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1.
Eur J Neurol ; 2022 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35285122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cognitive dysfunction has been observed following recovery from COVID-19. To the best of our knowledge, however, no study has assessed the progression of cognitive impairment after 1 year. The aim was to assess cognitive functioning at 1 year from hospital discharge, and eventual associations with specific clinical variables. METHODS: Seventy-six patients (aged 22-74 years) who had been hospitalized for COVID-19 were recruited. Patients received neuropsychological assessments at 5 (n = 76) and 12 months (n = 53) from hospital discharge. RESULTS: Over half (63.2%) of the patients had deficits in at least one test at 5 months. Compared to the assessment at 5 months, verbal memory, attention and processing speed improved significantly after 1 year (all p < 0.05), whereas visuospatial memory did not (all p > 0.500). The most affected domains after 1 year were processing speed (28.3%) and long-term visuospatial (18.1%) and verbal (15.1%) memory. Lower PaO2 /FiO2 ratios in the acute phase were associated with worse verbal long-term memory (p = 0.029) and visuospatial learning (p = 0.041) at 5 months. Worse visuospatial long-term memory at 5 months was associated with hyposmia (p = 0.020) and dysgeusia (p = 0.037). CONCLUSION: Our study expands the results from previous studies showing that cognitive impairment can still be observed after 1 year. Patients with severe COVID-19 should receive periodic cognitive follow-up evaluations, as cognitive deficits in recovered patients could have social and occupational implications.

2.
Neurol Sci ; 2022 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35244829

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) may represent a diagnostic challenge, since its clinical picture overlaps with other dementia. Two toolkits have been developed to aid the clinician to diagnose DLB: the Lewy Body Composite Risk Score (LBCRS) and the Assessment Toolkit for DLB (AT-DLB). We aim to evaluate the reliability of these two questionnaires, and their ability to enhance the interpretation of the international consensus diagnostic criteria. METHODS: LBCRS and AT-DLB were distributed to 135 Italian Neurological Centers for Cognitive Decline and Dementia (CDCDs), with the indication to administer them to all patients with dementia referred within the subsequent 3 months. We asked to subsequently apply consensus criteria for DLB diagnosis, to validate the diagnostic accuracy of the two toolkits. RESULTS: A total of 23 Centers joined the study; 1854 patients were enrolled. We found a prevalence of possible or probable DLB of 13% each (26% total), according to the consensus criteria. LBCRS toolkit showed good reliability, with a Cronbach alpha of 0.77, stable even after removing variables from the construct. AT-DLB toolkit Cronbach alpha was 0.52 and, after the subtraction of the "cognitive fluctuation" criterion, was only 0.31. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were higher for LBCRS vs. AT-DLB. However, when simultaneously considered in the logistic models, AT-DLB showed a better performance (p < 0.001). Overall, the concordance between LBCRS positive and AT-DLB possible/probable was of 78.02% CONCLUSIONS: In a clinical setting, the LBCRS and AT-DLB questionnaires have good accuracy for DLB diagnosis.

3.
NPJ Genom Med ; 7(1): 8, 2022 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35091648

RESUMO

There is a strong genetic contribution to Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) risk, with heritability estimates of up to 60%. Both Mendelian and small effect variants have been identified, but in common with other conditions, such variants only explain a little of the heritability. Genomic structural variation might account for some of this otherwise unexplained heritability. We therefore investigated association between structural variation in a set of 25 ALS genes, and ALS risk and phenotype. As expected, the repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene was identified as associated with ALS. Two other ALS-associated structural variants were identified: inversion in the VCP gene and insertion in the ERBB4 gene. All three variants were associated both with increased risk of ALS and specific phenotypic patterns of disease expression. More than 70% of people with respiratory onset ALS harboured ERBB4 insertion compared with 25% of the general population, suggesting respiratory onset ALS may be a distinct genetic subtype.

4.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(5): 1402-1409, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Increasing evidence shows that approximately half of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) display cognitive (ALSci) or behavioural (ALSbi) impairment, or both (ALScbi). The aim of our study was to assess whether the burden of upper and lower motor neuron involvement is associated with the presence of cognitive and behavioural impairment. METHODS: A single-centre retrospective cohort of 110 Italian ALS patients was evaluated to assess correlations between motor and cognitive/behavioural phenotypes. Upper motor neuron regional involvement was measured with the Penn Upper Motor Neuron Score (PUMNS), whilst lower motor neuron signs were assessed using the Lower Motor Neuron Score. The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen-Italian version and the Frontal Behaviour Inventory were administered to evaluate patients' cognitive and behavioural profiles. RESULTS: The PUMNS at first visit was significantly higher in behaviourally impaired ALS patients (ALSbi and ALScbi) compared to behaviourally unimpaired individuals (ALS and ALSci) (9.9 vs. 6.9, p = 0.014). Concerning the different Frontal Behaviour Inventory subdomains, higher PUMNS correlated with the presence of apathy, emotive indifference, inflexibility, inattention, perseveration and aggressiveness. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that a clinical prominent upper motor neuron dysfunction is associated with a more significant behavioural impairment in ALS patients, suggesting the hypothesis of a preferential spreading of the pathology from the motor cortex to the ventromedial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex in this group of patients.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Cognição , Humanos , Neurônios Motores , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
J Vasc Surg ; 75(3): 906-914.e4, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606960

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to compare and to test the performance of all available risk scoring systems (RSSs) designed to predict long-term survival rate in asymptomatic candidate patients for carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for significant carotid artery stenosis. METHODS: Data on asymptomatic patients who underwent CEA in three high-volume centers were prospectively recorded. Through literature research using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) recommendations, six RSSs were identified for the intent of the study. Primary endpoints were 3- and 5-year survival rates after CEA. All items used as variables to compose multiple RSSs were applied to every patient in the study population. The 3- and 5-year mortality prediction rates for each score were assessed by sensitivity, specificity, and predictive negative and positive value calculation, as well as univariable Cox proportional hazard models with the Harrell C index. RESULTS: During the study period, 825 CEAs in 825 asymptomatic patients were analyzed. All items used in RSSs were available in the dataset, with some concerns regarding their definition and application among RSSs. The 3- and 5-year survival rates of the study cohort were 94.5% and 90.3%, respectively. Among the six RSSs analyzed, no RSS demonstrated optimal results in terms of mortality rate prediction accuracy, although some scores had good diagnostic and risk of death precision. CONCLUSIONS: RSSs, when used alone, fail to optimally detect postoperative life expectancy in asymptomatic CEA patient candidates. Further prospective controlled studies are needed to compose and validate RSSs with better calibration to predict outcomes.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Endarterectomia das Carótidas , Expectativa de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Assintomáticas , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico , Estenose das Carótidas/mortalidade , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/efeitos adversos , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Neurol ; 269(4): 1899-1904, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410493

RESUMO

To define the presence and type of frontotemporal dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), different screening tools have been created. Currently, the most used screening tests are the Edinburgh cognitive and behavioural ALS screen (ECAS) and the ALS cognitive behavioural screen (ALS-CBS). The objective of this study was to compare the ability of ECAS and ALS-CBS in classifying non-demented ALS patients according to Strong criteria. One-hundred and fifty-four in- and out-patients with an age > 18 and a definite or probable ALS diagnosis were recruited between September 2019 and February 2020 at NeMO Clinical Centre and at Istituto Auxologico Italiano in Milan and underwent the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) and the ALS Cognitive Behavioural Screen (ALS-CBS). Exclusion criteria involved patients with a diagnosis of FTD, with a severe cognitive deterioration and/or an important behavioural impairment, with a significant psychiatric disorder or with the co-presence of another significant illness. The distribution of patients according to Strong criteria was different for ECAS and ALS-CBS and the degree of agreement between the two tests in terms of Cohen's Kappa coefficient resulted equal to 0.2047 with a 95% confidence limits interval between 0.1122 and 0.2973. This study for the first time compares the ability of ECAS and ALS-CBS in stratifying ALS patients. Further studies will be conducted to better understand the reasons underlying the differences between these two tests in classifying the different subtypes of fronto-temporal dysfunction in ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Transtornos Cognitivos , Adulto , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/psicologia , Cognição , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fenótipo
7.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 93(1): 68-74, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417339

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Elevated levels of neurofilament light (NfL) and heavy (NfH) chain in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum reflect neuro-axonal degeneration and are used as diagnostic biomarkers. However, studies comparing the differential diagnostic potential for ALS of all four parameters are missing. Here, we measured serum NfL/NfH and CSF NfL/NfH in a large cohort of ALS and other neurological disorders and analysed the differential diagnostic potential. METHODS: In total CSF and serum of 294 patients were analysed. The diagnostic groups comprised: ALS (n=75), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) (n=33), Alzheimer's disease (n=20), Parkinson's disease (dementia) (n=18), Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (n=11), non-neurodegenerative controls (n=77) (Con) and 60 patients who were seen under the direct differential diagnosis of a patient with ALS (Con.DD). RESULTS: CSF and serum NfL and NfH showed significantly increased levels in ALS (p<0.0001) compared with Con and Con.DD. The difference between ALS and FTLD was markedly stronger for NfH than for NfL. CSF and serum NfL demonstrated a stronger correlation (r=0.84 (95% CI 0.80 to 0.87), p<0.001) than CSF and serum NfH (r=0.68 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.75), p<0.0001). Comparing ALS and Con.DD, receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed the best area under the curve (AUC) value for CSF NfL (AUC=0.94, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.98), followed by CSF NfH (0.93, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.98), serum NfL (0.93, 95% CI 0.89 to 0.97) and serum NfH (0.88, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.94). CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that CSF NfL and NfH as well as serum NfL are equally suited for the differential diagnosis of ALS, whereas serum NfH appears to be slightly less potent.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos/sangue , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Adulto , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Demência Frontotemporal/diagnóstico , Humanos , Filamentos Intermediários , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC
8.
Neurol Sci ; 43(5): 3407-3413, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34881419

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Clinical neurophysiology deals with nervous system functions assessed with electrophysiological and ultrasound-based imaging techniques. Even though the need for highly specialized neurophysiologists has increased, residency training rarely takes today's requirements into account. This study aimed to snapshot the neurophysiological training provided by Italian specialization schools in neurology. METHODS: A single-page web-based survey comprising 13 multiple-choice categorical and interval scale questions was sent via e-mail to neurology specialization school directors. The survey addressed the programs' structural neurophysiology organization, time dedicated to each clinical neurophysiology subspecialty, and descriptors assessing the discipline's importance (e.g., residents who attempted residential courses, gained certifications, or awards gained). RESULTS: The most studied neurophysiological techniques were electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG). Most specialization schools devoted less than 3 months each to multimodal evoked potentials (EPs), ultrasound sonography (US), and intra-operative monitoring. Of the 35 specialization schools surveyed, 77.1% reported that four students, or fewer, participated in the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology Examination in Neurophysiology. Of the 35 specialization centers surveyed, 11.4% declared that the final evaluation required students to discuss a neurophysiological test. DISCUSSION: Our survey underlined the poorly standardized technical requirements in postgraduate neurology specialization schools, wide variability among training programs, and limited training on multi-modal evoked potentials, intraoperative monitoring, and sonography. These findings underline the need to reappraise and improve educational and training standards for clinical neurophysiology during postgraduate specialization schools in neurology with an international perspective.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Neurologia , Humanos , Itália , Neurologia/educação , Neurofisiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 704963, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764849

RESUMO

Despite the wide range of proposed biomarkers for Parkinson's disease (PD), there are no specific molecules or signals able to early and uniquely identify the pathology onset, progression and stratification. Saliva is a complex biofluid, containing a wide range of biological molecules shared with blood and cerebrospinal fluid. By means of an optimized Raman spectroscopy procedure, the salivary Raman signature of PD can be characterized and used to create a classification model. Raman analysis was applied to collect the global signal from the saliva of 23 PD patients and related pathological and healthy controls. The acquired spectra were computed using machine and deep learning approaches. The Raman database was used to create a classification model able to discriminate each spectrum to the correct belonging group, with accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity of more than 97% for the single spectra attribution. Similarly, each patient was correctly assigned with discriminatory power of more than 90%. Moreover, the extracted data were significantly correlated with clinical data used nowadays for the PD diagnosis and monitoring. The preliminary data reported highlight the potentialities of the proposed methodology that, once validated in larger cohorts and with multi-centered studies, could represent an innovative minimally invasive and accurate procedure to determine the PD onset, progression and to monitor therapies and rehabilitation efficacy.

10.
Brain Commun ; 3(4): fcab236, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708205

RESUMO

Evidence indicates that common variants found in genome-wide association studies increase risk of disease through gene regulation via expression Quantitative Trait Loci. Using multiple genome-wide methods, we examined if Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms increase risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis through expression Quantitative Trait Loci, and whether expression Quantitative Trait Loci expression is consistent across people who had Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and those who did not. In combining public expression Quantitative Trait Loci data with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis genome-wide association studies, we used Summary-data-based Mendelian Randomization to confirm that SCFD1 was the only gene that was genome-wide significant in mediating Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis risk via expression Quantitative Trait Loci (Summary-data-based Mendelian Randomization beta = 0.20, standard error = 0.04, P-value = 4.29 × 10-6). Using post-mortem motor cortex, we tested whether expression Quantitative Trait Loci showed significant differences in expression between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (n = 76) and controls (n = 25), genome-wide. Of 20 757 genes analysed, the two most significant expression Quantitative Trait Loci to show differential in expression between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and controls involve two known Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis genes (SCFD1 and VCP). Cis-acting SCFD1 expression Quantitative Trait Loci downstream of the gene showed significant differences in expression between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and controls (top expression Quantitative Trait Loci beta = 0.34, standard error = 0.063, P-value = 4.54 × 10-7). These SCFD1 expression Quantitative Trait Loci also significantly modified Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis survival (number of samples = 4265, hazard ratio = 1.11, 95% confidence interval = 1.05-1.17, P-value = 2.06 × 10-4) and act as an Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis trans-expression Quantitative Trait Loci hotspot for a wider network of genes enriched for SCFD1 function and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis pathways. Using gene-set analyses, we found the genes that correlate with this trans-expression Quantitative Trait Loci hotspot significantly increase risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (beta = 0.247, standard deviation = 0.017, P = 0.001) and schizophrenia (beta = 0.263, standard deviation = 0.008, P-value = 1.18 × 10-5), a disease that genetically correlates with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. In summary, SCFD1 expression Quantitative Trait Loci are a major factor in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, not only influencing disease risk but are differentially expressed in post-mortem Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. SCFD1 expression Quantitative Trait Loci show distinct expression profiles in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis that correlate with a wider network of genes that also confer risk of the disease and modify the disease's duration.

11.
Brain Sci ; 11(10)2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34679420

RESUMO

Even though increasing literature describes changes in emotional processing in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), efforts to summarize relevant findings are lacking in the field. A systematic literature review was performed to provide a critical and up-to-date account of emotional abilities in ALS. References were identified by searches of PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus (1980-2021, English literature), with the following key terms: ("Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis" or "Primary Lateral Sclerosis" or "Motor Neuron") and "Emotion*" and ("Processing" or "Attribution" or "Elaboration" or "Perception" or "Recognition"). Studies concerning only caregivers, pseudobulbar affect, and social cognition were excluded. Forty-one articles were included, all concerning ALS, and seven topics were identified: Emotion recognition, Emotional responsiveness, Emotional reactivity, Faces approachability rating, Valence rating, Memory for emotional materials and Alexithymia. The majority of these aspects have only been sparsely addressed. The evidence confirms altered emotional processing in ALS. The most consistent findings regard the recognition of facial expressions for negative emotions, but also alterations in the subjective responsiveness to emotional stimuli (arousal, valence and approachability), in psychophysiological and cerebral reactivity and in emotional memory, together with alexithymia traits, were reported. According to this evidence, emotional abilities should be included in the clinical assessment and therapeutic interventions.

12.
J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) ; 62(6): 535-541, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581553

RESUMO

The acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the COVID-19 disease, a global pandemic. A strong association has been documented between COVID-19 and cardiovascular events, although the exact pathophysiological mechanism is still unclear. Carotid atherothrombosis and ischemic stroke represents one of the possible severe manifestations of COVID-19, as a leading cause of long-term disability and death. Different complex intertwined mechanisms seem to underlie the endothelitis which is the cause of multiple cardiovascular manifestations. To date, few case series describing COVID-19 and acute ischemic stroke caused by cervical carotid thrombosis have been published. All the patients shared common similar radiographic features, comorbidities, and biomarker profiles. The aim of this brief review was to analyze the impact of COVID-19 pandemic in the management of a Vascular Surgery Department, changing the daily vascular practice, as well as to provide practical suggestions for symptomatic carotid stenosis, while reviewing published literature.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , AVC Isquêmico/epidemiologia , Trombose/epidemiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/mortalidade , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/cirurgia , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico , AVC Isquêmico/mortalidade , AVC Isquêmico/cirurgia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/mortalidade , Trombose/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares
13.
Neurology ; 97(18): e1835-e1846, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although oculomotor abnormalities (OMAs) are not usually considered prominent features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), they may represent potential clinical markers of neurodegeneration, especially when investigated together with cognitive and behavioral alterations. The aim of our study was to identify patterns of clinically evident OMAs in patients with ALS and to correlate such findings with cognitive-behavioral data. METHODS: Three consecutive inpatient cohorts of Italian patients with ALS and controls were retrospectively evaluated to assess the frequency of OMAs and cognitive-behavioral alterations. The ALS population was divided into a discovery cohort and a replication cohort. Controls included a cohort of cognitively impaired individuals and patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). Participants underwent bedside eye movement evaluation to determine the presence and pattern of OMAs. Cognitive assessment was performed with a standard neuropsychological battery (discovery ALS cohort and AD cohort) and the Italian Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) (replication ALS cohort). RESULTS: We recruited 864 individuals with ALS (635 discovery, 229 replication), 798 who were cognitively unimpaired and 171 with AD. OMAs were detected in 10.5% of our ALS cohort vs 1.6% of cognitively unimpaired controls (p = 1.2 × 10-14) and 11.4% of patients with AD (p = NS). The most frequent deficits were smooth pursuit and saccadic abnormalities. OMA frequency was higher in patients with bulbar onset, prominent upper motor neuron signs, and advanced disease stages. Cognitive dysfunction was significantly more frequent in patients with OMAs in both ALS cohorts (p = 1.1 × 10-25). Furthermore, OMAs significantly correlated with the severity of cognitive impairment and with pathologic scores at the ECAS ALS-specific domains. Last, OMAs could be observed in 35.0% of cognitively impaired patients with ALS vs 11.4% of patients with AD (p = 6.4 × 10-7), suggesting a possible involvement of frontal oculomotor areas in ALS. CONCLUSION: Patients with ALS showed a range of clinically evident OMAs, and these alterations were significantly correlated with cognitive, but not behavioral, changes. OMAs may be a marker of neurodegeneration, and bedside assessment represents a rapid, highly specific tool for detecting cognitive impairment in ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Transtornos Cognitivos , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Cognição/fisiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Neurônios Motores , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Neurology ; 97(16): e1594-e1607, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To assess cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar gray matter (GM) atrophy using MRI in patients with disorders of the frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) spectrum with known genetic mutations. METHODS: Sixty-six patients carrying FTLD-related mutations were enrolled, including 44 with pure motor neuron disease (MND) and 22 with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Sixty-one patients with sporadic FTLD (sFTLD) matched for age, sex, and disease severity with genetic FTLD (gFTLD) were also included, as well as 52 healthy controls. A whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis was performed. GM volumes of subcortical and cerebellar structures were obtained. RESULTS: Compared with controls, GM atrophy on VBM was greater and more diffuse in genetic FTD, followed by sporadic FTD and genetic MND cases, whereas patients with sporadic MND (sMND) showed focal motor cortical atrophy. Patients carrying C9orf72 and GRN mutations showed the most widespread cortical volume loss, in contrast with GM sparing in SOD1 and TARDBP. Globally, patients with gFTLD showed greater atrophy of parietal cortices and thalami compared with sFTLD. In volumetric analysis, patients with gFTLD showed volume loss compared with sFTLD in the caudate nuclei and thalami, in particular comparing C9-MND with sMND cases. In the cerebellum, patients with gFTLD showed greater atrophy of the right lobule VIIb than sFTLD. Thalamic volumes of patients with gFTLD with a C9orf72 mutation showed an inverse correlation with Frontal Behavioral Inventory scores. DISCUSSION: Measures of deep GM and cerebellar structural involvement may be useful markers of gFTLD, particularly C9orf72-related disorders, regardless of the clinical presentation within the FTLD spectrum.


Assuntos
Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Doença dos Neurônios Motores/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/genética , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença dos Neurônios Motores/genética , Doença dos Neurônios Motores/patologia
15.
Neuroimage Clin ; 32: 102803, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537684

RESUMO

In the present study we investigated emotion recognition in pure motor amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and its relationship with the integrity of basal ganglia, hippocampus and amygdala. Twenty ALS patients without either cognitive or behavioural impairment, and 52 matched healthy controls performed a neuropsychological assessment including the Comprehensive Affect Testing System (CATS) investigating emotion recognition. All participants underwent also a 3T brain MRI. Volumes of basal ganglia, hippocampus and amygdala bilaterally were measured using FIRST in FSL. Sociodemographic, cognitive and MRI data were compared between groups. In ALS patients, correlations between CATS significant findings, brain volumes, cognition, mood and behaviour were explored. ALS patients showed altered performances at the CATS total score and, among the investigated emotions, patients were significantly less able to recognize disgust compared with controls. No brain volumetric differences were observed between groups. In ALS patients, a lower performance in disgust recognition was related with a reduced volume of the left pallidum and a lower performance on the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen. Cognitively/behaviourally unimpaired ALS patients showed impaired disgust recognition, which was associated with pallidum volume. The association with cognitive alterations may suggest impaired disgust recognition as an early marker of cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Asco , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico por imagem , Gânglios da Base , Encéfalo , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Reconhecimento Psicológico
16.
Biomolecules ; 11(8)2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439885

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a lethal neurodegenerative disease, remains undisclosed. Mutations in ALS related genes have been identified, albeit the majority of cases are unmutated. Clinical pathology of ALS suggests a prion-like cell-to-cell diffusion of the disease possibly mediated by exosomes, small endocytic vesicles involved in the propagation of RNA molecules and proteins. In this pilot study, we focused on exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs), key regulators of many signaling pathways. We analyzed serum-derived exosomes from ALS patients in comparison with healthy donors. Exosomes were obtained by a commercial kit. Purification of miRNAs was performed using spin column chromatography and RNA was reverse transcribed into cDNA. All samples were run on the miRCURY LNATM Universal RT miRNA PCR Serum/Plasma Focus panel. An average of 29 miRNAs were detectable per sample. The supervised analysis did not identify any statistically significant difference among the groups indicating that none of the miRNA of our panel has a strong pathological role in ALS. However, selecting samples with the highest miRNA content, six biological processes shared across miRNAs through the intersection of the GO categories were identified. Our results, combined to those reported in the literature, indicated that further investigation is needed to elucidate the role of exosome-derived miRNA in ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/sangue , Exossomos/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382491

RESUMO

Objective: The presence of the hexanucleotide repeat expansion (HRE) in C9orf72 gene is associated to the ALS/FTD spectrum, but also to parkinsonisms. We here describe an Italian family with the father diagnosed with Parkinson disease (PD) at the age of 67 and the two daughters developing FTD and ALS at 45 years of age. We searched for C9orf72 HRE with possible genetic and epigenetic modifiers to account for the intrafamilial phenotypic variability. Methods: C9orf72 mutational analysis was performed by fragment length analysis, Repeat-primed PCR and Southern blot. Targeted next generation sequencing was used to analyze 48 genes associated to neurodegenerative diseases. Promoter methylation was analyzed by bisulfite sequencing. Results: Genetic analysis identified C9orf72 HRE in all the affected members with a similar repeat expansion size. Both the father and the FTD daughter also carried the heterozygous p.Ile946Phe variant in ATP13A2 gene, associated to PD. In addition, the father also showed a heterozygous EIF4G1 variant (p.Ala13Pro), that might increase his susceptibility to develop PD. The DNA methylation analysis showed that all the 26 CpG sites within C9orf72 promoter were unmethylated in all family members. Conclusions: Neither C9orf72 HRE size nor promoter methylation act as disease modifiers within this family, at least in blood, not excluding HRE mosaicism and a different methylation pattern in the brain. However, the presence of rare genetic variants in PD genes suggests that they may influence the clinical manifestation in the father. Other genetic and/or epigenetic modifiers must be responsible for disease variability in this C9orf72 family case.

18.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(11): 5682-5702, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390468

RESUMO

The nuclear RNA-binding protein TDP-43 forms abnormal cytoplasmic aggregates in the brains of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) patients and several molecular mechanisms promoting TDP-43 cytoplasmic mislocalization and aggregation have been proposed, including defects in nucleocytoplasmic transport, stress granules (SG) disassembly and post-translational modifications (PTM). SUMOylation is a PTM which regulates a variety of cellular processes and, similarly to ubiquitination, targets lysine residues. To investigate the possible regulatory effects of SUMOylation on TDP-43 activity and trafficking, we first assessed that TDP-43 is SUMO-conjugated in the nuclear compartment both covalently and non-covalently in the RRM1 domain at the predicted lysine 136 and SUMO-interacting motif (SIM, 106-110 residues), respectively. By using the SUMO-mutant TDP-43 K136R protein, we demonstrated that SUMOylation modifies TDP-43 splicing activity, specifically exon skipping, and influences its sub-cellular localization and recruitment to SG after oxidative stress. When promoting deSUMOylation by SENP1 enzyme over-expression or by treatment with the cell-permeable SENP1 peptide TS-1, the cytoplasmic localization of TDP-43 increased, depending on its SUMOylation. Moreover, deSUMOylation by TS-1 peptide favoured the formation of small cytoplasmic aggregates of the C-terminal TDP-43 fragment p35, still containing the SUMO lysine target 136, but had no effect on the already formed p25 aggregates. Our data suggest that TDP-43 can be post-translationally modified by SUMOylation which may regulate its splicing function and trafficking, indicating a novel and druggable mechanism to explore as its dysregulation may lead to TDP-43 pathological aggregation in ALS and FTD.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/química , Citoplasma/química , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/análise , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/análise , Neuroblastoma , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Cloreto de Potássio/farmacologia , Conformação Proteica , Transporte Proteico , Interferência de RNA , Splicing de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sumoilação
19.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(10): 1236-1248, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459874

RESUMO

Importance: Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare form of ALS characterized by age of symptom onset less than 25 years and a variable presentation. Objective: To identify the genetic variants associated with juvenile ALS. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this multicenter family-based genetic study, trio whole-exome sequencing was performed to identify the disease-associated gene in a case series of unrelated patients diagnosed with juvenile ALS and severe growth retardation. The patients and their family members were enrolled at academic hospitals and a government research facility between March 1, 2016, and March 13, 2020, and were observed until October 1, 2020. Whole-exome sequencing was also performed in a series of patients with juvenile ALS. A total of 66 patients with juvenile ALS and 6258 adult patients with ALS participated in the study. Patients were selected for the study based on their diagnosis, and all eligible participants were enrolled in the study. None of the participants had a family history of neurological disorders, suggesting de novo variants as the underlying genetic mechanism. Main Outcomes and Measures: De novo variants present only in the index case and not in unaffected family members. Results: Trio whole-exome sequencing was performed in 3 patients diagnosed with juvenile ALS and their parents. An additional 63 patients with juvenile ALS and 6258 adult patients with ALS were subsequently screened for variants in the SPTLC1 gene. De novo variants in SPTLC1 (p.Ala20Ser in 2 patients and p.Ser331Tyr in 1 patient) were identified in 3 unrelated patients diagnosed with juvenile ALS and failure to thrive. A fourth variant (p.Leu39del) was identified in a patient with juvenile ALS where parental DNA was unavailable. Variants in this gene have been previously shown to be associated with autosomal-dominant hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy, type 1A, by disrupting an essential enzyme complex in the sphingolipid synthesis pathway. Conclusions and Relevance: These data broaden the phenotype associated with SPTLC1 and suggest that patients presenting with juvenile ALS should be screened for variants in this gene.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Serina C-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
20.
Neurol Sci ; 42(11): 4425-4431, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has severely impacted the Italian healthcare system, underscoring a dramatic shortage of specialized doctors in many disciplines. The situation affected the activity of the residents in neurology, who were also offered the possibility of being formally hired before their training completion. AIMS: (1) To showcase examples of clinical and research activity of residents in neurology during the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy and (2) to illustrate the point of view of Italian residents in neurology about the possibility of being hired before the completion of their residency program. RESULTS: Real-life reports from several areas in Lombardia-one of the Italian regions more affected by COVID-19-show that residents in neurology gave an outstanding demonstration of generosity, collaboration, reliability, and adaptation to the changing environment, while continuing their clinical training and research activities. A very small minority of the residents participated in the dedicated selections for being hired before completion of their training program. The large majority of them prioritized their training over the option of earlier employment. CONCLUSIONS: Italian residents in neurology generously contributed to the healthcare management of the COVID-19 pandemic in many ways, while remaining determined to pursue their training. Neurology is a rapidly evolving clinical field due to continuous diagnostic and therapeutic progress. Stakeholders need to listen to the strong message conveyed by our residents in neurology and endeavor to provide them with the most adequate training, to ensure high quality of care and excellence in research in the future.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neurologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2
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