients expressed high protein levels. CONCLUSIONS: SMO mutations were clearly associated with worse prognosis. SMO may be a therapeutic target but this needs to be confirmed in a prospective trial.

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