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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging research suggests health effects in offspring after parental chemical exposures before conception. Many future mothers are exposed to potent chemicals at work, but potential offspring health effects are hardly investigated. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate childhood asthma in relation to mother's occupational exposure to cleaning products and disinfectants before conception. METHODS: The multicenter Respiratory Health In Northern Europe/Respiratory Health In Northern Europe, Spain and Australia generation study investigated asthma and wheeze starting at age less than 10 years in 3318 mother-offspring pairs. From an asthma-specific Job-Exposure Matrix and mothers' occupational history, we defined maternal occupational exposure to indoor cleaning agents (cleaning products/detergents and disinfectants) starting before conception, in the 2-year period around conception and pregnancy, or after birth. Never-employed mothers were excluded. Exposed groups include cleaners, health care workers, cooks, and so forth. Associations were analyzed using mixed-effects logistic regression and ordinary logistic regression with clustered robust SEs and adjustment for maternal education. RESULTS: Maternal occupational exposure to indoor cleaning starting preconception and continuing (n = 610) was associated with offspring's childhood asthma: odds ratio 1.56 (95% CI, 1.05-2.31), childhood asthma with nasal allergies: 1.77 (1.13-2.77), and childhood wheeze and/or asthma: 1.71 (95% CI, 1.19-2.44). Exposure starting around conception and pregnancy (n = 77) was associated with increased childhood wheeze and/or asthma: 2.25 (95% CI, 1.03-4.91). Exposure starting after birth was not associated with asthma outcomes (1.13 [95% CI, 0.71-1.80], 1.15 [95% CI, 0.67-1.97], 1.08 [95% CI, 0.69-1.67]). CONCLUSIONS: Mother's occupational exposure to indoor cleaning agents starting before conception, or around conception and pregnancy, was associated with more childhood asthma and wheeze in offspring. Considering potential implications for vast numbers of women in childbearing age using cleaning agents, and their children, further research is imperative.

2.
Health Place ; 72: 102678, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610547

RESUMO

Natural environments have been associated with mental health benefits, but globally access to these benefits is threatened by urban development and densification. However, it remains unclear how natural environments relate to mental health and how consistent the association is across populations. Here we use a life-course approach with a population consisting of 66 194 individuals from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS) to investigate the association between green and blue space (e.g. parks and lakes) and self-evaluated mental well-being. Green and blue space was identified from remotely-sensed images from the Landsat program, while mental well-being was based on the mental component score (MCS) calculated using the 12-item short form health survey. We use multivariate linear regression models and logistic regression models to quantify the associations. We adjust for additional environmental (urbanization, and air pollution) and lifestyle factors (smoking, body mass index, socioeconomic status, and physical activity) and specifically evaluate the role of physical activity and air pollution as possible mediating factors. We found a positive association between the MCS and current and childhood green space, and a non-significant association for current and childhood blue space. Adjusting for environmental and the other factors attenuated the effect sizes indicating that a broad range of factors determine mental well-being. Physical activity and air pollution were both associated with the MCS as possible mediators of green space associations. In addition, the odds for successfully completing tasks', seeing others, and feeling less downhearted increased with higher levels of green space, and the odds of feeling calm increased with higher levels of blue space. In conclusion, we found support for an association between green and, to less degree, blue space and mental well-being throughout different life stages. In addition, we found a positive association with individual indicators of mental well-being such as being productive, feeling less downhearted and calmer, and being social. The healthy blood donor effect and the bias towards urban residency may explain why we found smaller effect sizes between green and blue space and mental well-being for this generally healthy and resourceful cohort compared to previous studies.

3.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a well-known marker of type-2 inflammation. FeNO is elevated in asthma and allergic rhinitis, with IgE sensitization as a major determinant. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to see whether there was an independent association between upper airway inflammatory disorders (UAID) and FeNO, after adjustment for asthma and sensitization, in a multi-centre population-based study. METHODS: A total of 741 subjects with current asthma and 4155 non-asthmatic subjects participating in the second follow-up of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS III) underwent FeNO measurements. Sensitization status was based on measurement of IgE against airborne allergens; information on asthma, UAID and medication was collected through interview-led questionnaires. Independent associations between UAID and FeNO were assessed in adjusted multivariate regression models and test for interaction with perennial sensitization and asthma on the relation between UAID and FeNO were made. RESULTS: UAID were associated with higher FeNO after adjusting for perennial sensitization, asthma and other confounders: with 4.4 (0.9-7.9) % higher FeNO in relation to current rhinitis and 4.8 (0.7-9.2) % higher FeNO in relation to rhinoconjunctivitis. A significant interaction with perennial sensitization was found in the relationship between current rhinitis and FeNO (p = .03) and between rhinoconjunctivitis and FeNO (p = .03). After stratification by asthma and perennial sensitization, the association between current rhinitis and FeNO remained in non-asthmatic subjects with perennial sensitization, with 12.1 (0.2-25.5) % higher FeNO in subjects with current rhinitis than in those without. CONCLUSIONS & CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Current rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis was associated with higher FeNO, with an interaction with perennial sensitization. This further highlights the concept of united airway disease, with correlations between symptoms and inflammation in the upper and lower airways and that sensitization needs to be accounted for in the relation between FeNO and rhinitis.

4.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(9): e620-e632, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, but evidence is unclear on the health effects of exposure to pollutant concentrations lower than current EU and US standards and WHO guideline limits. Within the multicentre study Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE), we investigated the associations of long-term exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2·5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon, and warm-season ozone (O3) with the incidence of stroke and acute coronary heart disease. METHODS: We did a pooled analysis of individual data from six population-based cohort studies within ELAPSE, from Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Germany (recruited 1992-2004), and harmonised individual and area-level variables between cohorts. Participants (all adults) were followed up until migration from the study area, death, or incident stroke or coronary heart disease, or end of follow-up (2011-15). Mean 2010 air pollution concentrations from centrally developed European-wide land use regression models were assigned to participants' baseline residential addresses. We used Cox proportional hazards models with increasing levels of covariate adjustment to investigate the association of air pollution exposure with incidence of stroke and coronary heart disease. We assessed the shape of the concentration-response function and did subset analyses of participants living at pollutant concentrations lower than predefined values. FINDINGS: From the pooled ELAPSE cohorts, data on 137 148 participants were analysed in our fully adjusted model. During a median follow-up of 17·2 years (IQR 13·8-19·5), we observed 6950 incident events of stroke and 10 071 incident events of coronary heart disease. Incidence of stroke was associated with PM2·5 (hazard ratio 1·10 [95% CI 1·01-1·21] per 5 µg/m3 increase), NO2 (1·08 [1·04-1·12] per 10 µg/m3 increase), and black carbon (1·06 [1·02-1·10] per 0·5 10-5/m increase), whereas coronary heart disease incidence was only associated with NO2 (1·04 [1·01-1·07]). Warm-season O3 was not associated with an increase in either outcome. Concentration-response curves indicated no evidence of a threshold below which air pollutant concentrations are not harmful for cardiovascular health. Effect estimates for PM2·5 and NO2 remained elevated even when restricting analyses to participants exposed to pollutant concentrations lower than the EU limit values of 25 µg/m3 for PM2·5 and 40 µg/m3 for NO2. INTERPRETATION: Long-term air pollution exposure was associated with incidence of stroke and coronary heart disease, even at pollutant concentrations lower than current limit values. FUNDING: Health Effects Institute.

5.
BMJ ; 374: n1904, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between air pollution and mortality, focusing on associations below current European Union, United States, and World Health Organization standards and guidelines. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of eight cohorts. SETTING: Multicentre project Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE) in six European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 325 367 adults from the general population recruited mostly in the 1990s or 2000s with detailed lifestyle data. Stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyse the associations between air pollution and mortality. Western Europe-wide land use regression models were used to characterise residential air pollution concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and black carbon. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Deaths due to natural causes and cause specific mortality. RESULTS: Of 325 367 adults followed-up for an average of 19.5 years, 47 131 deaths were observed. Higher exposure to PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon was associated with significantly increased risk of almost all outcomes. An increase of 5 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with 13% (95% confidence interval 10.6% to 15.5%) increase in natural deaths; the corresponding figure for a 10 µg/m3 increase in nitrogen dioxide was 8.6% (7% to 10.2%). Associations with PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon remained significant at low concentrations. For participants with exposures below the US standard of 12 µg/m3 an increase of 5 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with 29.6% (14% to 47.4%) increase in natural deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our study contributes to the evidence that outdoor air pollution is associated with mortality even at low pollution levels below the current European and North American standards and WHO guideline values. These findings are therefore an important contribution to the debate about revision of air quality limits, guidelines, and standards, and future assessments by the Global Burden of Disease.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
6.
Environ Int ; 157: 106825, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Agricultural work can expose workers to potentially hazardous agents including known and suspected carcinogens. This study aimed to evaluate cancer incidence in male and female agricultural workers in an international consortium, AGRICOH, relative to their respective general populations. METHODS: The analysis included eight cohorts that were linked to their respective cancer registries: France (AGRICAN: n = 128,101), the US (AHS: n = 51,165, MESA: n = 2,177), Norway (CNAP: n = 43,834), Australia (2 cohorts combined, Australian Pesticide Exposed Workers: n = 12,215 and Victorian Grain Farmers: n = 919), Republic of Korea (KMCC: n = 8,432), and Denmark (SUS: n = 1,899). For various cancer sites and all cancers combined, standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each cohort using national or regional rates as reference rates and were combined by random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: During nearly 2,800,000 person-years, a total of 23,188 cancers were observed. Elevated risks were observed for melanoma of the skin (number of cohorts = 3, meta-SIR = 1.18, CI: 1.01-1.38) and multiple myeloma (n = 4, meta-SIR = 1.27, CI: 1.04-1.54) in women and prostate cancer (n = 6, meta-SIR = 1.06, CI: 1.01-1.12), compared to the general population. In contrast, a deficit was observed for the incidence of several cancers, including cancers of the bladder, breast (female), colorectum, esophagus, larynx, lung, and pancreas and all cancers combined (n = 7, meta-SIR for all cancers combined = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.77-0.90). The direction of risk was largely consistent across cohorts although we observed large between-cohort variations in SIR for cancers of the liver and lung in men and women, and stomach, colorectum, and skin in men. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that agricultural workers have a lower risk of various cancers and an elevated risk of prostate cancer, multiple myeloma (female), and melanoma of skin (female) compared to the general population. Those differences and the between-cohort variations may be due to underlying differences in risk factors and warrant further investigation of agricultural exposures.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Exposição Ocupacional , Neoplasias da Próstata , Austrália , Estudos de Coortes , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
7.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 68: 126828, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trace elements have been suggested to have neurotoxic effects and increase the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, but studies of a potential role of trace elements in relation to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are very limited. The objective of this study was to conduct an exploratory analysis investigating the associations between 17 geogenic trace elements (Ba, Co, Eu, I, Li, Mo, Rb, Re, Rh, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sr, Ti, U and Y) found in Danish drinking water and the risk of developing ADHD. METHODS: In this cohort study, 284,309 individuals, born 1994-2007, were followed for incidence of ADHD from the age of five until the end of study, December 31, 2016. We conducted survival analyses, using Poisson regression to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) in three different confounder adjustment scenarios. RESULTS: In a model including adjustments for age, sex, calendar year, parental socio-economic status, neighborhood level socio-economic status and parental psychiatric illness, we found that six of the 17 trace elements (Sr, Rb, Rh, Ti, Sb and Re) were associated with an increased risk of ADHD, whereas two (Ba and I) were inversely associated with ADHD. However, when including region as a covariate in the model, most trace elements were no longer associated with ADHD or the association changed direction. Four trace elements (I, Li, Rb, and Y) remained significantly associated with ADHD but in an inverse direction and for three of these (I, Li and Y), we found significant interactions with region in their association with ADHD. CONCLUSION: The trace elements under investigation, at levels found in Danish drinking water, do not seem to contribute to the development of ADHD and our findings highlight the importance of examining consistency of associations across geographic areas.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 149(11): 1887-1897, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278567

RESUMO

Particulate matter air pollution and diesel engine exhaust have been classified as carcinogenic for lung cancer, yet few studies have explored associations with liver cancer. We used six European adult cohorts which were recruited between 1985 and 2005, pooled within the "Effects of low-level air pollution: A study in Europe" (ELAPSE) project, and followed for the incidence of liver cancer until 2011 to 2015. The annual average exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), particulate matter with diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5 ), black carbon (BC), warm-season ozone (O3 ), and eight elemental components of PM2.5 (copper, iron, zinc, sulfur, nickel, vanadium, silicon, and potassium) were estimated by European-wide hybrid land-use regression models at participants' residential addresses. We analyzed the association between air pollution and liver cancer incidence by Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for potential confounders. Of 330 064 cancer-free adults at baseline, 512 developed liver cancer during a mean follow-up of 18.1 years. We observed positive linear associations between NO2 (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.02-1.35 per 10 µg/m3 ), PM2.5 (1.12, 0.92-1.36 per 5 µg/m3 ), and BC (1.15, 1.00-1.33 per 0.5 10-5 /m) and liver cancer incidence. Associations with NO2 and BC persisted in two-pollutant models with PM2.5 . Most components of PM2.5 were associated with the risk of liver cancer, with the strongest associations for sulfur and vanadium, which were robust to adjustment for PM2.5 or NO2 . Our study suggests that ambient air pollution may increase the risk of liver cancer, even at concentrations below current EU standards.

9.
Trials ; 22(1): 474, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and the commonest of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Nepal. Risk factors like indoor and outdoor air pollution, a high prevalence of smoking, and the lack of awareness of COPD make it a serious public health concern. However, no attempt has been made in Nepal to estimate its burden and address the disease at the community level. METHOD: This study aims to evaluate the effect of a community-based health educational intervention administered by Female Community Health Volunteers (FCHVs) on the prevention and management of COPD. An open-label, two-group, community-based, cluster-randomized controlled trial will be implemented in the semi-urban area of Pokhara Metropolitan city (former Lekhnath Municipality) located in the Kaski district of Nepal. The estimated sample size of the intervention will be 1143. The unit of randomization is the ward (administrative unit) of the study area. The follow-up survey will be conducted immediately after 12 months of FCHVs-led interventions. The difference in the rate of decline of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio are the primary outcomes and the change in the proportion of modifiable risk factors of COPD, health-related quality of life scores, and change in knowledge of COPD will be secondary outcomes. DISCUSSION: This study will estimate the burden of COPD, the magnitude of risk factors and generate evidence to mobilize community health workers for COPD prevention and management at the community level in Nepal. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03797768 . Registered on January 9, 2019.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Qualidade de Vida , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Nepal , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Voluntários
10.
Indoor Air ; 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235780

RESUMO

Particulate matter is linked to adverse health effects, however, little is known about health effects of particles emitted from typical indoor sources. We examined acute health effects of short-term exposure to emissions from cooking and candles among asthmatics. In a randomized controlled double-blinded crossover study, 36 young non-smoking asthmatics attended three exposure sessions lasting 5 h: (a) air mixed with emissions from cooking (fine particle mass concentration): (PM2.5 : 96.1 µg/m3 ), (b) air mixed with emissions from candles (PM2.5 : 89.8 µg/m3 ), and c) clean filtered air (PM2.5 : 5.8 µg/m3 ). Health effects (spirometry, fractional exhaled Nitric Oxide [FeNO], nasal volume and self-reported symptoms) were evaluated before exposure start, then 5 and 24 h after. During exposures volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particle size distributions, number concentrations and optical properties were measured. Generally, no statistically significant changes were observed in spirometry, FeNO, or nasal volume comparing cooking and candle exposures to clean air. In males, nasal volume and FeNO decreased after exposure to cooking and candles, respectively. Participants reported additional and more pronounced symptoms during exposure to cooking and candles compared to clean air. The results indicate that emissions from cooking and candles exert mild inflammation in asthmatic males and decrease comfort among asthmatic males and females.

11.
Ann Work Expo Health ; 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087944

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Occupational exposure to wood dust can cause respiratory diseases, but few studies have evaluated the impact of declining exposure on health outcome. This study aimed to investigate whether a decline in wood dust exposure between two cross sectional studies performed in 1997-1998 and 2003-2004 was related to the prevalences of respiratory symptoms among woodworkers in a well-defined geographical area. METHODS: Two thousand and thirty-two woodworkers from 54 plants in study 1 and 1889 woodworkers from 52 plants in study 2 returned a questionnaire on respiratory diseases and symptoms, employment and smoking habits. Current individual wood dust exposure level was assessed from 2 study specific job exposure matrix's based on task, factory size and personal passive dust measurements (2217 in study 1 and 1355 in study 2). RESULTS: The median (range) of inhalable dust was 1.0 mg/m3 (0.2-9.8), 0.6 mg/m3 (0.1-4.6) in study 1 and study 2, respectively. In study 2, the prevalence's of self-reported asthma was higher and the prevalence's of respiratory symptoms were lower compared to study 1. In adjusted logistic regression analyses using GEE methodology to account for clustering, dust exposure level could explain the differences in prevalence of coughing, chronic bronchitis and nasal symptoms between study 1 and study 2, while no effect was found for asthma. CONCLUSIONS: A 40% decline in wood dust exposure in a 6 year period may serve as an explanation for the decline in most respiratory symptoms, but do not seems to impact the prevalence of self-reported asthma.

12.
Clin Chim Acta ; 520: 139-146, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Allergic rhinitis (AR), allergic conjunctivitis (AC), and asthma are characterized by activation of the immune system. The aim of this study was to explore the long-term association between AR, AC, asthma, and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and blood platelet and leukocyte differential counts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the Danish Blood Donor Study, 14,440 participants from Central Denmark Region had platelet and leukocyte differential counts available and completed a questionnaire regarding AR, AC, and asthma. Of these participants, 8485 were tested for IgE to inhalation allergens. RESULTS: The prevalence of AR, AC, asthma, and IgE sensitization was 19%, 15%, 9%, and 29%, respectively. AR, AC, asthma, wheeze, and IgE sensitization was associated with increased blood eosinophil concentration even in IgE sensitized participants who did not report any allergy or asthma. The strongest associations were observed for participants with current disease. We found no differences in eosinophil concentration between months without symptoms and months with symptoms of AR and asthma. CONCLUSION: AR, AC, asthma, wheezing, and IgE sensitization to inhalation allergens are associated with increased eosinophil concentration. This may reflect a persistent inflammation even in periods without symptomatic disease.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Imediata , Rinite Alérgica , Alérgenos , Doadores de Sangue , Eosinófilos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina E
13.
Eur Respir J ; 57(6)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been linked to childhood-onset asthma, although evidence is still insufficient. Within the multicentre project Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE), we examined the associations of long-term exposures to particulate matter with a diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and black carbon (BC) with asthma incidence in adults. METHODS: We pooled data from three cohorts in Denmark and Sweden with information on asthma hospital diagnoses. The average concentrations of air pollutants in 2010 were modelled by hybrid land-use regression models at participants' baseline residential addresses. Associations of air pollution exposures with asthma incidence were explored with Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Of 98 326 participants, 1965 developed asthma during a mean follow-up of 16.6 years. We observed associations in fully adjusted models with hazard ratios of 1.22 (95% CI 1.04-1.43) per 5 µg·m-3 for PM2.5, 1.17 (95% CI 1.10-1.25) per 10 µg·m-3 for NO2 and 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23) per 0.5×10-5 m-1 for BC. Hazard ratios were larger in cohort subsets with exposure levels below the European Union and US limit values and possibly World Health Organization guidelines for PM2.5 and NO2. NO2 and BC estimates remained unchanged in two-pollutant models with PM2.5, whereas PM2.5 estimates were attenuated to unity. The concentration-response curves showed no evidence of a threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to air pollution, especially from fossil fuel combustion sources such as motorised traffic, was associated with adult-onset asthma, even at levels below the current limit values.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Incidência , Material Particulado/análise , Suécia
14.
COPD ; 18(3): 349-356, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970728

RESUMO

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Nepal. It is a progressive lung disease and has a significant impact on the quality of life of patients. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) reflects the health- and disease-related facets of quality of life. Limited studies have assessed the impact of COPD on HRQOL and associated factors in Nepal. This study is based on a cross-sectional household survey data from a semiurban area of Western Nepal. A validated Nepali version of St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) was used to measure the HRQOL. COPD was defined together with post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction and the presence of respiratory symptoms. Post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction was defined as Forced Expiratory Volume in 1st second (FEV1) to Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) ratio < 0.70. COPD was diagnosed in 122 participants, and their median (IQR) total score of HRQOL was 40 (26 - 69); the score of symptoms, activity, and impact area were 53 (37 - 74), 57 (36 - 86), and 26 (13 - 62), respectively. The overall HRQOL was significantly different in terms of age, occupational status, physical activity, and comorbidities. Disease severity and the presence of respiratory symptoms had a significant difference in HRQOL (p = 0.0001). Appropriate measures to improve conditions and addressing the associated factors like respiratory symptoms and enhancing physical activity are necessary and important.

15.
Environ Int ; 155: 106613, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence that nitrate, a common contaminant in drinking water, increases the risk of childhood cancers. Our objective was to examine this association in Denmark. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide case-control study based on all singletons liveborn to Danish-born parents from 1991 to 2015 (N = 1,219,140) that included 596 leukemias, 180 lymphomas, and 310 central nervous system cancers (CNC) who were ≤15 years of age at diagnosis and were identified from the Danish Cancer Registry. Approximately 100 controls were randomly selected and matched to each case on date of birth and sex. Nitrate measurements in public water systems were linked with an address registry to estimate individual average nitrate concentrations during preconception, prenatal, and postnatal periods. Odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression controlling for the matching variables, and birth order, birthweight, urbanicity, maternal education, employment, income and smoking, and parental age. RESULTS: There was no evidence of an association of nitrate with leukemia or lymphoma. An association between CNC and the highest category of nitrate exposure (>25 mg/L nitrate) was observed for preconception (OR = 1.82, 95%CI:1.09 to 3.04), prenatal (OR = 1.65, 95%CI:0.97 to 2.81), and postnatal exposure (OR = 1.48, 95%CI:0.82 to 2.68) in fully adjusted models. There was also some evidence of an exposure-response in models of continuous nitrate exposure and CNC. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide some evidence that exposure to nitrate from drinking water may increase the risk of childhood CNC cancer, but not leukemia or lymphoma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central , Água Potável , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Água Potável/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Nitratos/análise , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
16.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While air pollution has been linked to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), evidence on the role of environmental noise is just emerging. We examined the associations of long-term exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise with COPD incidence. METHODS: We defined COPD incidence for 24 538 female nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort (age>44 years) as the first hospital contact between baseline (1993 or 1999) and 2015. We estimated residential annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with diameter<2.5 µm (PM2.5) since 1990 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) since 1970 by the Danish DEHM/UBM/AirGIS modeling system, and road traffic noise (Lden) since 1970 by the Nord2000 model. Time-varying Cox regression models were applied to assess the associations of air pollution and road traffic noise with COPD incidence. RESULTS: 977 nurses developed COPD during 18.6 years' mean follow-up. We observed associations with COPD for all three exposures with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 1.19 (1.01, 1.41) per 6.26 µg·m-3 for PM2.5, 1.13 (1.05, 1.20) per 8.19 µg·m-3 for NO2, and 1.15 (1.06, 1.25) per 10 dB for Lden. Associations with NO2 and Lden attenuated slightly after mutual adjustment, but were robust to adjustment for PM2.5. Associations with PM2.5 were attenuated to null after adjustment for either NO2 or Lden. No potential interaction effect was observed between air pollutants and noise. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to air pollution, especially traffic-related NO2, and road traffic noise were independently associated with COPD.

17.
Respir Med ; 184: 106399, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about how the spirometric definition of airway obstruction affects the association between COPD and comorbidities and whether these associations might be due to genetic predisposition. AIM: 1) To examine the impact of the spirometric definition on the associations between COPD and its comorbidities and 2) To examine whether these associations can be explained by shared genetic or environmental factors. METHODS: 11,458 twins, aged 40-80 years, from the Danish Twin Registry were recruited who completed a questionnaire on medical history, life style factors and had a clinical examination. COPD was defined by respiratory symptoms (RS) plus airway obstruction according to either GOLD (FR-COPD) or ERS/ATS guidelines (LLN-COPD). Self-reported physician diagnoses were used to identify comorbidities. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 58.4 years ±SD 9.7, mean BMI was 26.6 kg/m2 ± SD 4.4, 52% were female and the prevalence of LLN2.5-COPD and FR-COPD was 2.5% and 6.3%, respectively. Among eight major comorbidities, multivariate logistic regression showed COPD was only associated with heart failure, whereas RS alone were associated with 6 out of 8 comorbidities after Bonferroni-correction. There was an increased risk of heart failure, ischemic heart disease, depression and pulmonary embolism in twin individuals with RS compared with the co-twin without RS. CONCLUSIONS: COPD was only associated with an increased risk of heart failure. Discordant COPD-individuals (FR-COPD+/LLN5-COPD-) were at increased risk of heart failure. Sub-analyses showed that RS, but not airway obstruction were associated with an increased risk of comorbidities.

18.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(4): 47009, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inconsistent associations between long-term exposure to particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm [fine particulate matter (PM2.5)] components and mortality have been reported, partly related to challenges in exposure assessment. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the associations between long-term exposure to PM2.5 elemental components and mortality in a large pooled European cohort; to compare health effects of PM2.5 components estimated with two exposure modeling approaches, namely, supervised linear regression (SLR) and random forest (RF) algorithms. METHODS: We pooled data from eight European cohorts with 323,782 participants, average age 49 y at baseline (1985-2005). Residential exposure to 2010 annual average concentration of eight PM2.5 components [copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), nickel (Ni), sulfur (S), silicon (Si), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)] was estimated with Europe-wide SLR and RF models at a 100×100 m scale. We applied Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the associations between components and natural and cause-specific mortality. In addition, two-pollutant analyses were conducted by adjusting each component for PM2.5 mass and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) separately. RESULTS: We observed 46,640 natural-cause deaths with 6,317,235 person-years and an average follow-up of 19.5 y. All SLR-modeled components were statistically significantly associated with natural-cause mortality in single-pollutant models with hazard ratios (HRs) from 1.05 to 1.27. Similar HRs were observed for RF-modeled Cu, Fe, K, S, V, and Zn with wider confidence intervals (CIs). HRs for SLR-modeled Ni, S, Si, V, and Zn remained above unity and (almost) significant after adjustment for both PM2.5 and NO2. HRs only remained (almost) significant for RF-modeled K and V in two-pollutant models. The HRs for V were 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.05) and 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.10) for SLR- and RF-modeled exposures, respectively, per 2 ng/m3, adjusting for PM2.5 mass. Associations with cause-specific mortality were less consistent in two-pollutant models. CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to V in PM2.5 was most consistently associated with increased mortality. Associations for the other components were weaker for exposure modeled with RF than SLR in two-pollutant models. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8368.

19.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 11(1): e12013, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis (AR), allergic conjunctivitis (AC), and asthma composing multiple phenotypes and improved understanding of these phenotypes and their respective risk factors are needed. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to define the prevalence of AR, AC, and asthma and their association with allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) sensitization in a large cohort of blood donors and identify risk factors. METHODS: From the nationwide population-based Danish Blood Donor Study, 52,976 participants completed an electronic questionnaire including AR, AC, asthma, allergic predisposition, and childhood residence. Of these, 25,257 were additionally tested for sIgE to inhalation allergens (Phadiatop). RESULTS: The prevalence of sIgE sensitization, AR, AC, and asthma was 30%, 19%, 15%, and 9%, respectively. The youngest birth cohorts had the highest prevalence of sIgE sensitization and symptoms of asthma, AR, and AC, and for asthma, they apparently experienced symptoms at an earlier age. The sIgE sensitization was positively associated with male sex. The sIgE seroprevalence was higher in participants with both AR and AC (ARC) than in participants with either AR or AC. Allergic predisposition and sIgE sensitization increased the risk of the diseases, while farm upbringing was associated with reduced prevalence of ARC, however, only in sIgE sensitized participants. CONCLUSION: Birth year, childhood residence, sIgE sensitization, and allergic predisposition were associated with asthma, AR, and AC prevalence. Individuals with self-reported ARC represent a primarily sIgE-positive phenotype, while those with either AR or AC represent more diverse phenotypes.

20.
Environ Int ; 152: 106464, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution is likely a risk factor for asthma, and recent evidence suggests the possible relevance of road traffic noise. OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations of long-term exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise with adult-asthma incidence. METHODS: We followed 28,731 female nurses (age > 44 years) from the Danish Nurse Cohort, recruited in 1993 and 1999, for first hospital contact for asthma from 1977 until 2015. We estimated residential annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5) since 1990 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) since 1970 with the Danish DEHM/UBM/AirGIS modeling system, and road traffic noise (Lden) since 1970 with the Nord2000 model. Time-varying Cox regression models were used to associate air pollution and road traffic noise exposure with asthma incidence. RESULTS: During 18.6 years' mean follow-up, 528 out of 23,093 participants had hospital contact for asthma. The hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for asthma incidence associated with 3-year moving average exposures were 1.29 (1.03, 1.61) per 6.3 µg/m3 for PM2.5, 1.16 (1.07, 1.27) per 8.2 µg/m3 for NO2, and 1.12 (1.00, 1.25) per 10 dB for Lden. The HR for NO2 remained unchanged after adjustment for either PM2.5 or Lden, while the HRs for PM2.5 and Lden attenuated to unity after adjustment for NO2. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to air pollution was associated with adult-asthma incidence independently of road traffic noise, with NO2 most relevant. Road traffic noise was not independently associated with adult-asthma incidence.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Ruído dos Transportes , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
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