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1.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337882

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants affecting MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 cause Lynch syndrome and result in different but imprecisely known cancer risks. This study aimed to provide age and organ-specific cancer risks according to gene and gender and to determine survival after cancer. METHODS: We conducted an international, multicenter prospective observational study using independent test and validation cohorts of carriers of class 4 or class 5 variants. After validation the cohorts were merged providing 6350 participants and 51,646 follow-up years. RESULTS: There were 1808 prospectively observed cancers. Pathogenic MLH1 and MSH2 variants caused high penetrance dominant cancer syndromes sharing similar colorectal, endometrial, and ovarian cancer risks, but older MSH2 carriers had higher risk of cancers of the upper urinary tract, upper gastrointestinal tract, brain, and particularly prostate. Pathogenic MSH6 variants caused a sex-limited trait with high endometrial cancer risk but only modestly increased colorectal cancer risk in both genders. We did not demonstrate a significantly increased cancer risk in carriers of pathogenic PMS2 variants. Ten-year crude survival was over 80% following colon, endometrial, or ovarian cancer. CONCLUSION: Management guidelines for Lynch syndrome may require revision in light of these different gene and gender-specific risks and the good prognosis for the most commonly associated cancers.

2.
Cancer Cell ; 35(2): 256-266.e5, 2019 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753826

RESUMO

Biallelic germline mutations affecting NTHL1 predispose carriers to adenomatous polyposis and colorectal cancer, but the complete phenotype is unknown. We describe 29 individuals carrying biallelic germline NTHL1 mutations from 17 families, of which 26 developed one (n = 10) or multiple (n = 16) malignancies in 14 different tissues. An unexpected high breast cancer incidence was observed in female carriers (60%). Mutational signature analysis of 14 tumors from 7 organs revealed that NTHL1 deficiency underlies the main mutational process in all but one of the tumors (93%). These results reveal NTHL1 as a multi-tumor predisposition gene with a high lifetime risk for extracolonic cancers and a typical mutational signature observed across tumor types, which can assist in the recognition of this syndrome.

3.
Genet Med ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504929

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To enhance classification of variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes in the cancer predisposition Lynch syndrome, we developed the cell-free in vitro MMR activity (CIMRA) assay. Here, we calibrate and validate the assay, enabling its integration with in silico and clinical data. METHODS: Two sets of previously classified MLH1 and MSH2 variants were selected from a curated MMR gene database, and their biochemical activity determined by the CIMRA assay. The assay was calibrated by regression analysis followed by symmetric cross-validation and Bayesian integration with in silico predictions of pathogenicity. CIMRA assay reproducibility was assessed in four laboratories. RESULTS: Concordance between the training runs met our prespecified validation criterion. The CIMRA assay alone correctly classified 65% of variants, with only 3% discordant classification. Bayesian integration with in silico predictions of pathogenicity increased the proportion of correctly classified variants to 87%, without changing the discordance rate. Interlaboratory results were highly reproducible. CONCLUSION: The CIMRA assay accurately predicts pathogenic and benign MMR gene variants. Quantitative combination of assay results with in silico analysis correctly classified the majority of variants. Using this calibration, CIMRA assay results can be integrated into the diagnostic algorithm for MMR gene variants.

4.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 19(1): 531, 2018 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30558531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various algorithms have been developed to predict fetal trisomies using cell-free DNA in non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). As basis for prediction, a control group of non-trisomy samples is needed. Prediction accuracy is dependent on the characteristics of this group and can be improved by reducing variability between samples and by ensuring the control group is representative for the sample analyzed. RESULTS: NIPTeR is an open-source R Package that enables fast NIPT analysis and simple but flexible workflow creation, including variation reduction, trisomy prediction algorithms and quality control. This broad range of functions allows users to account for variability in NIPT data, calculate control group statistics and predict the presence of trisomies. CONCLUSION: NIPTeR supports laboratories processing next-generation sequencing data for NIPT in assessing data quality and determining whether a fetal trisomy is present. NIPTeR is available under the GNU LGPL v3 license and can be freely downloaded from https://github.com/molgenis/NIPTeR or CRAN.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Trissomia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Testes para Triagem do Soro Materno , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez
6.
Patient Educ Couns ; 101(9): 1611-1619, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29789176

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In hereditary and familial cancer, counselees are requested to inform their at-risk relatives. We developed an intervention to support counselees in this task. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted aimed at improving cancer genetic counselees' i) knowledge, ii) motivation to disclose information, and ii) self-efficacy in this regard. Eligible participants were randomized to telephonic counseling (n = 148), or standard care (n = 157) and assessed at baseline, 1 week post-intervention, and 4 months after study enrolment. RESULTS: No between-group differences were found in participants' knowledge, motivation, and self-efficacy. Knowledge concerning which second-degree relatives to inform was lower compared to first-degree relatives. About 60% of the participants was of the opinion that they needed to inform more relatives than stated in their summary letter and only about 50% were correctly aware of which information to disclose. Of note, at baseline, almost 80% of the participants had already correctly informed their at-risk relatives. CONCLUSIONS: Since, unexpectedly, counselees already informed most of their relatives before the intervention was offered, efficacy of the intervention could not convincingly be determined. Counselees' knowledge about whom to inform about what is suboptimal. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Future interventions should target a more homogeneous sample and address counselees' understanding and recall.

7.
Clin Chem ; 64(7): 1096-1103, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29794109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over 500 translocations have been identified in acute leukemia. To detect them, most diagnostic laboratories use karyotyping, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and reverse transcription PCR. Targeted locus amplification (TLA), a technique using next-generation sequencing, now allows detection of the translocation partner of a specific gene, regardless of its chromosomal origin. We present a TLA multiplex assay as a potential first-tier screening test for detecting translocations in leukemia diagnostics. METHODS: The panel includes 17 genes involved in many translocations present in acute leukemias. Procedures were optimized by using a training set of cell line dilutions and 17 leukemia patient bone marrow samples and validated by using a test set of cell line dilutions and a further 19 patient bone marrow samples. Per gene, we determined if its region was involved in a translocation and, if so, the translocation partner. To balance sensitivity and specificity, we introduced a gray zone showing indeterminate translocation calls needing confirmation. We benchmarked our method against results from the 3 standard diagnostic tests. RESULTS: In patient samples passing QC, we achieved a concordance with benchmarking tests of 81% in the training set and 100% in the test set, after confirmation of 4 and nullification of 3 gray zone calls (in total). In cell line dilutions, we detected translocations in 10% aberrant cells at several genetic loci. CONCLUSIONS: Multiplex TLA shows promising results as an acute leukemia screening test. It can detect cryptic and other translocations in selected genes. Further optimization may make this assay suitable for diagnostic use.

9.
J Med Genet ; 55(10): 669-674, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In approximately 10% of all gastric cancer (GC) cases, a heritable cause is suspected. A subset of these cases have a causative germline CDH1 mutation; however, in most cases the cause remains unknown. Our objective was to assess to what extent these remaining cases may be explained by germline mutations in the novel candidate GC predisposing genes CTNNA1, MAP3K6 or MYD88. METHODS: We sequenced a large cohort of unexplained young and/or familial patients with GC (n=286) without a CDH1germline mutation for germline variants affecting CTNNA1, MAP3K6 and MYD88 using a targeted next-generation sequencing approach based on single-molecule molecular inversion probes. RESULTS: Predicted deleterious germline variants were not encountered in MYD88, but recurrently observed in CTNNA1 (n=2) and MAP3K6 (n=3) in our cohort of patients with GC. In contrast to deleterious variants in CTNNA1, deleterious variants in MAP3K6 also occur frequently in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our results MAP3K6 should no longer be considered a GC predisposition gene, whereas deleterious CTNNA1 variants are confirmed as an infrequent cause of GC susceptibility. Biallelic MYD88 germline mutations are at most a very rare cause of GC susceptibility as no additional cases were identified.

10.
Gut ; 67(7): 1306-1316, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28754778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most patients with path_MMR gene variants (Lynch syndrome (LS)) now survive both their first and subsequent cancers, resulting in a growing number of older patients with LS for whom limited information exists with respect to cancer risk and survival. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: This observational, international, multicentre study aimed to determine prospectively observed incidences of cancers and survival in path_MMR carriers up to 75 years of age. RESULTS: 3119 patients were followed for a total of 24 475 years. Cumulative incidences at 75 years (risks) for colorectal cancer were 46%, 43% and 15% in path_MLH1, path_MSH2 and path_MSH6 carriers; for endometrial cancer 43%, 57% and 46%; for ovarian cancer 10%, 17% and 13%; for upper gastrointestinal (gastric, duodenal, bile duct or pancreatic) cancers 21%, 10% and 7%; for urinary tract cancers 8%, 25% and 11%; for prostate cancer 17%, 32% and 18%; and for brain tumours 1%, 5% and 1%, respectively. Ovarian cancer occurred mainly premenopausally. By contrast, upper gastrointestinal, urinary tract and prostate cancers occurred predominantly at older ages. Overall 5-year survival for prostate cancer was 100%, urinary bladder 93%, ureter 85%, duodenum 67%, stomach 61%, bile duct 29%, brain 22% and pancreas 0%. Path_PMS2 carriers had lower risk for cancer. CONCLUSION: Carriers of different path_MMR variants exhibit distinct patterns of cancer risk and survival as they age. Risk estimates for counselling and planning of surveillance and treatment should be tailored to each patient's age, gender and path_MMR variant. We have updated our open-access website www.lscarisk.org to facilitate this.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Urogenitais/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(11): 1246-1252, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28875981

RESUMO

Recognition of individuals with a genetic predisposition to gastric cancer (GC) enables preventive measures. However, the underlying cause of genetic susceptibility to gastric cancer remains largely unexplained. We performed germline whole-exome sequencing on leukocyte DNA of 54 patients from 53 families with genetically unexplained diffuse-type and intestinal-type GC to identify novel GC-predisposing candidate genes. As young age at diagnosis and familial clustering are hallmarks of genetic tumor susceptibility, we selected patients that were diagnosed below the age of 35, patients from families with two cases of GC at or below age 60 and patients from families with three GC cases at or below age 70. All included individuals were tested negative for germline CDH1 mutations before or during the study. Variants that were possibly deleterious according to in silico predictions were filtered using several independent approaches that were based on gene function and gene mutation burden in controls. Despite a rigorous search, no obvious candidate GC predisposition genes were identified. This negative result stresses the importance of future research studies in large, homogeneous cohorts.


Assuntos
Exoma , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos CD , Caderinas/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico
12.
Br J Cancer ; 117(6): 1215-1223, 2017 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28742792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A substantial fraction of familial colorectal cancer (CRC) and polyposis heritability remains unexplained. This study aimed to identify predisposing loci in patients with these disorders. METHODS: Homozygosity mapping was performed using 222 563 SNPs in 302 index patients with various colorectal neoplasms and 3367 controls. Linkage analysis, exome and whole-genome sequencing were performed in a family affected by microsatellite stable CRCs. Candidate variants were genotyped in 10 554 cases and 21 480 controls. Gene expression was assessed at the mRNA and protein level. RESULTS: Homozygosity mapping revealed a disease-associated region at 1q32.3 which was part of the linkage region 1q32.2-42.2 identified in the CRC family. This includes a region previously associated with risk of CRC. Sequencing identified the p.Asp1432Glu variant in the MIA3 gene (known as TANGO1 or TANGO) and 472 additional rare, shared variants within the linkage region. In both cases and controls the population frequency was 0.02% for this MIA3 variant. The MIA3 mutant allele showed predominant mRNA expression in normal, cancer and precancerous tissues. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased expression of MIA3 in adenomatous tissues. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our two independent strategies associate genetic variations in chromosome 1q loci and predisposition to familial CRC and polyps, which warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Translocador Nuclear Receptor Aril Hidrocarboneto/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Translocador Nuclear Receptor Aril Hidrocarboneto/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/metabolismo , Ligação Genética , Genótipo , Homozigoto , Humanos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/genética , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
13.
Int J Med Inform ; 99: 45-52, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28118921

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess quality and reusability of coded cancer diagnoses in routine primary care data. To identify factors that influence data quality and areas for improvement. METHODS: A dynamic cohort study in a Dutch network database containing 250,000 anonymized electronic medical records (EMRs) from 52 general practices was performed. Coded data from 2000 to 2011 for the three most common cancer types (breast, colon and prostate cancer) was compared to the Netherlands Cancer Registry. MEASUREMENTS: Data quality is expressed in Standard Incidence Ratios (SIRs): the ratio between the number of coded cases observed in the primary care network database and the expected number of cases based on the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Ratios were multiplied by 100% for readability. RESULTS: The overall SIR was 91.5% (95%CI 88.5-94.5) and showed improvement over the years. SIRs differ between cancer types: from 71.5% for colon cancer in males to 103.9% for breast cancer. There are differences in data quality (SIRs 76.2% - 99.7%) depending on the EMR system used, with SIRs up to 232.9% for breast cancer. Frequently observed errors in routine healthcare data can be classified as: lack of integrity checks, inaccurate use and/or lack of codes, and lack of EMR system functionality. CONCLUSIONS: Re-users of coded routine primary care Electronic Medical Record data should be aware that 30% of cancer cases can be missed. Up to 130% of cancer cases found in the EMR data can be false-positive. The type of EMR system and the type of cancer influence the quality of coded diagnosis registry. While data quality can be improved (e.g. through improving system design and by training EMR system users), re-use should only be taken care of by appropriately trained experts.


Assuntos
Confiabilidade dos Dados , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto/normas , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Sistema de Registros/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adulto Jovem
14.
Genome Biol ; 18(1): 6, 2017 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28093075

RESUMO

We present Gene-Aware Variant INterpretation (GAVIN), a new method that accurately classifies variants for clinical diagnostic purposes. Classifications are based on gene-specific calibrations of allele frequencies from the ExAC database, likely variant impact using SnpEff, and estimated deleteriousness based on CADD scores for >3000 genes. In a benchmark on 18 clinical gene sets, we achieve a sensitivity of 91.4% and a specificity of 76.9%. This accuracy is unmatched by 12 other tools. We provide GAVIN as an online MOLGENIS service to annotate VCF files and as an open source executable for use in bioinformatic pipelines. It can be found at http://molgenis.org/gavin .


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Variação Genética , Software , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos
15.
Pancreas ; 46(1): 28-34, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27846136

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of cystic pancreatic lesions and their natural behavior in 2 distinct high-risk groups for developing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC): (1) carriers of a mutation that predisposes to PDAC and (2) individuals without a known gene mutation but with a family history of PDAC (familial pancreatic cancer [FPC]). METHODS: Pancreatic surveillance by annual magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasound was performed in individuals with an estimated lifetime risk of developing PDAC of 10% or greater. Progression of a lesion was defined as growth 4 mm or greater or the development of worrisome features. RESULTS: We included 186 individuals: 98 mutation carriers and 88 FPC individuals (mean follow-up, 51 months). Individuals with FPC were significantly more likely than mutation carriers to have a pancreatic cyst 10 mm or greater (16% vs 5%, P = 0.045). Pancreatic cysts detected in mutation carriers, however, were significantly more likely to progress than those in FPC individuals (16% vs 2%, P = 0.050). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that the prevalence and growth characteristics of pancreatic cysts differ between distinct high-risk groups: individuals with FPC have a higher prevalence of pancreatic cysts 10 mm or greater, whereas cysts in mutation carriers are more likely to progress. These observations may help to develop more optimally tailored surveillance strategies in specific high-risk populations.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Cisto Pancreático/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Cisto Pancreático/epidemiologia , Cisto Pancreático/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
BMJ Open ; 6(9): e012669, 2016 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27633642

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the quality of cancer registry in primary care. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional validation study using linked data from primary care electronic health records (EHRs) and the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR). POPULATION: 290 000 patients, registered with 120 general practitioners (GPs), from 50 practice centres in the Utrecht area, the Netherlands, in January 2013. INTERVENTION: Linking the EHRs of all patients in the Julius General Practitioners' Network database at an individual patient level to the full NCR (∼1.7 million tumours between 1989 and 2011), to determine the proportion of matching cancer diagnoses. Full-text EHR extraction and manual analysis for non-matching diagnoses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportions of matching and non-matching breast, lung, colorectal and prostate cancer diagnoses between 2007 and 2011, stratified by age category, cancer type and EHR system. Differences in year of diagnosis between the EHR and the NCR. Reasons for non-matching diagnoses. RESULTS: In the Primary Care EHR, 60.6% of cancer cases were registered and coded in accordance with the NCR. Of the EHR diagnoses, 48.9% were potentially false positive (not registered in the NCR). Results differed between EHR systems but not between age categories or cancer types. The year of diagnosis corresponded in 80.6% of matching coded diagnoses. Adding full-text EHR analysis improved results substantially. A national disease registry (the NCR) proved incomplete. CONCLUSIONS: Even though GPs do know their patients with cancer, only 60.6% are coded in concordance with the NCR. Reusers of coded EHR data should be aware that 40% of cases can be missed, and almost half can be false positive. The type of EHR system influences registration quality. If full-text manual EHR analysis is used, only 10% of cases will be missed and 20% of cases found will be wrong. EHR data should only be reused with care.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/normas , Medicina Geral , Clínicos Gerais , Neoplasias , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Sistema de Registros , Idoso , Codificação Clínica , Estudos Transversais , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos
17.
Neoplasia ; 18(6): 339-46, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27292023

RESUMO

SET domain-containing 2 (SETD2) is responsible for the trimethylation of histone H3 lysine36 (H3K36me3) and is one of the genes most frequently mutated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). It is located at 3p21, one copy of which is lost in the majority of ccRCC tumors, suggesting that SETD2 might function as a tumor suppressor gene. However, the manner in which loss of SETD2 contributes to ccRCC development has not been studied in renal primary tubular epithelial cells (PTECs). Therefore, we studied the consequences of SETD2 knockdown through lentiviral shRNA in human PTECs. Consistent with its known function, SETD2 knockdown (SETD-KD) led to loss of H3K36me3 in PTECs. In contrast to SETD2 wild-type PTECs, which have a limited proliferation capacity; the SETD2-KD PTECs continued to proliferate. The expression profiles of SETD2-KD PTECs showed a large overlap with the expression profile of early-passage, proliferating PTECs, whereas nonproliferating PTECs showed a significantly different expression profile. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed a significant enrichment of E2F targets in SETD2-KD and proliferating PTECs as compared with nonproliferating PTECs and in proliferating PTEC compared with SETD2-KD. The SETD2-KD PTECs maintained low expression of CDKN2A and high expression of E2F1, whereas their levels changed with continuing passages in untreated PTECs. In contrast to the nonproliferating PTECs, SETD2-KD PTECs showed no ß-galactosidase staining, confirming the protection against senescence. Our results indicate that SETD2 inactivation enables PTECs to bypass the senescence barrier, facilitating a malignant transformation toward ccRCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p18/biossíntese , Fator de Transcrição E2F1/biossíntese , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Senescência Celular/genética , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Células HEK293 , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Túbulos Renais/citologia , Metilação , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , beta-Galactosidase/metabolismo
18.
J Genet Couns ; 25(6): 1179-1187, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27103421

RESUMO

Cancer genetic counselees receive individualized information regarding heightened risks and medical recommendations which is also relevant for their at-risk relatives. Unfortunately, counselees often insufficiently inform these relatives. We designed an intervention aimed at improving counselees' knowledge regarding which at-risk relatives to inform and what information to disclose, their motivation to disclose, and their self-efficacy. The intervention, offered by telephone by trained psychosocial workers, is based on the principles of Motivational Interviewing. Phase 1 of the intervention covers agenda setting, exploration, and evaluation, and phase 2 includes information provision, enhancing motivation and self-efficacy, and brainstorming for solutions to disseminate information within the family. Fidelity and acceptability of the intervention were assessed using recordings of intervention sessions and by counselee self-report. A total of 144 counselees participated. Psychosocial workers (n = 5) delivered the intervention largely as intended. Counselees highly appreciated the content of the intervention and the psychosocial workers who delivered the intervention. In the sessions, psychosocial workers provided additional and/or corrective information, and brainstorming for solutions was performed in 70 %. These results indicate that this intervention is feasible and warrants testing in clinical practice. For this, a randomized controlled trial is currently in progress to test the intervention's efficacy.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Aconselhamento Genético/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias/genética , Pacientes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Hum Mutat ; 37(5): 457-64, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26864275

RESUMO

We have developed a tool for detecting single exon copy-number variations (CNVs) in targeted next-generation sequencing data: CoNVaDING (Copy Number Variation Detection In Next-generation sequencing Gene panels). CoNVaDING includes a stringent quality control (QC) metric, that excludes or flags low-quality exons. Since this QC shows exactly which exons can be reliably analyzed and which exons are in need of an alternative analysis method, CoNVaDING is not only useful for CNV detection in a research setting, but also in clinical diagnostics. During the validation phase, CoNVaDING detected all known CNVs in high-quality targets in 320 samples analyzed, giving 100% sensitivity and 99.998% specificity for 308,574 exons. CoNVaDING outperforms existing tools by exhibiting a higher sensitivity and specificity and by precisely identifying low-quality samples and regions.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Éxons , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Software/normas
20.
DNA Repair (Amst) ; 38: 155-62, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26746812

RESUMO

Inherited mutations of the DNA Mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 can result in two hereditary tumor syndromes: the adult-onset autosomal dominant Lynch syndrome, previously referred to as Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC) and the childhood-onset autosomal recessive Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency syndrome. Both conditions are important to recognize clinically as their identification has direct consequences for clinical management and allows targeted preventive actions in mutation carriers. Lynch syndrome is one of the more common adult-onset hereditary tumor syndromes, with thousands of patients reported to date. Its tumor spectrum is well established and includes colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer and a range of other cancer types. However, surveillance for cancers other than colorectal cancer is still of uncertain value. Prophylactic surgery, especially for the uterus and its adnexa is an option in female mutation carriers. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer with aspirin is actively being investigated in this syndrome and shows promising results. In contrast, the Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency syndrome is rare, features a wide spectrum of childhood onset cancers, many of which are brain tumors with high mortality rates. Future studies are very much needed to improve the care for patients with this severe disorder.


Assuntos
Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Instabilidade de Microssatélites
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